Cenotaph, Penang

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Cenotaph, Penang
வெறுங்கல்லறை, பினாங்கு
Tugu Cenotaph, Pulau Pinang
George Town, Penang
GEORGETOWN PENANG ISLAND MALAYSIA JAN 2012 (6815563818).jpg
For Commonwealth soldiers killed in the Great War, Second World War, Malayan Emergency and Confrontation, and prisoners of war during the construction of the Thailand–Burma Railway [1]
Unveiled 1929
1948 (reconstruction)
Location 5°25′21″N100°20′30″E / 5.42247°N 100.34178°E / 5.42247; 100.34178 Coordinates: 5°25′21″N100°20′30″E / 5.42247°N 100.34178°E / 5.42247; 100.34178
Designed by Swan & Maclaren
Charles Geoffrey Boutcher (reconstruction)

The Cenotaph, also known as Penang War Memorial, is a cenotaph located at the Esplanade in George Town, Penang, Malaysia. The site of the Cenopath is situated at the shoreline of the Esplanade, at Jalan Tun Syed Sheh Barakbah (at a section of street also known as The Esplanade) and Jalan Padang Kota Lama (Esplanade Road), by the padang (open field) and the City Hall that it fronts.

Cenotaph "empty tomb" or monument erected in honor of a person whose remains are elsewhere

A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been reinterred elsewhere. Although the vast majority of cenotaphs honour individuals, many noted cenotaphs are instead dedicated to the memories of groups of individuals, such as the lost soldiers of a country or of an empire.

Esplanade, Penang

The Esplanade is a waterfront location in the heart of George Town, Penang, Malaysia. It covers the field adjacent to Fort Cornwallis, known locally as the Padang, and the seaside promenade along the edge of the field.

George Town, Penang Capital city of the Malaysian state of Penang

George Town, the capital city of the Malaysian state of Penang, is located at the north-eastern tip of Penang Island. It is Malaysia's second largest city, with 708,127 inhabitants as of 2010, while Greater Penang is the nation's second biggest conurbation with a population of 2,412,616. The historical core of George Town has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.

The present Cenotaph is a 1948 reconstruction of the original built in 1929.

Description

Designed by Swan & Maclaren and constructed at the cost of $12,000, the original Cenotaph was intended to commemorate Allied servicemen from Penang who lost their lives in The Great War. The Cenotaph was fashioned as a scaled-down semblance to the Whitehall Cenotaph in London, constructed out of granite blocks and adorned with bronze plaques. The unveiling of the Cenotaph took place during the 1929 Remembrance Day, with Edward, Prince of Wales, in attendance.

Straits dollar currency

The Straits dollar was the currency of the Straits Settlements from 1898 until 1939. At the same time, it was also used in the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States, Kingdom of Sarawak, Brunei, and British North Borneo.

Allies of World War I group of countries that fought against the Central Powers in World War I

The Allies of World War I or Entente Powers is the term commonly used for the coalition that opposed the Central Powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria during the First World War (1914–1918).

During the Japanese occupation of Malaya in World War II, the Cenotaph was destroyed during Allied bombings of Penang in 1944 and 1945. Following the end of the war, a team of architects led by Charles Geoffrey Boutcher helped to reconstruct the Cenotaph using remaining fragments of the first Cenotaph at a cost of $3,500, resulting in slight deviations from its original design. The rebuilt Cenotaph was unveiled during the 1948 Remembrance Day, and remains as a site for annual Remembrance Day ceremonies.

Japanese occupation of Malaya Empire of Japan military rule in contemporary Singapore and Malaysia

Malaya was gradually occupied by the Japanese between 8 December 1941 and the Allied surrender at Singapore on 16 February 1942. The Japanese remained in occupation until their surrender to the Allies in 1945. The first Japanese garrison in Malaya to lay down their arms was in Penang on 2 September 1945 aboard HMS Nelson.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Bombing of South-East Asia (1944–45)

From 1944 to 1945, during the final stage of World War II, the Allies undertook the strategic bombing of South-East Asia. The main targets of Allied air raids were Thailand and Japanese-occupied Indochina.

In addition to the cenotaph proper, the site also hosts a smaller memorial plaque erected by the Penang Veterans Association, commemorating the war dead in World War II (including prisoners of war who worked at the Thailand–Burma Railway), the Malayan Emergency, the subsequent re-insurgency, and the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation.

Burma Railway former railway between Bangkok, Thailand, and Rangoon, Burma

The Burma Railway, also known as the Death Railway, the Siam–Burma Railway, the Thai–Burma Railway and similar names, was a 415-kilometre (258 mi) railway between Ban Pong, Thailand, and Thanbyuzayat, Burma, built by the Empire of Japan in 1943 to support its forces in the Burma campaign of World War II. This railway completed the rail link between Bangkok, Thailand, and Rangoon, Burma. The name used by the Japanese Government is Thai–Men-Rensetsu-Tetsudou (泰緬連接鉄道), which means Thailand-Myanmar-Link-Railway.

Malayan Emergency guerrilla war from 1948 to 1960

The Malayan Emergency was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960. The belligerents were the Commonwealth armed forces against the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), the military arm of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP).

Communist insurgency in Malaysia (1968–89) armed conflict in Malaysia from 1968 to 1989

The Communist insurgency in Malaysia, also known as the Second Malayan Emergency, (Malay: Perang Insurgensi Melawan Pengganas Komunis or Perang Insurgensi Komunis and Darurat Kedua) was an armed conflict which occurred in Malaysia from 1968 to 1989, involving the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) and Malaysian federal security forces.

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References

  1. "The Story Behind Georgetown'S Cenotaph | Simon Sundaraj-Keun". Simonsundarajkeun.wordpress.com. 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2016-02-29.