Central Tibetan language

Last updated
Central Tibetan
Ü-Tsang
དབུས་སྐད་, Dbus skad / Ükä
དབུས་གཙང་སྐད་, Dbus-gtsang skad / Ü-tsang kä
Pronunciation [wýkɛʔ, wýʔtsáŋ kɛʔ]
Native toIndia, Nepal, China (Tibet Autonomous Region)
Native speakers
(1.2 million cited 1990 census) [1]
Standard forms
Tibetan script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
bod    Lhasa Tibetan
dre   Dolpo
hut   Humla, Limi
lhm   Lhomi (Shing Saapa)
muk    Mugom (Mugu)
kte    Nubri
ola   Walungge (Gola)
loy   Lowa/Loke (Mustang)
tcn    Tichurong
Glottolog tibe1272  Tibetan [2]
sout3216  South-Western Tibetic (partial match) [3]
basu1243  Basum [4]

Central Tibetan, also known as Dbus, Ü or Ü-Tsang, is the most widely spoken Tibetic language and the basis of Standard Tibetan.

Dbus and Ü are forms of the same name. Dbus is a transliteration of the name in Tibetan script, དབུས་, whereas Ü is the pronunciation of the same in Lhasa dialect, [wy˧˥˧ʔ] (or [y˧˥˧ʔ]). That is, in Tibetan, the name is spelled Dbus and pronounced Ü. All of these names are frequently applied specifically to the prestige dialect of Lhasa.

There are many mutually intelligible Central Tibetan dialects besides that of Lhasa, with particular diversity along the border and in Nepal: [5]

Limi (Limirong), Mugum, Dolpo (Dolkha), Mustang (Lowa, Lokä), Humla, Nubri, Lhomi, Dhrogpai Gola, Walungchung Gola (Walungge/Halungge), Tseku, Basum

Ethnologue reports that Walungge is highly intelligible with Thudam, Glottolog that Thudam is not a distinct variety. Tournadre (2013) classifies Tseku with Khams.

See also

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References

  1. Lhasa Tibetan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Dolpo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Humla, Limi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Lhomi (Shing Saapa) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Mugom (Mugu) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Nubri at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tibetan". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "South-Western Tibetic". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Basum". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. N. Tournadre (2005) "L'aire linguistique tibétaine et ses divers dialectes." Lalies, 2005, n°25, p. 7–56