Centrino is a brand name of Intel Corporation which represents its Wi-Fi and WiMAX wireless computer networking adapters. Previously the same brand name was used by the company as a platform-marketing initiative. The change of the meaning of the brand name occurred on January 7, 2010.
The old platform-marketing brand name covered a particular combination of mainboard chipset, mobile CPU and wireless network interface in the design of a laptop. Intel claimed that systems equipped with these technologies delivered better performance, longer battery life and broader wireless network interoperability than non-Centrino systems.
The new product line name for Intel wireless products is Intel Centrino Wireless.
|Wireless LAN||Chipset||Centrino||Processor||Codename||Release Date||Manufacturing|
|800 Series||Carmel||Intel Pentium M||Banias||2003||130 nm||Intel P6|
|Napa||Intel Core Duo/Solo||Yonah||2006||65 nm|
|Intel Core 2 Duo/Solo||Merom||Intel Core|
|Santa Rosa||Intel Core 2 Duo||2007|
|5 Series||Calpella||Intel Core i7/i7 Extreme Edition||Clarksfield||2009||Intel Nehalem|
|Intel Core i3/i5/i7||Arrandale||2010||32 nm|
|6 Series||Huron River||Intel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme Edition||Sandy Bridge||2011||Intel Sandy Bridge|
|7 Series||Chief River||Intel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme Edition||Ivy Bridge||2012||22 nm|
|8 Series||Shark Bay||Intel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme Edition||Haswell||2013||Intel Haswell|
|9 Series||Crescent Bay||Intel Core M/i3/i5/i7||Broadwell||2014||14 nm|
|100 Series||Sunrise Point||Intel Core m3/m5/m7/i3/i5/i7||Skylake||2015||Intel Skylake|
|200 Series||Union Point||Intel Core m3/i3/i5/i7||Kaby Lake||2016|
Intel used "Carmel" as the codename for the first-generation Centrino platform, introduced in March 2003.
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile 855 Express series chipset (codenamed Odem or Montara with Intel Extreme Graphics 2), including ICH4M southbridge.|
|Mobile processor||Processors - Socket 479|
|Wireless network||an Intel PRO/Wireless 2100B (codenamed Calexico) or later 2200BG mini-PCI Wi-Fi adapter (codenamed Calexico2).|
Industry-watchers initially criticized the Carmel platform for its lack of support for IEEE 802.11g, because many independent Wi-Fi chip-makers like Broadcom and Atheros had already started shipping 802.11g products. Intel responded that the IEEE had not finalized the 802.11g standard at the time of Carmel's announcement. In early 2004, after the finalization of the 802.11g standard, Intel permitted an Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG to substitute for the 2100. At the same time, they permitted the new Dothan Pentium M to substitute for the Banias Pentium M. Initially, Intel permitted only the 855GM chipset, which did not support external graphics. Later, Intel allowed the 855GME and 855PM chips, which did support external graphics, in Centrino laptops.
Despite criticisms, the Carmel platform won quick acceptance among OEMs and consumers. Carmel could attain or exceed the performance of older Pentium 4-M platforms, while allowing for laptops to operate for 4 to 5 hours on a 48 W-h battery. Carmel also allowed laptop manufacturers to create thinner and lighter laptops because its components did not dissipate much heat, and thus did not require large cooling systems.
Intel used Sonoma as the codename for the second-generation Centrino platform, introduced in January 2005.
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile 915 Express series chipset (codenamed Alviso with Intel GMA 900), including ICH6M southbridge.|
|Mobile processor||Processors - Socket 479|
|Wireless network||an Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG or 2915ABG mini-PCI Wi-Fi adapter (both codenamed Calexico2).|
The Mobile 915 Express chipset, like its desktop version, supports many new features such as DDR2, PCI Express, Intel High Definition Audio, and SATA. Unfortunately, the introduction of PCI Express and faster Pentium M processors causes laptops built around the Sonoma platform to have a shorter battery-life than their Carmel counterparts; Sonoma laptops typically achieve between 3.5–4.6 hours of battery-life on a 53 W-h battery.
The codename Napa designates the third-generation Centrino platform, introduced in January 2006 at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show. The platform initially supported Intel Core Duo processors but the newer Core 2 Duo processors were launched and supported in this platform from July 27, 2006 onwards.
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile 945 Express series chipset (codenamed Calistoga with Intel GMA 950), including ICH7M southbridge.|
|Mobile processor||Processors - Socket M / Micro-FCBGA|
|Wireless network||an Intel PRO/Wireless 3945ABG mini-PCIe Wi-Fi adapter (codenamed Golan). |
Intel uses Centrino Duo branding for laptops with dual-core Core Duo processors and retains the Centrino name for laptops with single core (Core Solo) processors. Some of the initial Core Duo laptops are still labeled as Intel Centrino rather than Centrino Duo.
The codename Santa Rosa refers to the fourth-generation Centrino platform, which was released on Thursday May 10, 2007.
|Centrino||Santa Rosa platform|
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile 965 Express series chipset (codenamed Crestline): GM965 with Intel GMA X3100 graphics technology or PM965 with discrete graphics, and ICH8M southbridge, 800 MT/s front side bus with Dynamic Front Side Bus Switching to save power during low utilization. |
|Mobile processor||Processors - Socket P / Socket M / Micro-FCBGA|
|Wireless network||an Intel WiFi Link 4965AGN (a/b/g/draft-n) mini-PCIe Wi-Fi adapter (codenamed Kedron).|
The Santa Rosa platform comes with dynamic acceleration technology, allowing single threaded applications to execute faster. When a single threaded application is running, the CPU can turn off one of its cores and overclock the active core. In this way the CPU maintains the same Thermal Profile as it would when both cores are active. Santa Rosa performs well as a mobile gaming platform due to its ability to switch between single threaded and multithreaded tasks.Other power savings come from an Enhanced Sleep state where both the CPU cores and the chipset will power down.
The wireless chipset update was originally intended to include WWAN Internet access via HSDPA (3.5G), (codenamed Windigo) co-developed with Nokia.After announcing a working partnership, both later retracted the deal citing the lack of a clear business case for the technology. Support for WiMAX (802.16) was originally scheduled for inclusion in Santa Rosa but was later delayed until Montevina in 2008.
It is branded as "Centrino Pro" when combined with the enhanced security technologies Intel introduced with vPro and "Centrino Duo" when they are not used.
The codename Montevina refers to the fifth-generation Centrino platform, now formally named Centrino 2 to avoid confusion with previous Centrino platforms. It was scheduled for release at Computex Taipei 2008, which took place on June 3–7, 2008,but was delayed until July 15, due to problems with integrated graphics and wireless certification.
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile Express series 4 chipset (codenamed Cantiga; GL40, GS45, GM45, PM45) with Intel GMA X4500 graphics technology and ICH9M southbridge, 1066 MT/s (667 MT/s for GL40) FSB. The GM45/GS45 graphics core is clocked at 533 MHz and 400 MHz for GL40, which contains ten unified shaders, up from the eight provided by GMA X3100. |
|Mobile processor||Processors - Socket P / Socket M / Micro-FCBGA |
|Wireless network||Wireless Modules |
It is branded as Centrino 2 vPro when combined with built-in security and manageability features technologies.
The codename Calpella refers to the sixth-generation Centrino platform. Though originally scheduled to premiere in Q3 2009 with the second iteration of Nehalem processors,Intel had stated that due to pressure from computer manufacturers, they would delay the release of the platform until at least October 2009 (Q4 2009) to allow OEM partners to clear excess inventory of existing chips. This was believed to be spurred by the lowered demand due to unfavorable economic conditions throughout 2009.
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile Express Series 5 chipset (PCHM codenamed Ibex Peak) with Intel HD Graphics technology that will allow for optimized decoding/encoding and editing/playback of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video used in Blu-ray Discs and HD 1080p video, optimized for MPEG-2 (DVD) video playback and editing. |
|Mobile processor||Processors, based on Intel Nehalem microarchitecture |
|Wireless network||Wireless Modules |
The codename "Huron River" refers to the seventh-generation Centrino platform.
|Centrino||Huron River platform|
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile Express Series 6 chipset (PCHM codenamed Cougar Point ). |
|Mobile processor||Processors, based on Intel Sandy Bridge microarchitecture|
|Wireless network||Wireless Modules |
The codename Chief River refers to the eighth-generation Centrino platform.
|Centrino||Chief River platform|
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile Express Series 7 chipset (PCHM codenamed Panther Point ) |
|Mobile processor||Processors, based on Intel Ivy Bridge microarchitecture|
|Wireless network||Wireless Modules |
The codename Shark Bay refers to the ninth-generation Centrino platform.
|Centrino||Shark Bay platform|
|Mobile chipset||an Intel Mobile Express Series 8 chipset (PCHM codenamed Lynx Point ) |
|Mobile processor||Processors, based on Intel Haswell microarchitecture|
|Wireless network||Wireless Modules Wilkins Peak|
Jon Worrel predicted in 2012 that Shark Bay would comprise a single Multi-Chip Module (MCM) package.
On March 2, 2008, Intel introduced the Intel Atom processor brandfor a new family of low-power processor platforms. The components have thin, small designs and work together to "enable the best mobile computing and Internet experience" on mobile and low-power devices.
Intel's second generation MID platform (codenamed Menlow ) contains a 45 nm Intel Atom processor (codenamed Silverthorne ) which can run up to 2.0 GHz and a System Controller Hub (codenamed Poulsbo ) which includes Intel HD Audio (codenamed Azalia).
|Mobile chipset||an Intel SCH (codenamed Poulsbo) with integrated GMA 500 graphics (PowerVR SGX 535 based)|
|Mobile processor||a 45 nm Intel Atom CPU (codenamed Silverthorne )|
|Wireless network||a wireless radio|
This platform was initially branded as Centrino Atom but the logo was dropped in August 2008; the logo had caused confusion between laptop and MID with previous marketing of Centrino stating only Intel chipsets are being used. Hence MIDs will be branded as Atom to allow integration with other OEM chipsets for the low-end market.
Intel Centrino Wireless is the brand for Intel Wi-Fi and WiMAX adapters. The product line includes:
Laptops with Intel vPro technology have hardware features that allow a system administrator to remotely access wired and wireless laptops for maintenance and servicing if the operating system is unresponsive or crashed and, when a laptop is connected to AC power (not on battery power), allow a sys-admin to remotely access the laptop when the system is asleep or laptop power is off. It is targeted more for businesses than consumers.
Laptops with vPro have the typical dual-core or quad-core processor and wireless features of the Centrino family.
Celeron is Intel's brand name for low-end IA-32 and x86-64 computer microprocessor models targeted at low-cost personal computers.
The Pentium M is a family of mobile 32-bit single-core x86 microprocessors introduced in March 2003 and forming a part of the Intel Carmel notebook platform under the then new Centrino brand. The Pentium M processors had a maximum thermal design power (TDP) of 5–27 W depending on the model, and were intended for use in laptops. They evolved from the core of the last Pentium III–branded CPU by adding the front-side bus (FSB) interface of Pentium 4, an improved instruction decoding and issuing front end, improved branch prediction, SSE2 support, and a much larger cache. The first Pentium M–branded CPU, code-named Banias, was followed by Dothan. The Pentium M-branded processors were succeeded by the Core-branded dual-core mobile Yonah CPU with a modified microarchitecture.
Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets. It was introduced in June 1998. Xeon processors are based on the same architecture as regular desktop-grade CPUs, but have advanced features such as support for ECC memory, higher core counts, more PCI Express lanes, support for larger amounts of RAM, larger cache memory and extra provision for enterprise-grade reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features responsible for handling hardware exceptions through the Machine Check Architecture. They are often capable of safely continuing execution where a normal processor cannot due to these extra RAS features, depending on the type and severity of the machine-check exception (MCE). Some also support multi-socket systems with two, four, or eight sockets through use of the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) bus.
The Intel Core microarchitecture is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. It is based on the Yonah processor design and can be considered an iteration of the P6 microarchitecture introduced in 1995 with Pentium Pro. High power consumption and heat intensity, the resulting inability to effectively increase clock rate, and other shortcomings such as an inefficient pipeline were the primary reasons why Intel abandoned the NetBurst microarchitecture and switched to a different architectural design, delivering high efficiency through a small pipeline rather than high clock rates. The Core microarchitecture initially did not reach the clock rates of the NetBurst microarchitecture, even after moving to 45 nm lithography. However after many generations of successor microarchitectures which used Core as their basis, Intel managed to eventually surpass the clock rates of Netburst with the Devil's Canyon microarchitecture reaching a base frequency of 4 GHz and a maximum tested frequency of 4.4 GHz using 22 nm lithography.
Viiv was a platform initiative from Intel similar to Intel's Centrino and vPro. Initially, it was a collection of computer technologies with a particular combination of Intel ingredients to support a "media PC" concept. Intel also provided the Media Server as the core software stack on the PC to support "media" distribution through the home.
The AMD mobile platform is an open platform for laptops from AMD. Though little marketing was done on this platform, it has been competing with the Centrino platform in the segment to gain more marketshare. Each platform has its own specification, catching up the latest technology developments. Since the acquisition of ATI, AMD began to include Mobility Radeon GPUs and AMD chipsets as part of the requirements of the mobile platform; the first of such platforms is the Puma platform.
Yonah was the code name of Intel's first generation 65 nm process CPU cores, based on cores of the earlier Banias / Dothan Pentium M microarchitecture. Yonah CPU cores were used within Intel's Core Solo and Core Duo mobile microprocessor products. SIMD performance on Yonah improved through the addition of SSE3 instructions and improvements to SSE and SSE2 implementations; integer performance decreased slightly due to higher latency cache. Additionally, Yonah included support for the NX bit.
Intel vPro technology is an umbrella marketing term used by Intel for a large collection of computer hardware technologies, including VT-x, VT-d, Trusted Execution Technology (TXT), and Intel Active Management Technology (AMT). When the vPro brand was launched, it was identified primarily with AMT, thus some journalists still consider AMT to be the essence of vPro.
Intel Core 2 is the processor family encompassing a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit x86-64 single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors based on the Core microarchitecture. The single- and dual-core models are single-die, whereas the quad-core models comprise two dies, each containing two cores, packaged in a multi-chip module. The Core 2 range was the last flagship range of Intel desktop processors to use a front-side bus.
Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993. In their form as of November 2011, Pentium processors are considered entry-level products that Intel rates as "two stars", meaning that they are above the low-end Atom and Celeron series, but below the faster Intel Core lineup, and workstation Xeon series.
A mobile Internet device (MID) is a multimedia capable mobile device providing wireless Internet access. They are designed to provide entertainment, information and location-based services for personal or business use. They allow 2-way communication and real-time sharing. They have been described as filling a niche between smartphones and tablet computers.
Dell Vostro is a line of business-oriented laptop and desktop computers manufactured by Dell aimed at small businesses. From 2013–2015, the line was temporarily discontinued on some Dell websites but continued to be offered in other markets, such as Malaysia and India.
Intel Atom is the brand name for a line of IA-32 and x86-64 instruction set ultra-low-voltage microprocessors by Intel Corporation designed to reduce electric consumption and power dissipation in comparison with ordinary processors of the Intel Core series. Atom is mainly used in netbooks, nettops, embedded applications ranging from health care to advanced robotics, and mobile Internet devices (MIDs). The line was originally designed in 45 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology and subsequent models, codenamed Cedar, used a 32 nm process.
Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge. Intel officially announced CPUs based on this microarchitecture on June 4, 2013, at Computex Taipei 2013, while a working Haswell chip was demonstrated at the 2011 Intel Developer Forum. With Haswell, which uses a 22 nm process, Intel also introduced low-power processors designed for convertible or "hybrid" ultrabooks, designated by the "U" suffix.
Intel Active Management Technology (AMT) is hardware-based technology built into PCs with Intel vPro technology. AMT is designed to help sys-admins remotely manage and secure PCs out-of-band when PC power is off, the operating system (OS) is unavailable, software management agents are missing, or hardware has failed.
Merom is the code name for various Intel processors that are sold as Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Solo, Pentium Dual-Core and Celeron. It was the first mobile processor to be based on the Core microarchitecture, replacing the Enhanced Pentium M-based Yonah processor. Merom has the product code 80537, which is shared with Merom-2M and Merom-L that are very similar but have a smaller L2 cache. Merom-L has only one processor core and a different CPUID model. The desktop version of Merom is Conroe and the dual-socket server version is Woodcrest. Merom was manufactured in a 65 nanometer process, and was succeeded by Penryn, a 45 nm version of the Merom architecture. Together, Penryn and Merom represented the first 'tick-tock' in Intel's Tick-Tock manufacturing paradigm, in which Penryn was the 'tick' to Merom's 'tock'.
Intel Core are streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computers central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.
Bonnell is a CPU microarchitecture used by Intel Atom processors which can execute up to two instructions per cycle. Like many other x86 microprocessors, it translates x86 instructions into simpler internal operations prior to execution. The majority of instructions produce one micro-op when translated, with around 4% of instructions used in typical programs producing multiple micro-ops. The number of instructions that produce more than one micro-op is significantly fewer than the P6 and NetBurst microarchitectures. In the Bonnell microarchitecture, internal micro-ops can contain both a memory load and a memory store in connection with an ALU operation, thus being more similar to the x86 level and more powerful than the micro-ops used in previous designs. This enables relatively good performance with only two integer ALUs, and without any instruction reordering, speculative execution or register renaming. A side effect of having no speculative execution is invulnerability against Meltdown and Spectre.
Comet Lake is Intel's codename for its 10th generation Core microprocessors. They are manufactured using Intel's third 14 nm Skylake process refinement, succeeding the Whiskey Lake U-series mobile processor and Coffee Lake desktop processor families. Intel announced low-power mobile Comet Lake-U CPUs on August 21, 2019, H-series mobile CPUs on April 2, 2020, desktop Comet Lake-S CPUs April 30, 2020, and Xeon W-1200 series workstation CPUs on May 13, 2020. Comet Lake processors and Ice Lake 10 nm processors are together branded as the Intel "10th Generation Core" family. Intel officially launched Comet Lake-Refresh CPUs on the same day as 11th Gen Core Rocket Lake launch. The low-power mobile Comet Lake-U Core and Celeron 5205U CPUs were discontinued on July 7, 2021.
The platform is called "Shark Bay" for notebooks and ultrabooks, and it will consist of a single Multi-Chip Module (MCM) package fully integrating the PCH from previous generation 22nm Ivy Bridge (2012) directly into the same die as the 22nm Haswell (2013) CPU.