Central American Integration System

Last updated
Central American Integration System

  • Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana  (Spanish)
  • (SICA)
Flag of the Central American Integration System.svg
Flag
Logo of the Central American Integration System.svg
Logo
Motto: "God, Union and Liberty"
Anthem:  La Granadera
The Song of the Grenadier
LocationSICA.svg
States in the Central American Integration System.
Administrative center Flag of El Salvador.svg San Salvador, El Salvador
Official languages Spanish
Type Supranational union
Membership8 states
8 regional observers
10 extraregional observers
Leaders
 President pro tempore
Juan Orlando Hernández
 General Secretary
Vinicio Cerezo
Legislature Central American Parliament
Establishment
20 December 1907
  ODECA
14 October 1951
  CACM
13 December 1960
 SICA
13 December 1991
Area
 Total
572,510 km2 (221,050 sq mi)
Population
 2009 estimate
51,152,936
 Density
89.34/km2 (231.4/sq mi)
GDP  (PPP)2010 estimate
 Total
$506.258 billion
 Per capita
$9,898.17
GDP  (nominal)2010 estimate
 Total
$266.213 billion
 Per capita
$5,205.45
Website
sica.int

The Central American Integration System (Spanish : Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana, or SICA) has been the economic and political organization of Central American states since February 1, 1993. On December 13, 1991, the ODECA countries (Spanish: Organización de Estados Centroamericanos) signed the Protocol of Tegucigalpa, extending earlier cooperation for regional peace, political freedom, democracy and economic development. SICA's General Secretariat is in El Salvador.

Contents

In 1991, SICA's institutional framework included Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Belize joined in 1998 as a full member, while the Dominican Republic became an associated state in 2004 and a full member in 2013. Mexico, Chile and Brazil became part of the organization as regional observers, and the Republic of China, Spain, Germany and Japan became extra-regional observers. SICA has a standing invitation to participate as observers in sessions of the United Nations General Assembly, [1] and maintains offices at UN Headquarters. [2]

Four countries (Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua) experiencing political, cultural and migratory integration have formed a group, the Central America Four or CA-4, which has introduced common internal borders and the same type of passport. Belize, Costa Rica, Panama and the Dominican Republic subsequently joined the CA-4 for economic integration.

Headquarters

SICA was supported by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution A/48L of December 10, 1993. The Administrative center is located in San Salvador, El Salvador. SICA is affiliated with the UN.

History

First Central American Court of Justice

Between November 14 and December 20, 1907, after a proposal by Mexico and the United States, five Central American nations (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua) took part in the Central American Peace Conference in Washington, D.C. sponsored by United States Secretary of State Elihu Root. The five nations, all former Spanish colonies, had previously tried to form a political alliance. Their first attempt was the Federal Republic of Central America, and the most recent effort was the founding of the Republic of Central America 11 years earlier.

The participants concluded the conference with an agreement creating the Central American Court of Justice (Corte de Justicia Centroamericana). The court would remain in effect for ten years from the final ratification, and communication would be through the government of Costa Rica. It was composed of five judges, one from each member state. The court heard ten cases, five of which were brought by private individuals (and declared inadmissible) and three begun by the court. The court operated until April 1918 from its headquarters in Costa Rica; despite efforts beginning in March 1917 (when Nicaragua submitted a notice of termination of the agreement), it then dissolved.

Reasons for the agreement's failure include:

Exclusive Economic Zones of the member states of the Central American Integration System. Considering them, the total area reaches 2 351 224 km2. Aguas territoriales SICA.svg
Exclusive Economic Zones of the member states of the Central American Integration System. Considering them, the total area reaches 2 351 224 km².

Organization of Central American States

Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica logo BCIE logo.png
Banco Centroamericano de Integración Economica logo

At the end of World War II, interest in integrating the Central American governments began. On October 14, 1951 (33 years after the CACJ was dissolved) the governments of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua signed a treaty creating the Organization of Central American States (Organización de Estados Centroamericanos, or ODECA) to promote regional cooperation and unity. The following year (December 12, 1952), ODECA's charter was amended to create a new Central American Court of Justice (Corte Centroamericana de Justicia, or CCJ) without the time limit of its previous incarnation.

The Charter of San Salvador was ratified by all Central American governments, and on August 18, 1955 their foreign ministers attended its first meeting in Antigua Guatemala. The Declaration of Antigua Guatemala authorized subordinate organizations of ODECA to facilitate economic cooperation, better sanitation and progress in the "integral union" of the Central American nations. [3]

The Central American Common Market, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) and the Secretariat for Central American Economic Integration (SIECA) were established by the five Central American nations on December 13, 1960 at a conference in Managua. [4] All nations ratified the membership treaties the following year. Costa Rica joined the CACM in 1963, but Panama has not yet joined. The organization froze during the 1969 war between Honduras and El Salvador; in 1973 ODECA was suspended, and progress toward regional integration ground to a halt.

Revival

In 1991 the integration agenda advanced with the creation of the SICA, which provided a legal framework to resolve disputes between member states. SICA includes seven Central America nations and the Dominican Republic, which is part of the Caribbean. Central America has several supranational institutions, such as the Central American Parliament, the Central American Bank for Economic Integration and the Central American Common Market. The Central America trade bloc is governed by the General Treaty for Economical Integration (the Guatemala Protocol), which was signed on October 29, 1993. The CACM has removed duties on most products throughout the member countries, and has unified external tariffs and increased trade within its members. The bank has five non-regional members: Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, the Republic of China and Spain.

All SICA members are also part of the Mesoamerica Project, which includes Mexico and Colombia. Haiti joined SICA in 2013 as an associate member,[ citation needed ] and the Dominican Republic became a full member on 27 June 2013. [5]

Member states

FlagStateCapital Code Accession Population
(2018) [6] [7]
Area Population density
Flag of Belize.svg Belize Belmopan BZ1998383,07122,966 km2
(8,867 sq mi)
16/km2
(41/sq mi)
Flag of Costa Rica.svg Costa Rica San José CRFounder4,999,44151,100 km2
(19,700 sq mi)
95/km2
(250/sq mi)
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic Santo Domingo DR201310,627,14148,671 km2
(18,792 sq mi)
219/km2
(570/sq mi)
Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador San Salvador SVFounder6,420,74621,041 km2
(8,124 sq mi)
302/km2
(780/sq mi)
Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala Guatemala City GTFounder17,247,849108,889 km2
(42,042 sq mi)
152/km2
(390/sq mi)
Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras Tegucigalpa HNFounder9,587,522112,090 km2
(43,280 sq mi)
81/km2
(210/sq mi)
Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua Managua NIFounder6,465,501130,370 km2
(50,340 sq mi)
47/km2
(120/sq mi)
Flag of Panama.svg Panama Panama City PAFounder4,176,86975,420 km2
(29,120 sq mi)
53/km2
(140/sq mi)
8 total58,096,944570,547 km2
(220,289 sq mi)
102/km2
(260/sq mi)

Economic integration

Unified Central American currency

The Central American Bank for Economic Integration has not introduced its own common currency, and dollarization is possible. However, for formal purposes the US Dollar is sometimes referred to as "Central American Peso" pegged 1:1 to the Dollar. There are no coins or notes in this currency and it is little known outside of legal circles. Central America is increasing its regional economic development, accelerating its social, political and economic integration. The region has diversified output and price and wage flexibility; however, there is a lack of business-cycle synchronization, dissimilar levels of public-sector debt, diverging inflation rates and low levels of intra-regional trade. [8]

Policy integration

In the parliamentary body are proposals to consider regional air travel as domestic travel, to eliminate roaming fees on telephone calls and to create a regional penitentiary (affiliated with the Central American Court of Justice) to address regional trafficking and international crimes. [9]

Institutions

Central American Parliament

Parlacen was born as a parliamentary body emulating the Federal Republic of Central America, with Costa Rica an observer. It evolved from the Contadora Group, a project launched during the 1980s to deal with civil wars in El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua. Although the Contadora Group was dissolved in 1986, the concept of Central American integration is implicitly referenced in several countries' constitutions. The Esquipulas Peace Agreement (among other acts) agreed to the creation of a Central American Parliament composed of 20–22 directly-elected deputies from each country. Costa Rica has not ratified the agreement, and is not represented in the Parlacen. Parlacen is seen by some (including former President of Honduras Ricardo Maduro) as a white elephant. [10]

Central American Court of Justice

The CCJ's mission is to promote peace in the region and the unity of its member states. The Court [11] has jurisdiction to hear cases:

The court may offer consultation to the region's supreme courts. In 2005, it ruled that Nicaraguan congressional reforms (which removed control of water, energy and telecommunications from President Enrique Bolaños) were "legally inapplicable".[ citation needed ] As of July 2005, the CCJ had made 70 resolutions since hearing its first case in 1994.

Organizations

ChileParaguayArgentinaUruguayPeruBrazilBarbadosTrinidad and TobagoColombiaGuyanaSurinameJamaicaBoliviaEcuadorVenezuelaCubaDominicaAntigua and BarbudaMontserratSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint LuciaNicaraguaBelizeGrenadaSaint Kitts and NevisCanadaMexicoPanamaUnited StatesHondurasEl SalvadorBahamasHaitiGuatemalaCosta RicaDominican RepublicInter-American Treaty of Reciprocal AssistanceCommunity of Latin American and Caribbean StatesLatin American Economic SystemUnion of South American NationsAmazon Cooperation Treaty OrganizationAndean CommunityMercosurCaribbean CommunityPacific AllianceALBACentral American Integration SystemCentral American ParliamentOrganisation of Eastern Caribbean StatesLatin American Integration AssociationCentral America-4 Border Control AgreementNorth American Free Trade AgreementAssociation of Caribbean StatesOrganization of American StatesPetrocaribeCARICOM Single Market and EconomyCentral American Integration System
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational organisations in the Americas (prior to 2019). vde

See also

Related Research Articles

Central America central geographic region of the Americas

Central America is a region in the southern tip of North America and is sometimes defined as a subregion of the Americas. This region is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: El Salvador, Costa Rica, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. The combined population of Central America is estimated at 44.53 million (2016).

Foreign relations of Honduras Minister

Honduras is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN), the Central American Integration System (SICA), and the Central American Security Commission (CASQ). During 1995-96, Honduras, a founding member of the United Nations, for the first time served as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Honduras is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military.

History of Central America aspect of history

When studying the history of Central America one must first clarify just what Central America is. Today (2019) it is commonly taken to include Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. This definition matches modern political borders. However, in some senses and at some times Central America begins in Mexico, at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and the former country of Yucatán was part of Central America. At the other end, before its independence in 1903 Panama was politically and culturally part of the South American country of Colombia, or its predecessors. At times English-speaking Belize, with a quite different history, has been considered as apart from Central America.

Federal Republic of Central America Former nation in Central America

The Federal Republic of Central America, also called the United Provinces of Central America in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain. It existed from 1823 to 1841, and was a republican democracy.

Francisco Morazán Honduran general and politician

Francisco Morazán was a Central American politician who was president of the Federal Republic of Central America from 1830 to 1839. Before he was president of Central America he was the head of state of Honduras. He rose to prominence at the battle of La Trinidad on November 11, 1827. Morazán then dominated the political and military scene of Central America until his execution in 1842.

Central American Parliament international parliament

The Central American Parliament, also known as PARLACEN, is the political institution and parliamentary body of the Central American Integration System (SICA). Its headquarters are in Guatemala City.

The Central American Bank for Economic Integration - CABEI was founded in 1960. Is an international multilateral development financial institution. Its resources are invested in projects that foster development to reduce poverty and inequality; strengthen regional integration and the competitive insertion of its member countries in the global economy; providing special attention to environmental sustainability. Its headquarters are in Tegucigalpa (Honduras) and has regional offices in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

Central American Football Union sports governing body

The Unión Centroamericana de Fútbol, more commonly known by the acronym UNCAF, represents the national football teams of Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. Its member associations are part of CONCACAF.

Central American Spanish Spanish dialect family

Central American Spanish is the general name of the Spanish language dialects spoken in Central America. More precisely, the term refers to the Spanish language as spoken in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Although Panama is part of Central America, Panamanian Spanish is classified as a variety of Caribbean Spanish.

Index of Central America-related articles

This is an Index of Central America-related articles. This index defines Central America as the seven nations of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.

2011 Copa Centroamericana

The 2011 Copa Centroamericana was the eleventh edition of Copa Centroamericana, an international football championship for national teams affiliated with the Central American Football Union (UNCAF) of the CONCACAF region. It took place in Panama from January 14 to January 23, 2011. It was the second time for Panama to host the tournament. On January 23, 2011 Honduras won the cup by defeating Costa Rica 2-1 in the final. The top five teams from this tournament qualified for the 2011 CONCACAF Gold Cup. The group stage draw was conducted on September 2, 2010 in Panama City.

The Men's Association football competition at the 2001 Central American Games took place from 22 November to 2 December at the Estadio Mateo Flores in Guatemala City. This was the seventh Football edition since 1973.

2010 Central American Games

The IX Central American Games was a multi-sport event that took place between 9 and 19 April 2010. The competition featured 23 sports which were contested at various venues, with Panama acting as the primary host country and El Salvador playing a supporting role.

2013 Copa Centroamericana

The 2013 Copa Centroamericana was the 12th Copa Centroamericana, the regional championship for men's national association football teams in Central America. It was organized by the Unión Centroamericana de Fútbol or UNCAF, and took place in Costa Rica from 18 January to 27 January 2013. The top five teams go on to participate in the 2013 CONCACAF Gold Cup.

The VIII Central American Games was a multi-sport event that took place between 3 and 12 March 2006.

1994 Central American Games

The V Central American Sports Games was a multi-sport event held in San Salvador, El Salvador between January 10 and January 23, 1994.

2008 Central American Junior and Youth Championships in Athletics

The 2008 Central American Junior and Youth Championships in Athletics were held at the Estadio Nacional Flor Blanca "Magico Gonzalez" in San Salvador, El Salvador, between July 19–20, 2008. Organized by the Central American Isthmus Athletic Confederation (CADICA), it was the 21st edition of the Junior (U-20) and the 16th edition of the Youth (U-18) competition. A total of 77 events were contested, 41 by boys and 36 by girls. Overall winner on points was  El Salvador.

This is a list of the Honduras national football team results from 2010 to 2019.

The football tournament at the 2017 Central American Games is scheduled to take place in December 2017.

The Central American Reunification, sometimes called Central Americanism, is the idea of restoring the political unity of the countries of Central America, as they historically had in particular during the existence of the United Provinces of Central America. At the moment it is followed mainly by groups and political parties of extreme left and internationalist ideology. It should not be confused with the Central American integration process, which is a diplomatic initiative similar to that of the European Union.

References

  1. "United Nations list of observing international organizations". un.org. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  2. "El Sistema De La Integracion Centroamericana - New York". www.sgsica-ny.org. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  3. "Central American Defense Council - Some Problems and Achievements". Lieutenant Colonel Laun C. Smith, JR. Archived from the original on 2006-10-05. Retrieved 2006-05-22.
  4. General Treaty on Central American Economic Integration between Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua signed at Managua, on 13 December 1960 Archived March 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  5. Sistema de Integración Centroamericano News (in Spanish)
  6. ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  7. ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  8. Bulmer-Thomas, Victor and A. Douglas Kincaid. Central America 2020: Towards a New Regional Development Model. USAID. EU Commission. 2000
  9. Digital, El 19. "El 19 Digital - Portal de Noticias de Nicaragua". El 19 Digital. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  10. "América Central" (PDF). europa.eu. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  11. Iustel (1 January 2018). "Revista General de Derecho Europeo - Sumario N.º 44 ENERO 2018". www.iustel.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  12. "Central American Bank for Economic Integration". bcie.org. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  13. Official website of the CCJ (Spanish language)
  14. "History of the CACJ from WorldCourts". worldcourts.com. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  15. CACJ history page from PICT
  16. (Spanish language)
  17. "Conferencia de las Fuerzas Armadas Centroamericanas". conferenciafac.org. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  18. "The EU's relations with Central America". The EU's Official Website. Archived from the original on 2006-06-22. Retrieved 2006-06-19.

Bibliography