Central Park Zoo

Last updated

Central Park Zoo
Central Park Zoo logo.png
Central Park Zoo logo
Central Park Zoo area.jpg
Central area of the Central Park Zoo
Date opened1864 (menagerie); 1934 (zoo); August 8, 1988 (renovated)
Location Central Park, New York City, United States
Coordinates 40°46′4″N73°58′18″W / 40.76778°N 73.97167°W / 40.76778; -73.97167 Coordinates: 40°46′4″N73°58′18″W / 40.76778°N 73.97167°W / 40.76778; -73.97167
Land area6.5 acres (2.6 ha)
Memberships AZA [1]
Public transit access New York City Subway: NYCS-bull-trans-N-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-R-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-W-Std.svg trains at Fifth Avenue–59th Street
NYCS-bull-trans-6-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-6d-Std.svg trains at 68th Street–Hunter College
New York City Bus: M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M66, M72, Q32
Website centralparkzoo.com

The Central Park Zoo is a 6.5-acre (2.6 ha) zoo located at the southeast corner of Central Park in New York City. It is part of an integrated system of four zoos and one aquarium managed by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). In conjunction with the Central Park Zoo's operations, the WCS offers children's educational programs, is engaged in restoration of endangered species populations, and reaches out to the local community through volunteer programs.

Zoo collection of assorted wild animal species kept for purposes like: study, conservation and, or, commercial exhibition

A zoo is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.

Central Park Large public park in Manhattan, New York, United States

Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City, located between the Upper West Side and the Upper East Side. Central Park is the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estimated 37–38 million visitors annually, and one of the most filmed locations in the world. In terms of area, Central Park is the fifth largest park in New York City, covering 843 acres (341 ha).

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Contents

Its precursor, a menagerie, was founded in 1864, becoming the first public zoo to open in New York. The present facility first opened as a city zoo on December 2, 1934, and was part of a larger revitalization program of city parks, playgrounds and zoos initiated in 1934 by New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks) commissioner Robert Moses. It was built, in large part, through Civil Works Administration and Works Progress Administration (WPA) labor and funding. The Children's Zoo opened to the north of the main zoo in 1960, using funding from a donation by Senator Herbert Lehman and his wife Edith.

Menagerie form of keeping common and exotic animals in captivity that preceded the modern zoological garden

A menagerie is a collection of captive animals, frequently exotic, kept for display; or the place where such a collection is kept, a precursor to the modern zoological garden.

New York City Department of Parks and Recreation governmental department responsible for maintaining public parks in New York City

The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, also called the Parks Department or NYC Parks, is the department of the government of New York City responsible for maintaining the city's parks system, preserving and maintaining the ecological diversity of the city's natural areas, and furnishing recreational opportunities for city's residents and visitors.

Robert Moses American urban planner and public official

Robert Moses was an American public official who worked mainly in the New York metropolitan area. Known as the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, and Westchester County, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, and was one of the most polarizing figures in the history of urban development in the United States. His decisions favoring highways over public transit helped create the modern suburbs of Long Island and influenced a generation of engineers, architects, and urban planners who spread his philosophies across the nation despite his not having trained in those professions. Moses would call himself a "coordinator" and was referred to in the media as a "master builder".

After 49 years of operation as a city zoo run by NYC Parks, Central Park Zoo closed in 1983 for reconstruction. The closure was part of a five-year, $35 million renovation program, that completely replaced the zoo's cages with naturalistic environments. It was rededicated on August 8, 1988, as part of a system of five facilities managed by the WCS, all of which are accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). [lower-alpha 1]

Association of Zoos and Aquariums nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of zoos and public aquariums

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), previously the American Zoo and Aquarium Association and originally the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization founded in 1924 dedicated to the advancement of North American zoos and public aquariums in the areas of conservation, education, science, and recreation. The AZA is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland, United States.

Areas

The Central Park Zoo is part of the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), an integrated network of four zoos and an aquarium spread throughout New York City. [lower-alpha 1] Located at East 64th Street and Fifth Avenue, the zoo is situated on a 6.5-acre (2.6 ha) [3] plot in Central Park. Visitors may enter through the Fifth Avenue entrance or from within Central Park. [4]

Wildlife Conservation Society Wildlife conservation and zoological organization based in New York, NY

Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) is a New York City-based organization that currently works to conserve more than two million square miles of wild places around the world. Founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society (NYZS), the organization is led by President and CEO Cristián Samper, former Director of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History.

The Central Park Zoo is a major tourist attraction within Central Park, drawing more than one million people every year. According to a 2011 study by the Central Park Conservancy, the zoo and its surroundings were visited by an estimated four million people each year. [5] :9 However, the WCS cites much lower figures since it only counts patrons with tickets. In 2007, it recorded that 1.01 million people visited the Central Park Zoo, [6] and in 2006, 1.03 million people. [7] As of the Wildlife Conservation Society's 2016 census of its zoos, the Central Park Zoo had 1,487 animals representing 163 species. [8]

Central Park Conservancy Nonprofit park conservancy

The Central Park Conservancy is a private, nonprofit park conservancy that manages Central Park under a contract with the City of New York and NYC Parks. The conservancy employs most maintenance and operations staff in the park. It effectively oversees the work of both the private and public employees under the authority of the publicly appointed Central Park administrator, who reports to the parks commissioner and the conservancy's president.

Main zoo

Trellised, vine-clad, glass-roofed pergolas link the three major exhibit areas—tropic, temperate and polar—housed in discrete buildings of brick trimmed with granite, masked by vines. [9] [10] :213 The exhibit areas are centered around a square central garden that contains a square sea lion pool in its center. [4] The sea lion pool is surrounded by glass fencing to allow visitors to observe the sea lions and their daily feedings. [11]

Trellis (architecture) architectural structure, usually made from an open framework or lattice of interwoven or intersecting pieces of wood, bamboo or metal that is normally made to support and display climbing plants, especially shrubs

A trellis (treillage) is an architectural structure, usually made from an open framework or lattice of interwoven or intersecting pieces of wood, bamboo or metal that is normally made to support and display climbing plants, especially shrubs. There are many types of trellis for different places and for different plants, from agricultural types, especially in viticulture, which are covered at vine training systems, to garden uses for climbers such as grapevines, clematis, ivy, and climbing roses or other support based growing plants. The rose trellis is especially common in Europe and other rose-growing areas, and many climbing rose varieties require a trellis to reach their potential as garden plants. Some plants will climb and wrap themselves round a trellis without much artificial help being needed while others need training by passing the growing shoots through the trellis and/or tying them to the framework.

Pergola outdoor garden feature forming a shaded walkway

A pergola is an outdoor garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that usually support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice, often upon which woody vines are trained. The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave. As a type of gazebo, it may also be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, with a green tunnel being a type of road under a canopy of trees.

Exhibits and other buildings

The structure at the central garden's southwestern corner is the "Tropic Zone", [4] which contains a two-story representation of a rain forest. The rain forest contains fruit bats, pythons, monkeys, and toucans. There is also a large free-flight area for birds. [9] [10] :215 The elephant house of the original menagerie was formerly located at the site. [10] :215

The Temperate Zone, one of the three major exhibit areas at Central Park Zoo Central Park Zoo.jpg
The Temperate Zone, one of the three major exhibit areas at Central Park Zoo

To the west of the garden is the "Temperate Territory", a landscaped series of paths surrounding a lake. [4] It hosts animals such as red pandas, snow monkeys, and snow leopards. [9] [10] :215 A snow leopard exhibit in the Temperate Territory opened in June 2009. [12] The Temperate Territory is located on the site of the 1934 zoo's cafeteria. [10] :215

The northern side of the garden is adjacent to the "Penguins and Sea Birds" section. [4] This multilevel structure contains a chilled penguin house as well as an outdoor polar bear pool. [9] [10] :214–215 It is located on the site of a lion house that was built in 1934 along with the original menagerie. [10] :214

The eastern side of the central garden is next to the Arsenal, technically located outside the zoo. [4] The structure was completed in 1851 and originally intended as a weapons and ammunition storehouse for the New York State Militia. It once served as an actual zoo building, but now contains NYC Parks Department offices. [13] Central Park Zoo also includes a 4D theater, [14] [15] located to the north of the Arsenal, [4] while a gift shop and ticket booth are located to the south of the Arsenal. [4]

The southern side of the garden contains the Intelligence Garden, [4] located at the site of the original menagerie's horned animal/small mammal house. Its name is inspired by a rare-animal menagerie created by King Wen of Zhou in 1100 B.C. [10] :216 A cafeteria, the Dancing Crane Cafe, [4] is located to the south of the Intelligence Garden. [10] :216

Art and conservation programs

Several works of art are located in the Central Park Zoo. There are several structures preserved from the original zoo built in 1934, [lower-alpha 2] which still feature their original animal-themed limestone friezes from Frederick Roth. [11] [16] Roth also created a pair of bronze statues, Dancing Goat and Dancing Bear, which flank the southern entrance of the zoo and were retained from the original zoo. [17] [18] Additionally, the zoo includes Tigress and Cubs, one of the park's oldest statues. It was created by Auguste Cain in 1867 and moved from an outcropping near the Lake to the Central Park Zoo in 1934. [19]

The zoo coordinates breeding programs for some endangered species as part of the Species Survival Plan, such as thick-billed parrots [20] and red pandas. [21] [22] In 2011, the WCS announced that the Central Park Zoo was the first North American zoo to hatch ducklings of critically endangered scaly-sided mergansers. [23] [24] In addition, the first example of whispering in non-human primates was observed at the Central Park Zoo in 2013, when tamarin monkeys were heard whispering around a staff member that they disliked. [25] [26] [27]

The zoo hosts educational venues as well as exhibits. The volunteer program at the Central Park Zoo engages members of the community; it is a combination outreach and educational program for adults. Volunteer guides conduct tours for visitors, while volunteer docents augment the educational program. Docents enroll in a four-month training program. [28] The zoo also offers several programs for students. [29]

Children's Zoo

The Children's Zoo is located north of the main zoo. [4] It is officially named the Tisch Children's Zoo after businessman Laurence A. Tisch, whose donation funded the zoo's 1990s renovation. [30] [31] The Children's Zoo contains a petting zoo with goats, sheep, cows, and pigs, as well as the Acorn Theatre, a performing arts theater. [11] [32] Admission to the Children's Zoo is included with the purchase of tickets to the main zoo. [32]

Lehman Gates Lehman Gates snow jeh.jpg
Lehman Gates

The Lehman Gates by Paul Manship are a notable feature retained from the original Children's Zoo. [33] [34] They were donated by Herbert and Edith Lehman in 1960 in honor of their 50th anniversary, and as part of their donation toward the construction of the Children's Zoo itself. [34] The gates were renovated in the 1980s. [34] [10] :163 Additionally, George Delacorte Musical Clock, a gift of George T. Delacorte dedicated in 1965, is mounted on a three-tiered tower above the arcade between the Wildlife Center and the Children's Zoo. [35] The clock contains representations of animals playing instruments, and plays music every half hour, at 0 and 30 minutes past the hour, between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. The clock's music is selected from one of 44 pre-recorded tracks. [36]

History

Original menagerie

The zoo was not part of the original Greensward Plan for Central Park created by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux. [37] [38] :340 However, a menagerie near the Arsenal, on the edge of Central Park located at Fifth Avenue facing East 64th Street, spontaneously evolved from gifts of exotic pets and other animals informally given to the park. [37] [38] :343 [39] The first animal, a bear cub tied to a tree, was left in Central Park in 1859, followed by a monkey the next year. These animals were popular with the park's visitors even though there was no formal zoo at the time. [40] Soon, people began donating other animals such as cranes, a peacock, and goldfish. [39] Unsolicited donations came from a variety of people, from prominent figures to young boys. [41] The donations also included dead animals. [42] :50–54 (PDF pp. 54–58) The Central Park planning commission recorded all of these donations in its annual reports. [39]

1869, The Dovecote NYC-CentralPark (1869) p114 The Dovecote.jpg
1869, The Dovecote

The American Zoological and Botanical Society, which sought to create a zoo somewhere in New York City, was created in early 1860. [43] The group began discussing possible sites for a zoo, among them Central Park. [44] By 1862, 60 acres (24 ha) were set aside for the construction of a future "zoological and botanical garden", later the Central Park Zoo. [45] :15 (PDF p. 17) However, since the zoo's site was not yet formally designated, the animals were kept in the Central Park Mall. [39] [46] Popular animals included three bald eagles and a bald-headed monkey. [47] In 1864, a formal zoo received charter confirmation from New York's assembly, making it the United States' second publicly owned zoo, after the Philadelphia Zoo, which was founded in 1859. [38] :340–349 [48] By then, the park had over 400 animals. [39] More than 250 animals would be donated in 1864–1865 alone. [37] [38] :343

Originally the zoo was supposed to be located in Manhattan Square, on the west side of Central Park where the American Museum of Natural History is now located, though this location was never used as a zoo. [38] :200 Up to twelve sites would eventually be considered for the zoo throughout the last three decades of the 19th century, including the North Meadow of Central Park. [38] :344 Some animals were moved to the Arsenal in 1865, and larger animals grazed there during summers. A "deer park" was established at the current site of the Metropolitan Museum of Art three years later. [37] In 1870, when the Tammany Hall political organization took control of the Central Park commission, it mandated that the Central Park menagerie buy its own animals rather than accept donations, and it moved the animals to five structures behind the Arsenal. [38] :344 The same year, Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins sculpted dinosaur figures for a proposed dinosaur exhibit at the zoo, but they were destroyed by Tammany Hall officials who did not appreciate these figures, and the pieces were rumored to be buried nearby. [49]

The menagerie became popular because of its free admission and proximity to working-class Lower Manhattan; by 1873, it saw 2.5 million annual visitors. [38] :344 The first permanent menagerie building was constructed behind the Arsenal in 1875. [50] The menagerie reached peak popularity in the mid-1880s after a chimpanzee nicknamed "Mike Crowley" was imported from Liberia. Observers such as former president Ulysses S. Grant showed up at the Monkey House to see the chimpanzee, overfilling the building past capacity. [38] :345–346 However, Irish-American groups took offense to the chimpanzee's nickname, saying that the names given to animals in the Central Park menagerie were stereotypically Irish, and thus derogatory to that ethnic group. [38] :345–346 [51] Frederick Law Olmsted also disapproved of the menagerie, believing Central Park to be better suited for scenic vistas than for entertainment, though he admitted that the zoo was the most popular part of the park. [38] :347

By the 1890s, wealthy residents of nearby neighborhoods were clamoring for the zoo to be relocated somewhere else, such as the North Meadow. However, these efforts met resistance, as the Central Park menagerie was popular among the general public and among the politicians that represented them. [38] :348 This subsequently led to the creation of the Bronx Zoo, a much larger, privately operated zoo in the Bronx in 1897. [52] Though wealthy residents hoped that people would travel to the Bronx Zoo for its superior facilities, the Central Park Zoo continued to be popular even after the Bronx Zoo opened in 1899. [38] :349, 388 The Central Park menagerie attracted over three million people annually by 1902, more than the Museum of Natural History and the Metropolitan Museum combined, despite only receiving one-fifth as much money as either of the museums. [38] :389

Through the early 20th century, the quality of the menagerie declined through neglect from the city government, which administered the zoo. The zoo accepted creatures of all kinds, even those with health problems, but offered insufficient veterinary care. [10] :211

In 1919, some of the structures at the Central Park menagerie were modified to accommodate the addition of new animals. [53] Subsequently, in 1932, a new concrete structure was built for the zoo's wolves because the previous steel enclosure was deemed insufficient to contain the wolves. [54] By then, the zoo was extremely rundown, and its 22 cages were regarded as "flimsy and rat-ridden". [10] :105 The wooden sheds posed a fire hazard, and the enclosures were so ineffective that zookeepers guarded the lion house to prevent the lions from escaping. [55]

New zoo

Sea lion pool, as seen looking south toward Midtown Manhattan Sea lion pool in Central Park Zoo, New York City 2013.jpg
Sea lion pool, as seen looking south toward Midtown Manhattan

After assuming office in January 1934, New York City Mayor Fiorello La Guardia tapped Robert Moses to head a newly unified Parks Department. Moses soon prepared extensive plans to reconstruct the city's parks, renovate existing facilities and create new swimming pools, zoos, playgrounds and parks. Moses acquired substantial Civil Works Administration, and later, Works Progress Administration funding and soon embarked upon an eight-year citywide construction program, relieving some of the high unemployment in New York City in this Depression year. [56]

Plans for the new Central Park Zoo were prepared by Aymar Embury II within a 16-day span in February 1934 [57] and were announced the following month. Embury's plans called for nine terracotta and brick structures to replace the structures in the menagerie. [58] These structures included seven new animal enclosures, as well as a comfort station and a garage. [58] [lower-alpha 3] A sea lion pool, designed by Charles Schmieder, [49] was to be located in the center of the new zoo, surrounded by the zoo enclosures on three sides. [10] :211–212 The new structures were designed in such a way that they could be maintained easily. [59] The buildings, to cost $411,000, were designed in conjunction with new enclosures at the Prospect Park Zoo. [58]

The reconstruction of the zoo was initially criticized by individuals who thought that the money spent on building a zoo would be better utilized on the construction of new schools around the city. [60] During the reconstruction, the previous structures were entirely demolished. [55] While construction was ongoing, animals were temporarily moved to other zoos. [61] The rebuilt zoo opened on December 2, 1934, [62] at a ceremony where former governor Al Smith was given the honorary title of "night superintendent". [63] [64] By April 1936, the renovated zoo had seen six million visitors since its reopening. [65] To prevent the recurrence of rat infestations, Moses also instituted a rat-elimination program in and around the zoo. [10] :109

In June 1960, Senator Herbert Lehman and his wife Edith donated $500,000 toward the construction of a new children's zoo just north of the existing zoo. [66] Work began that November, [67] and the children's zoo was officially opened on June 27, 1961. [68] The children's zoo featured attractions like a petting area with ducks, rabbits, and chickens; a large fiberglass whale statue dubbed "Whaley" (which acted as the entrance to the small zoo); a Noah's Ark feature; and a medieval castle feature. [69] The animals were housed in small storybook-style structures bordering an irregular pond. [10] :186–187

Decline

By 1967, the wooden railings around the main zoo's enclosures were rotting, and NYC Parks commissioner August Heckscher II had authorized repairs to these railings. [70] The same year, the zoo cafeteria was renovated after a new concessionaire took control of the cafe. [71]

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the New York City Subway's 63rd Street lines, the present-day F and Q trains, were being built directly underneath the zoo. [72] A graffiti wall was erected along the line's length through Central Park. The tunnel provided a subterranean gathering place for very early subway artists who hung around together in Central Park, and was named Zoo York by ALI , founder of the SOUL ARTISTS graffiti crew. The name came about because it was in a zoo in New York, hence "Zoo York". [73] The construction of the subway line itself was controversial because it called for 1,500 feet (460 m) of cut-and-cover tunneling, which required digging an open trench through Central Park and then covering it over. [72] One of the concerns was that the Central Park Zoo, and a bird sanctuary outside the zoo, were located very close to the boundary of the trench. [74] Eventually, the New York City Transit Authority, which operated the New York City Subway, agreed to reduce disruption by halving the length of the cut. [75]

A nature kiosk at Central Park Zoo was added in 1972, [76] and a $500,000 renovation for the Lion House was proposed the following year. [59] By then, the Central Park Zoo was quite dilapidated: in November 1974, protesters gathered outside the zoo to protest the conditions there. [77] NYC Parks commissioner Gordon Davis described the zoo as a "Rikers Island for animals". [78] Even so, the zoo was one of the most popular attractions in Central Park through the 1980s, according to surveys taken during that era. [10] :123

Around the same time, there was a plan to shift control of the Central Park, Prospect Park, and Queens Zoos from the city government to the New York Zoological Society, a quasi-public conservation organization. At the time, none of the zoos had dedicated curatorial staff and all had only a skeletal zookeeping staff. [79] The society proposed sending the larger animals to different zoos with more humane conditions, [77] and animal-rights groups sued the city in an effort to close the two zoos and move the animals to the larger Bronx Zoo. [80] A 1976 report by the World Federation for the Protection of Animals found that all three zoos were operating in "shameful conditions", and that the animals at the Central Park and Prospect Park Zoos were living in poorly maintained facilities. [81]

Renovations

Children's Zoo CP Childrens Zoo from 65 St Transverse early spring jeh.jpg
Children's Zoo

After fifteen years of sporadic conversations, the administration of mayor Ed Koch and the New York Zoological Society (renamed the Wildlife Conservation Society, or WCS, in 1993 [82] ) signed a fifty-year agreement in April 1980, wherein the Central Park, Prospect Park, and Queens Zoos would be administered by the Society. [83] They proposed renovation plans for all three zoos in 1981. [84] [85] The Central Park Zoo's renovation plan called for the demolition of five of the six structures around the sea lion pool (except for the Arsenal), as well as new classrooms and auditoriums for students, and a snack bar to replace the zoo's concessions. [86] [85] The New York Times reported that "the caging of these animals in inadequate spaces has long enraged animal lovers." [85] Starting in November 1982, the Central Park Zoo's animals were temporarily moved to other zoos while construction was ongoing. Most of the large animals were permanently rehoused in larger, more natural spaces at the Bronx Zoo. [87] The zoo had three "problem animals" that few other zoos wanted to take, [88] but even they found homes. [10] :212–213

The main zoo was closed in late 1983, [89] [90] though the children's zoo remained open. [91] Demolition continued through 1984, though construction on the new zoo did not begin until the following year. [49] The subsequent redesign was executed by Kevin Roche of Kevin Roche John Dinkeloo Associates. The facility's menagerie cages were replaced with three naturalistic habitats that blended with Central Park's scenery. [86] [92] Four of the original buildings were preserved in the redesigned zoo, though the cramped outdoor cages were demolished. The central feature of the original zoo, the sea lion pool, was retained. [91] [9]

The renovation was originally budgeted at $8.3 million. [78] The renovated zoo was then planned to reopen in 1985 at a cost of $14 million, but the project was delayed for three years. The zoo reopened to the public on August 8, 1988. The renovation ended up costing $35 million. [93] [94] Of this, the city contributed $22 million while the Society contributed the balance. [78] In order to pay for the zoo construction, the Society started charging admission for zoo patrons for the first time in the zoo's history. [38] :509 With the reopening of the Central Park Zoo, the Society aimed to designate each of its three small zoos with a specific purpose. The Central Park Zoo would be focused toward conservation; the Prospect Park Zoo would be primarily a children's zoo; and the Queens Zoo would become a zoo with North American animals. [95]

By the early 1990s, some of the structures at the Children's Zoo had collapsed, and there were reports that the animals were being neglected. Under threat of closure by federal regulators, the city closed the zoo in 1991. Though the WCS had a plan to renovate the zoo, it languished for years because the restoration needed approval from the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC), which had designated several zoo buildings as landmarks. [96] Furthermore, there were disputes over what the theme of the renovated Children's Zoo should be. [69] The $6 million plan to renovate the Children's Zoo was approved by the LPC in 1996, though it was opposed by preservationists who wanted to prevent the zoo's structures from demolition. [97] The renovation was initially supposed to be funded by $3 million from Henry and Edith Everett, but the Everetts withdrew their gift due to disputes over how the money should be spent. [30] With the help of a $4.5 million grant from businessman Laurence A. Tisch, [31] the Children's Zoo was renovated and renamed the Tisch Children's Zoo upon its reopening in September 1997. [98]

In June 2009, the Allison Maher Stern Snow Leopard Exhibit opened with three snow leopards, moved from the Bronx Zoo. The exhibit, costing $10.6 million, was the first new feature in the zoo since its 1988 renovation. [12]

Hoax

Headline for New York Herald story New York Herald 1874 Zoo Hoax Headline.png
Headline for New York Herald story

A famous hoax regarding the zoo is known as The Central Park Zoo Escape and the Central Park Menagerie Scare of 1874. [99] [100] It was a hoax perpetrated by James Gordon Bennett Jr. in his newspaper, the New York Herald . Joseph Ignatius Constantine Clarke was the primary writer of the hoax, under the direction and inspiration of the Herald's managing editor Thomas B. Connery, who often walked through the zoo and had witnessed a near-escape of a leopard. [100] The Herald's cover story of November 9, 1874, claimed that there had been a mass escape of animals from the Central Park Zoo and several people had been killed by the free-roaming beasts. A rhinoceros was said to be the first escapee, goring his keeper to death and setting into motion the escape of other animals, including a polar bear, a panther, a Numidian lion, several hyenas, and a Bengal tiger. [101]

At the end of the lengthy article, which was divided across several pages of the newspaper, the following notice was the only indication that the story horrifying readers across the city was a hoax: "...of course, the entire story given above is a pure fabrication. Not one word of it is true." [102] [103] That was not enough to assuage critics, however, who accused Bennett of inciting panic when the extent of the hoax became widely known. [104] The authors later claimed their intent was merely to draw attention to inadequate safety precautions at the zoo and claimed to be surprised at the extent of the reaction to their story. [105] [106] [107]

Notable animals

Related Research Articles

Bronx Zoo Metropolitan zoo in the Bronx, New York City

The Bronx Zoo is a zoo located within Bronx Park in the borough of Bronx in New York. It is one of the largest zoos in the United States by area, comprising 265 acres (107 ha) of park lands and naturalistic habitats separated by the Bronx River. On average, the zoo has 2.15 million visitors each year as of 2009.

Riverside Park (Manhattan) Public park in Manhattan, New York

Riverside Park is a scenic waterfront public park in the Upper West Side, Morningside Heights, and Hamilton Heights neighborhoods of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. The park consists of a narrow 4-mile (6.4 km) strip of land between the Hudson River/Henry Hudson Parkway and the serpentine Riverside Drive.

Prospect Park (Brooklyn) Public park in Brooklyn, New York

Prospect Park is an urban park in Brooklyn, New York City. The park is situated between the neighborhoods of Park Slope, Prospect Heights, Prospect Lefferts Gardens, Flatbush, and Windsor Terrace, and is adjacent to the Brooklyn Museum, Grand Army Plaza, and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. With an area of 526 acres (213 ha), Prospect Park is the second largest public park in Brooklyn, behind Marine Park.

Morningside Park (Manhattan) Public park in Manhattan, New York

Morningside Park is a 30-acre (12 ha) public park in Upper Manhattan, New York City. The 30-acre (12 ha) park is bounded by 110th Street to the south, 123rd Street to the north, Morningside Avenue to the west, and Morningside Drive to the east. It forms the border between the neighborhoods of Harlem to the east and Morningside Heights to the west. Much of the park is adjacent to Columbia University, located on the western border.

Bryant Park Public park in Manhattan, New York

Bryant Park is a 9.603-acre (38,860 m2) privately managed public park located in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is located between Fifth Avenue and Avenue of the Americas and between 40th and 42nd Streets in Midtown Manhattan. The eastern half of Bryant Park is occupied by the Main Branch of the New York Public Library (NYPL). The western half, which contains a lawn, shaded walkways, and several amenities, is located entirely over an underground structure that houses the library's stacks.

Prospect Park Zoo Zoo in Brooklyn, New York

The Prospect Park Zoo is a 12-acre (4.9 ha) zoo located off Flatbush Avenue on the eastern side of Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York City. As of 2016, the zoo houses 864 animals representing about 176 species, and as of 2007, it averages 300,000 visitors annually. The Prospect Park Zoo is operated by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). In conjunction with the Prospect Park Zoo's operations, the WCS offers children's educational programs, is engaged in restoration of endangered species populations, runs a wildlife theater, and reaches out to the local community through volunteer programs.

Orchard Beach (Bronx)

Orchard Beach is a public beach in the Bronx, New York City. The beach is part of Pelham Bay Park and is situated on the western end of Long Island Sound. Sometimes called the Bronx Riviera, Orchard Beach is the only beach in the Bronx.

Belvedere Castle Folly in Central Park in Manhattan, New York City

Belvedere Castle is a folly in Central Park in Manhattan, New York City. It contains exhibit rooms and an observation deck, and since 1919, also houses the official Central Park weather station.

Bronx Park Public park in the Bronx, New York

Bronx Park is a public park along the Bronx River in the Bronx, New York City. The park is bounded by Southern Boulevard to the west, Webster Avenue to the northwest, Burke Avenue to the north, Bronx Park East to the east, and 180th Street to the south. With an area of 718 acres (2.91 km2), Bronx Park is the eighth-largest park in New York City.

New York Aquarium Aquarium in Coney Island, New York City

The New York Aquarium is the oldest continually operating aquarium in the United States, having opened in Castle Garden in Battery Park, Manhattan in 1896. Since 1957, it has been located on the boardwalk in Coney Island, Brooklyn. The aquarium is operated by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) as part of its integrated system of four zoos and one aquarium, most notably the Bronx Zoo. It is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA).

Great Lawn and Turtle Pond Geographical features in New York Citys Central Park

The Great Lawn and Turtle Pond are two connected features of Central Park in Manhattan, New York City, United States. The lawn and pond are located on the site of a former reservoir for the Croton Aqueduct system which was infilled during the early 20th century.

Crotona Park Public park in the Bronx, New York

Crotona Park is a public park in the South Bronx section of the Bronx, New York City. It covers 127.5 acres and includes a 3.3-acre (1.3 ha) lake, as well as numerous recreational facilities such as a swimming pool. The park is bounded by streets of the same name on its northern, eastern, southern, and western borders. Claremont Parkway and Crotona Avenue pass through it. The Crotona Play Center, a national and city-designated landmark, is in the western part of the park. The park is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, also known as NYC Parks.

Sheep Meadow Meadow in New York Citys Central Park

Sheep Meadow is a 15-acre (61,000 m2) meadow located near the southwestern section of Central Park from 66th to 69th Streets in Manhattan, New York City. It is adjacent to Central Park Mall to the east, The Ramble and Lake to the north, West Drive to the west, and Heckscher Playground and Ballfields to the south. Sheep Meadow is open from April to mid-October from dawn to dusk in fair weather.

The Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary Geographical features in New York Citys Central Park

The Pond and Hallett Nature Sanctuary are two connected features at the southeastern corner of Central Park in Manhattan, New York City. It is located near Grand Army Plaza, across Central Park South from the Plaza Hotel, and slightly west of Fifth Avenue. The Pond is one of seven bodies of water in Central Park.

The Battery (Manhattan) Public park in Manhattan, New York

The Battery is a 25-acre (10 ha) public park located at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City facing New York Harbor. It is bounded by Battery Place on the north, State Street on the east, New York Harbor to the south, and the Hudson River to the west. The park contains attractions such as an old fort named Castle Clinton; multiple monuments; and the SeaGlass Carousel. The surrounding area, known as South Ferry, contains multiple ferry terminals, including the Staten Island Ferry's Whitehall Terminal as well as boat launches to the Statue of Liberty National Monument.

Pattycake (gorilla)

Pattycake, also known as Patty Cake was a female western lowland gorilla born to Lulu and Kongo at the Central Park Zoo in New York City. She was the first baby gorilla successfully born in captivity in New York. Months after her much publicized birth, Pattycake's arm was broken when it got stuck in her cage as her mother grabbed her away from her father. The incident was sensationally anthropomorphized in the media as a domestic dispute between Lulu and Kongo, but in reality experts thought it was a simple accident.

Central Park Casino restaurant, later nightclub, in New York City

The Central Park Casino, originally the Ladies' Refreshment Salon, was a restaurant in Central Park, near East 72nd Street in Manhattan, New York City. The name of the building came from the Italian for "little house"; the Casino itself was not a gambling business.

North Woods and North Meadow Geographical features in New York Citys Central Park

North Woods and North Meadow are two interconnected features in the northern section of Central Park, New York City, close to the neighborhood of Harlem in Manhattan. The 90-acre (36 ha) North Woods, in the northwestern corner of the park, is a rugged woodland that contains a forest called the Ravine, as well as two water features called the Loch and the Pool. The western portion of the North Woods also includes Great Hill, the third highest point in Central Park. North Meadow, a recreation center and sports complex, is immediately southeast of the North Woods. Completed in the 1860s, North Woods and North Meadow were among the last parts of Central Park to be built.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 The others are the Bronx Zoo, Prospect Park Zoo, Queens Zoo, and New York Aquarium. [2]
  2. The structures that still exist, or have been modified from the original zoo, are: [10] :213
    • Birdhouse
    • Smaller-Hoofed Animal House
    • Larger-Hoofed Animal House
    • Garage, animal kitchen, and annexes
    • Monkey House
  3. The structures, clockwise from south, were: [10] :211–212
    • Birdhouse
    • Smaller-Hoofed Animal House
    • Larger-Hoofed Animal House
    • Horned Animal/Small Mammal House
    • Garage, animal kitchen, and annexes
    • Elephant House
    • Cafeteria
    • Lion House
    • Monkey House

Citations

  1. "List of Accredited Zoos and Aquariums". aza.org. Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved May 27, 2010.
  2. "Zoos & Aquarium". WCS.org. April 24, 2019. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  3. "Know Before You Go – Central Park Zoo". centralparkzoo.com. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Map". Central Park Zoo. March 29, 2019. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  5. "Report on the Public Use of Central Park" (PDF). centralparknyc.org. Central Park Conservancy. April 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  6. Wildlife Conservation Society (December 2007). "Annual Report 2007" (PDF). Wildlife Conservation Society: 101. Archived from the original (offline: paper, online: PDF) on May 12, 2008. Retrieved March 19, 2009.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. Wildlife Conservation Society (December 2006). "Annual Report 2006" (PDF). Wildlife Conservation Society: 98. Archived from the original (offline: paper, online: PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2007.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. Wildlife Conservation Society (December 2016). "Annual Report 2016" (PDF). Wildlife Conservation Society: 176 (PDF p. 81). Retrieved January 31, 2019.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 Goldberger, Paul (September 25, 1988). "Architecture View; The New Zoo: At Home in Central Park". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Kinkead, Eugene (1990). Central Park, 1857–1995: The Birth, Decline, and Renewal of a National Treasure . New York: Norton. ISBN   0-393-02531-4.
  11. 1 2 3 "Central Park Zoo". Central Park Zoo. Central Park Conservancy. February 12, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  12. 1 2 Rothstein, Edward (June 12, 2009). "3 Snow Leopards Focus of First New Central Park Zoo Exhibition Since 1988". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  13. Gray, Christopher (November 18, 2007). "From Armory to Zoo to Museum to Offices". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  14. Genzlinger, Neil (April 15, 2011). "In the Fourth Dimension, It's Damp and Ticklish". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  15. "4-D Theater – Central Park Zoo". centralparkzoo.com. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  16. "Central Park Monuments – Zoo". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  17. "Central Park Monuments – Dancing Goat". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  18. "Central Park Highlights – Dancing Bear Statue". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  19. "Central Park Monuments – Tigress and Cubs". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  20. Wilgoren, Jodi (January 28, 1999). "Rare Bird Is Back in Hand, and So Is a Suspect". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  21. "Baby Red Panda Finds New Home in Central Park Zoo". NBC New York. August 15, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  22. "Endangered Red Panda Comes to Central Park Zoo – Upper East Side & Roosevelt Island – New York". DNAinfo. August 15, 2011. Archived from the original on May 4, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  23. "WCS's Central Park Zoo Is the First in North America to Successfully Breed Endangered Sea Duck > Newsroom". WCS Newsroom. June 21, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  24. Quinlan, Adriane (June 23, 2011). "New to the Central Park Zoo: Rare, Skinny-Billed Ducklings". City Room. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  25. Morrison, Rachel; Reiss, Diana (November 2013). "Whisper-like behavior in a non-human primate: Whisper-Like Behavior Non-Human Primate". Zoo Biology. 32 (6): 626–631. doi:10.1002/zoo.21099.
  26. "First example of whispering observed in non-human primates". The Independent. September 24, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  27. "Central Park Monkeys Caught Whispering About Hated Supervisor". Popular Science. September 24, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  28. "City Zoos Volunteers". Wildlife Conservation Society. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  29. "Classes – Central Park Zoo". centralparkzoo.com. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  30. 1 2 Miller, Judith (May 20, 1997). "Tisch to Match, and Raise, Revoked Gift to Children's Zoo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  31. 1 2 "Laurence Tisch, 80; Billionaire Had Rocky Time at CBS Helm". Los Angeles Times. November 16, 2003. ISSN   0458-3035 . Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  32. 1 2 "Tisch Children's Zoo". www.centralpark.com. September 22, 2017. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  33. "Tisch Children's Zoo Gate : NYC Parks". Central Park Monuments. June 26, 1939. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  34. 1 2 3 "Lehman Gates". The Official Website of Central Park NYC. Central Park Conservancy. February 12, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  35. "Central Park Monuments: Delacorte Clock". NYC Parks. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  36. "Delacorte Clock". Delacorte Clock. Central Park Conservancy. February 12, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  37. 1 2 3 4 "CentralParkHistory.com". CentralParkHistory.com. December 24, 1999. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Rosenzweig, Roy & Blackmar, Elizabeth (1992). The Park and the People: A History of Central Park. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN   0-8014-9751-5.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 Newman, Andy (June 15, 2014). "Giving Life to Central Park Zoo, One Donation at a Time". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  40. "Bergson Says World Needs A New System Of Ethics; If We Knew Our Duty We Would Do It, But We Don't, According to the Famous French Philosopher, Who Will Soon Be With Us --- All Systems Incomplete --- Philosophers Rule Mankind". The New York Times. March 10, 1912. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  41. Times, The New York (June 15, 2014). "A Curious List of People Who Donated to the Central Park Zoo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  42. "1864 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report" (PDF). New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. 1864. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  43. "City Intelligence". The New York Times. February 2, 1860. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  44. "Amusements". The New York Times. March 10, 1860. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  45. "1862 Central Park Commissioners Annual Report" (PDF). New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. 1862. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  46. "CentralParkHistory.com". centralparkhistory.com. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  47. "The Central Park; The People's Pleasure Ground Its Notable Features and Attractions What It Is and What It Will Be A Rambler's Observations". The New York Times. July 25, 1863. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  48. "ocal Intelligence; A Zeological Garden at Central Park". The New York Times. April 2, 1864. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  49. 1 2 3 Chan, Sewell (August 4, 2008). "In Central Park, Happy Birthday to Zoo". City Room. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  50. "Park Planning for Greater New York (1870–1898) : Online Historic Tour". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  51. Bayor, R.H.; Meagher, T. (1997). The New York Irish. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 284. ISBN   978-0-8018-5764-5 . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  52. "Work of the Assembly; Among the Bills Passed Is That for Improving a Portion of Bronx Park for a Zoo". The New York Times. April 18, 1897. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  53. "New Houses for Park Zoo; President Berolzhelmer Says Group in Central Park Will Soon Be Ready". The New York Times. January 14, 1919. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  54. "Moving Week Casts Gloom Over the Zoo; Central Park Fraternity Is Anxious About". The New York Times. August 1, 1932. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  55. 1 2 "Parks Work Bright Spot in WPA Snarl". New York Daily News. September 26, 1934. p. 81. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  56. "Robert Moses and the Modern Park System (1929–1965)" . Retrieved December 23, 2006.
  57. "New Zoo Designed By CWA in 16 Days; Feat of White-Collar Workers on Central Park Project Is Praised by Moses". The New York Times. February 27, 1934. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  58. 1 2 3 "Central Park Zoo To Get New Houses; Nine Structures to Replace Old Ones Near Present Site at Cost of $411,000". The New York Times. February 20, 1934. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  59. 1 2 "$500,000 to Be Spent to Renovate Lion House at Central Park Zoo". The New York Times. July 7, 1973. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  60. "Schools and Zoos Topic of Debate" (PDF). New York Sun. March 2, 1934. p. 27. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Fultonhistory.com.
  61. "There'll Be a Housewarming Soon". New York Daily News. November 2, 1934. p. 41. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  62. "New Zoo Opens, Al Smith Gets Job As Honorary Night Superintendent; Central Park's 'Picture-Book' Menagerie Bestows Rare Degree – Recipient Admits He Knows Tigers, but Is 'Not So Good With Elephants' – Mayor Speaks and Hodson Sings a Song". The New York Times. December 3, 1934. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  63. "Central Park Zoo Marks 25th Year; But Personnel Trace Line Back to the Civil War". The New York Times. December 4, 1959. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  64. "Al Smith Gets Title at Central Park Zoo" (PDF). Syracuse Journal. December 3, 1934. p. 1. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Fultonhistory.com.
  65. "Zoo Honors Girl, 5, 6,000,000th Visitor; Little Cynthia Cogswell Gets a Special Golden Key to the Central Park Buildings". The New York Times. April 20, 1936. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  66. "Lehmans Give City Zoo For Children; Ex-Governor and Wife Make $500,000 Gift for Area in Central Park". The New York Times. June 16, 1960. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  67. "New Zoo Begun; Gift From Lehmans Financing Central Park Work". The New York Times. November 19, 1960. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  68. Devlin, John C. (June 27, 1961). "18-Cubit Noah's Ark Launched At Central Park Children's Zoo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  69. 1 2 Bloom, Jennifer Kingson (April 9, 1995). "Neighborhood Report: Central Park; A No-Zoo Revue: No Reopening Any Time Soon". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  70. Callahan, John P. (April 5, 1967). "Central Park Repair Work Cramps the Usually Frolicsome Style of Some Favorite Inhabitants of the Zoo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  71. Knowles, Clayton (January 3, 1967). "Cafeteria in Zoo is Changing Hands; Horn & Hardart Taking Over Central Park Spot After a Two-Week Closing". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  72. 1 2 Burks, Edward C. (June 2, 1970). "Mayor Asks Engineers to Ease Subway Tunnel Impact in Park". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  73. Kurlansky, Mervyn; Naar, John (1974). The Faith of Graffiti. New York: Praeger Publishers, Inc.
  74. Burks, Edward C. (May 29, 1970). "Officials Take Tunnel Debate to Park". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  75. Ranzal, Edward (February 27, 1971). "Transit Authority Agrees to Modify Central Park Plan". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  76. "Nature Kiosk Added to CP Zoo". New York Daily News. May 21, 1972. p. 171. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  77. 1 2 "Central Park Zoo Plan Would Ban Big Animals". The New York Times. January 30, 1975. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  78. 1 2 3 Faye Kaplan, Lisa (October 30, 1988). "This new zoo has room with a view" (PDF). Bannett News Service. pp. 7E. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Fultonhistory.com.
  79. Devlin, John C. (November 16, 1974). "City Urged to Forgo Control of Its 3 Zoos". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  80. Fowler, Glenn (April 1, 1976). "Prospect Park Zoo Head Accused of Killing Animals". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved February 20, 2019.
  81. Asbury, Edith Evans (June 1, 1976). "'Shameful Conditions' at New York Zoos Reported by Group That Seeks to Shut". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  82. Clines, Francis X. (February 4, 1993). "What's 3 Letters and Zoologically Incorrect?". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  83. "City's 3 Zoos to Be Taken Over By New York Zoological Society". The New York Times. April 23, 1980. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved November 22, 2007.
  84. Giordano, Mary Ann (October 15, 1981). "Society takes on taming of the zoos". New York Daily News. p. 11. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  85. 1 2 3 Carmody, Deirdre (April 6, 1982). "City Shows Its Design for Central Park Zoo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  86. 1 2 English, Bella (March 14, 1982). "Money for bears or people?". New York Daily News. p. 45. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  87. Carmody, Deirdre (November 19, 1982). "Tale of Noah's Ark, Updated, at Central Park Zoo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  88. Carmody, Deirdre (November 12, 1982). "Problem for the Zoo: An Ornery Elephant". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  89. Carmody, Deirdre (October 13, 1984). "Central Park Renews Its Details and Vistas in a Burst of Repairs". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  90. Slagle, Alton (February 6, 1983). "The Greening of Central Park". New York Daily News. pp.  7, 55 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  91. 1 2 "Zoo will receive $28M face lift in Central Park". New York Daily News. April 18, 1985. p. 156. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  92. Anderson, Susan Heller (April 5, 1987). "Making Home Sweet for Central Park Zoo Animals". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved September 5, 2019.
  93. Anderson, Susan Heller (August 9, 1988). "At Last, a Joy for All Ages: Central Park Zoo Is Back". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved September 5, 2019.
  94. Faye Kaplan, Lisa (August 18, 1988). "The Zoo Crew". White Plains Journal-News. pp.  23, 24 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  95. Dallas, Gus (August 7, 1988). "Such captivating captivity!". New York Daily News. p. 158. Retrieved May 2, 2019 via Newspapers.com Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg .
  96. Martin, Douglas (September 28, 1995). "Restoring the Children's Zoo, Seriously; Fairy Tales Are Out, Unless Fairies Really Exist and Have Tails". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  97. Martin, Douglas (April 18, 1996). "Plans Approved for New Central Park Children's Zoo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  98. Martin, Douglas (September 21, 1997). "Where the Wild Things Meet; Tiny Thumbs Up for New Central Park Children's Zoo". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  99. Robert E. Bartholomew; Benjamin Radford (October 19, 2011). The Martians Have Landed!: A History of Media-Driven Panics and Hoaxes. McFarland. pp. 84–85. ISBN   978-0-7864-8671-7 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  100. 1 2 Connery, T.B. (June 3, 1893). "A Famous Newspaper Hoax". Harper's Weekly . p. 534. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  101. Hampton Sides (August 4, 2014). In the Kingdom of Ice: The Grand and Terrible Polar Voyage of the USS Jeannette. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  102. Joy Masoff (2006). Oh, Yikes!: History's Grossest, Wackiest Moments. Workman. p. 130. ISBN   978-0-7611-3684-2 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  103. David Rains Wallace (November 16, 2000). The Bonehunters' Revenge: Dinosaurs, Greed, and the Greatest Scientific Feud of the Gilded Age. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 6–7. ISBN   0-618-08240-9 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  104. "The Central Park Zoo Escape, 1874". Museum of Hoaxes. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
  105. Connery, Thomas (June 3, 1893). A Famous Newspaper Hoax. Harper's Weekly .
  106. Fedler, Fred (1989). Media Hoaxes. Iowa State University Press. ISBN   0-8138-1117-1.
  107. Boese, Alex. "The Central Park Zoo Escape". Museum of Hoaxes . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  108. "Her Cleverness is a Revelation to Trainers. Why, She Understands English" (PDF). The New York Times Magazine . June 19, 1904. Retrieved July 24, 2009.
  109. "Hattie, Central Park Elephant, Dies. News Hidden to Keep Sad Away" (PDF). The New York Times. November 20, 1922. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved July 25, 2009. Hattie is dead. Central Park's pet elephant succumbed on Saturday afternoon to the Illness against which she had fought for more a than a week. Unwilling that thousands of children who had loved the frolicsome pachyderm and ...
  110. "Baby Gorilla's Debut Brings a Surprise". The New York Times. September 12, 1972. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  111. Carmody, Deirdre (February 28, 1973). "As Gorillas Go, Six‐Month‐Old Patty Cake Is a Charming Monkey". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  112. "International Studbook for the Western Lowland Gorilla" (PDF). Frankfurt Zoo. 2011. ISSN   0934-2656 . Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  113. Kleinfield, N. R. (April 1, 2013). "A Child Star With a Knack for Publicity". City Room. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  114. "Gus, New York's Most Famous Polar Bear, Dies at 27". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved August 28, 2013.

Bibliography

Further reading