Centrino

Last updated
Components of the Centrino platform. From right, clockwise: Intel PRO/Wireless wireless network adapter, Intel mobile processor, Intel mobile southbridge chipset, and Intel mobile northbridge chipset. CentrinoComponents.png
Components of the Centrino platform. From right, clockwise: Intel PRO/Wireless wireless network adapter, Intel mobile processor, Intel mobile southbridge chipset, and Intel mobile northbridge chipset.

Centrino is a brand name of Intel Corporation which represents its Wi-Fi and WiMAX wireless computer networking adapters. Previously the same brand name was used by the company as a platform-marketing initiative. The change of the meaning of the brand name occurred on January 7, 2010.

Contents

The old platform-marketing brand name covered a particular combination of mainboard chipset, mobile CPU and wireless network interface in the design of a laptop. Intel claimed that systems equipped with these technologies delivered better performance, longer battery life and broader wireless network interoperability than non-Centrino systems.

The new product line name for Intel wireless products is Intel Centrino Wireless. [1]

Intel Centrino

Wireless LANChipsetCentrinoProcessorCodenameRelease DateManufacturing

Technology

Microarchitecture
Intel

Wireless

Products

800 SeriesCarmelIntel Pentium MBanias2003130 nmIntel P6
Dothan200490 nm
900 SeriesSonoma2005
NapaIntel Core Duo/SoloYonah200665 nm
Intel Core 2 Duo/SoloMeromIntel Core
Santa RosaIntel Core 2 Duo2007
Penryn200845 nm
4 SeriesMontevina
5 SeriesCalpellaIntel Core i7/i7 Extreme EditionClarksfield2009Intel Nehalem
Intel Core i3/i5/i7Arrandale201032 nm
6 SeriesHuron RiverIntel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme EditionSandy Bridge2011Intel Sandy Bridge
7 SeriesChief RiverIntel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme EditionIvy Bridge201222 nm
8 SeriesShark BayIntel Core i3/i5/i7/i7 Extreme EditionHaswell2013Intel Haswell
9 SeriesCrescent BayIntel Core M/i3/i5/i7Broadwell201414 nm
100 SeriesSunrise PointIntel Core m3/m5/m7/i3/i5/i7Skylake2015Intel Skylake
200 SeriesUnion PointIntel Core m3/i3/i5/i7Kaby Lake2016

Notebook implementations

Carmel platform (2003)

Intel used "Carmel" as the codename for the first-generation Centrino platform, introduced in March 2003.

CentrinoCarmel platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile 855 Express series chipset (codenamed Odem or Montara with Intel Extreme Graphics 2), including ICH4M southbridge.
Mobile processor Processors - Socket 479
Wireless network an Intel PRO/Wireless 2100B (codenamed Calexico) or later 2200BG mini-PCI Wi-Fi adapter (codenamed Calexico2).

Industry-watchers initially criticized the Carmel platform for its lack of support for IEEE 802.11g, because many independent Wi-Fi chip-makers like Broadcom and Atheros had already started shipping 802.11g products. Intel responded that the IEEE had not finalized the 802.11g standard at the time of Carmel's announcement. In early 2004, after the finalization of the 802.11g standard, Intel permitted an Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG to substitute for the 2100. At the same time, they permitted the new Dothan Pentium M to substitute for the Banias Pentium M. Initially, Intel permitted only the 855GM chipset, which did not support external graphics. Later, Intel allowed the 855GME and 855PM chips, which did support external graphics, in Centrino laptops.

Despite criticisms, the Carmel platform won quick acceptance among OEMs and consumers. Carmel could attain or exceed the performance of older Pentium 4-M platforms, while allowing for laptops to operate for 4 to 5 hours on a 48 W-h battery. Carmel also allowed laptop manufacturers to create thinner and lighter laptops because its components did not dissipate much heat, and thus did not require large cooling systems.

Sonoma platform (2005)

Intel used Sonoma as the codename for the second-generation Centrino platform, introduced in January 2005.

CentrinoSonoma platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile 915 Express series chipset (codenamed Alviso with Intel GMA 900), including ICH6M southbridge.
Mobile processor Processors - Socket 479
Wireless network an Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG or 2915ABG mini-PCI Wi-Fi adapter (both codenamed Calexico2).

The Mobile 915 Express chipset, like its desktop version, supports many new features such as DDR2, PCI Express, Intel High Definition Audio, and SATA. Unfortunately, the introduction of PCI Express and faster Pentium M processors causes laptops built around the Sonoma platform to have a shorter battery-life than their Carmel counterparts; Sonoma laptops typically achieve between 3.5–4.6 hours of battery-life on a 53 W-h battery.

Napa platform (2006)

The codename Napa designates the third-generation Centrino platform, introduced in January 2006 at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show. The platform initially supported Intel Core Duo processors but the newer Core 2 Duo processors were launched and supported in this platform from July 27, 2006 onwards.

CentrinoNapa platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile 945 Express series chipset (codenamed Calistoga with Intel GMA 950), including ICH7M southbridge.
Mobile processor Processors - Socket M / Micro-FCBGA
  • an Intel Core Solo, Core Duo (codenamed Yonah ) processor, or
  • an Intel Core 2 Duo (codenamed Merom ) processor with a 667 MT/s FSB for Napa Refresh platform, or
  • an Intel Core 2 Solo (codenamed Merom) processor with 533 MT/s FSB for Napa Refresh platform (Sept 2007).
Wireless network an Intel PRO/Wireless 3945ABG mini-PCIe Wi-Fi adapter (codenamed Golan).
  • Some newer models (as of 1st quarter 2007) of the Napa Refresh platform contain the newer 4965AGN (a/b/g/draft-n) wireless cards.

Intel uses Centrino Duo branding for laptops with dual-core Core Duo processors and retains the Centrino name for laptops with single core (Core Solo) processors. Some of the initial Core Duo laptops are still labeled as Intel Centrino rather than Centrino Duo.

Santa Rosa platform (2007)

The codename Santa Rosa refers to the fourth-generation Centrino platform, which was released on Thursday May 10, 2007.

CentrinoSanta Rosa platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile 965 Express series chipset (codenamed Crestline): GM965 with Intel GMA X3100 graphics technology or PM965 with discrete graphics, and ICH8M southbridge, 800 MT/s front side bus with Dynamic Front Side Bus Switching to save power during low utilization.
  • Intel Dynamic Acceleration (IDA), better Windows Vista Aero support. [2]
  • RAM supported for PC2-4200 (DDR2-533) and PC2-5300 (DDR2-667) SO-DIMM. [3] Runs DDR2-800 SO-DIMMs at 667 MHz even though an 800 MT/s front side bus is supported. [4]
  • EFI-compliant firmware, a successor to BIOS.
  • optional NAND flash-memory caching branded as Intel Turbo Memory (codenamed Robson).
  • Ethernet LAN controller 82562V (codenamed Ekron-N) or Gigabit Ethernet LAN controllers 82566MM and 82566MC (codenamed Nineveh).
Mobile processor Processors - Socket P / Socket M / Micro-FCBGA
  • an Intel Core 2 Duo (codenamed Merom ) second generation processor with 800 MT/s FSB, or
  • an Intel Core 2 Duo (codenamed Penryn ) 45 nm processor with 800 MT/s FSB and SSE4.1, which will add 47 new instructions to SSSE3. It was scheduled for release in January 2008 [5] for Santa Rosa Refresh platform.
Wireless network an Intel WiFi Link 4965AGN (a/b/g/draft-n) mini-PCIe Wi-Fi adapter (codenamed Kedron).
  • Wireless-N technology boasts a 5X speed increase, along with a 2X greater coverage area, and supports 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz signal bands, with enough bandwidth for high definition audio and video streams. [6]

The Santa Rosa platform comes with dynamic acceleration technology, allowing single threaded applications to execute faster. When a single threaded application is running, the CPU can turn off one of its cores and overclock the active core. In this way the CPU maintains the same Thermal Profile as it would when both cores are active. Santa Rosa performs well as a mobile gaming platform due to its ability to switch between single threaded and multithreaded tasks. [7] Other power savings come from an Enhanced Sleep state where both the CPU cores and the chipset will power down.

The wireless chipset update was originally intended to include WWAN Internet access via HSDPA (3.5G), (codenamed Windigo) co-developed with Nokia. [8] [9] After announcing a working partnership, both later retracted the deal citing the lack of a clear business case for the technology. Support for WiMAX (802.16) was originally scheduled for inclusion in Santa Rosa but was later delayed until Montevina in 2008. [8]

It is branded as "Centrino Pro" when combined with the enhanced security technologies Intel introduced with vPro and "Centrino Duo" when they are not used. [10]

Montevina platform (2008)

The codename Montevina refers to the fifth-generation Centrino platform, now formally named Centrino 2 to avoid confusion with previous Centrino platforms. It was scheduled for release at Computex Taipei 2008, which took place on June 3–7, 2008, [11] but was delayed until July 15, due to problems with integrated graphics and wireless certification. [12]

CentrinoMontevina platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile Express series 4 chipset (codenamed Cantiga; GL40, GS45, GM45, PM45) with Intel GMA X4500 graphics technology and ICH9M southbridge, 1066 MT/s (667 MT/s for GL40) FSB. The GM45/GS45 graphics core is clocked at 533 MHz and 400 MHz for GL40, which contains ten unified shaders, up from the eight provided by GMA X3100.
  • RAM support for PC2-5300 (DDR2-667), PC2-6400 (DDR2-800), PC3-6400 (DDR3-800), PC3-8500 (DDR3-1066) SO-DIMM. (GL40 does not support DDR3-1066)
  • NAND flash-memory caching branded as Intel Turbo Memory (codenamed Robson 2).
  • Gigabit Ethernet LAN controllers 82567LM and 82567LF (codenamed Boazman). [13]
  • Main support for DisplayPort with an external connector attached to the motherboard along with full supplemental support of HDMI, DVI, and VGA standards.
Mobile processor Processors - Socket P / Socket M / Micro-FCBGA
  • a second-generation Intel Core 2 Duo (codenamed Penryn ) 45nm processor with 800-1066 MT/s FSB with clock speeds ranging from 2 GHz to 3.06 GHz, also featuring SSE4.1 support, which adds 47 new instructions to SSSE3. It was planned to consume no more than 29W, compared to Merom's and first-generation Penryn's 34W TDP. But after release only a few models (P series) have 25W TDP and the rest (T series) still have 35W TDP, besides the Q series (Quad core) TDP is 45W.
Wireless network Wireless Modules
  • Intel WiMAX/WiFi Link 5350 mini-PCIe (codenamed Echo Peak-P) supporting both WiMAX and up to 450Mbit/s Wi-Fi, or
  • Intel Ultimate N WiFi Link 5300 mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Shirley Peak 3x3) supporting up to 450Mbit/s, or
  • Intel WiMAX/WiFi Link 5150 mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Echo Peak-V) supporting both WiMAX and up to 300Mbit/s Rx / 150Mbit/s Tx Wi-Fi, or
  • Intel WiFi Link 5100 mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Shirley Peak 1x2) supporting up to 300Mbit/s Rx / 150Mbit/s Tx

It is branded as Centrino 2 vPro when combined with built-in security and manageability features technologies.

Calpella platform (2009)

The codename Calpella refers to the sixth-generation Centrino platform. Though originally scheduled to premiere in Q3 2009 with the second iteration of Nehalem processors, [14] Intel had stated that due to pressure from computer manufacturers, they would delay the release of the platform until at least October 2009 (Q4 2009) to allow OEM partners to clear excess inventory of existing chips. This was believed to be spurred by the lowered demand due to unfavorable economic conditions throughout 2009. [15]

CentrinoCalpella platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile Express Series 5 chipset (PCHM codenamed Ibex Peak) with Intel HD Graphics technology that will allow for optimized decoding/encoding and editing/playback of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video used in Blu-ray Discs and HD 1080p video, optimized for MPEG-2 (DVD) video playback and editing.
  • Integrated memory controller and integrated PCI express controller remove the need for a northbridge and the older FSB technology.
  • Direct connect to DisplayPort with DPCP as with its predecessor along with legacy support for HDMI (and HDCP), DVI, and VGA.
  • RAM supported for PC3-6400 (DDR3-800), PC3-8500 (DDR3-1066), PC3-10600 (DDR3-1333) and PC3-12800 (DDR3-1600) SO-DIMM.
  • Gigabit Ethernet LAN controllers 82577LM and 82577LF (codenamed Hanksville).
  • Solid-state drive or Hybrid hard drives support.
Mobile processor Processors, based on Intel Nehalem microarchitecture [16]
Wireless network Wireless Modules [17]
  • Intel Centrino Ultimate-N 6300 AGN mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Puma Peak 3×3), or
  • Intel Centrino Advanced-N + WiMAX 6250 AGN mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Kilmer Peak), or
  • Intel Centrino Advanced-N 6200 AGN mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Puma Peak 2×2), or
  • Intel Centrino Wireless-N 1000 BGN mini-PCIe adapter (codenamed Condor Peak)

Huron River platform (2011)

The codename "Huron River" refers to the seventh-generation Centrino platform.

CentrinoHuron River platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile Express Series 6 chipset (PCHM codenamed Cougar Point [18] ).
  • Gigabit Ethernet LAN controllers 82579LM and 82579LF (codenamed Lewisville).
Mobile processor Processors, based on Intel Sandy Bridge microarchitecture
Wireless network Wireless Modules
  • Intel Centrino Ultimate-N 6300 AGN mini-PCIe adapter [19] (codenamed Puma Peak 3×3), or
  • Intel Centrino Advanced-N + WiMAX 6250 AGN mini-PCIe adapter [20] (codenamed Kilmer Peak 2x2), or
  • Intel Centrino Advanced-N 6205 AGN mini-PCIe adapter [21] (codenamed Taylor Peak 2×2), or
  • Intel Centrino Advanced-N 6230 AGN mini-PCIe adapter with Bluetooth [22] (codenamed Rainbow Peak 2×2), or
  • Intel Centrino Wireless-N + WiMAX 6150 BGN mini-PCIe adapter [23] (codenamed Kelsey Peak 2x1), or
  • Intel Centrino Wireless-N 1030 BGN mini-PCIe adapter with Bluetooth [24] (codenamed Rainbow Peak 2×1), or
  • Intel Centrino Wireless-N 1000 BGN mini-PCIe adapter [25] (codenamed Condor Peak 2×1)

Chief River platform (2012)

The codename Chief River refers to the eighth-generation Centrino platform.

CentrinoChief River platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile Express Series 7 chipset (PCHM codenamed Panther Point )
  • Gigabit Ethernet LAN controllers 82579LM and 82579LF (codenamed Lewisville).
Mobile processor Processors, based on Intel Ivy Bridge microarchitecture
Wireless network Wireless Modules
  • Intel Centrino Ultimate-N 6300
  • Intel Centrino Advanced-N 6235
  • Intel Centrino Advanced-N 6205
  • Intel Centrino Wireless-N 2230 (codenamed Jackson Peak)
  • Intel Centrino Wireless-N 2200
  • Intel Centrino Wireless-N 135
  • Intel Centrino Wireless-N 105 (codenamed Canyon Peak)

Shark Bay platform (2013)

The codename Shark Bay refers to the ninth-generation Centrino platform.

CentrinoShark Bay platform
Mobile chipset an Intel Mobile Express Series 8 chipset (PCHM codenamed Lynx Point )
  • Gigabit Ethernet LAN controllers I217LM and I217V (codenamed Clarkville).
Mobile processor Processors, based on Intel Haswell microarchitecture
Wireless network Wireless Modules Wilkins Peak

Jon Worrel predicted in 2012 that Shark Bay would comprise a single Multi-Chip Module (MCM) package. [26]

Mobile Internet Device

Menlow platform (2008)

On March 2, 2008, Intel introduced the Intel Atom processor brand [27] for a new family of low-power processor platforms. The components have thin, small designs and work together to "enable the best mobile computing and Internet experience" on mobile and low-power devices.

Intel's second generation MID platform (codenamed Menlow ) contains a 45 nm Intel Atom processor (codenamed Silverthorne ) which can run up to 2.0 GHz and a System Controller Hub (codenamed Poulsbo ) which includes Intel HD Audio (codenamed Azalia).

CentrinoMenlow platform
Mobile chipset an Intel SCH (codenamed Poulsbo) with integrated GMA 500 graphics (PowerVR SGX 535 based)
Mobile processor a 45 nm Intel Atom CPU (codenamed Silverthorne )
Wireless network a wireless radio

This platform was initially branded as Centrino Atom but the logo was dropped in August 2008; the logo had caused confusion between laptop and MID with previous marketing of Centrino stating only Intel chipsets are being used. Hence MIDs will be branded as Atom to allow integration with other OEM chipsets for the low-end market. [28] [29]

Intel Centrino Wireless

Intel Centrino Advanced-N 6205 Intel Centrino Advanced-N 6205-0997.jpg
Intel Centrino Advanced-N 6205

Intel Centrino Wireless is the brand for Intel Wi-Fi and WiMAX adapters. The product line includes:

Centrino with Intel vPro technology

Laptops with Intel vPro technology have hardware features that allow a system administrator to remotely access wired and wireless laptops for maintenance and servicing if the operating system is unresponsive or crashed and, when a laptop is connected to AC power (not on battery power), allow a sys-admin to remotely access the laptop when the system is asleep or laptop power is off. It is targeted more for businesses than consumers. [30]

Security technologies

Laptops with vPro have the typical dual-core or quad-core processor and wireless features of the Centrino family.

See also

Related Research Articles

Celeron Brand name by Intel

Celeron is Intel's brand name for low-end IA-32 and x86-64 computer microprocessor models targeted at low-cost personal computers.

The Pentium M is a family of mobile 32-bit single-core x86 microprocessors introduced in March 2003 and forming a part of the Intel Carmel notebook platform under the then new Centrino brand. The Pentium M processors had a maximum thermal design power (TDP) of 5–27 W depending on the model, and were intended for use in laptops. They evolved from the core of the last Pentium III–branded CPU by adding the front-side bus (FSB) interface of Pentium 4, an improved instruction decoding and issuing front end, improved branch prediction, SSE2 support, and a much larger cache. The first Pentium M–branded CPU, code-named Banias, was followed by Dothan. The Pentium M-branded processors were succeeded by the Core-branded dual-core mobile Yonah CPU with a modified microarchitecture.

Xeon Line of Intel server processors

Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets. It was introduced in June 1998. Xeon processors are based on the same architecture as regular desktop-grade CPUs, but have advanced features such as support for ECC memory, higher core counts, more PCI Express lanes, support for larger amounts of RAM, larger cache memory and extra provision for enterprise-grade reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features responsible for handling hardware exceptions through the Machine Check Architecture. They are often capable of safely continuing execution where a normal processor cannot due to these extra RAS features, depending on the type and severity of the machine-check exception (MCE). Some also support multi-socket systems with two, four, or eight sockets through use of the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) bus.

The Intel Core microarchitecture is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. It is based on the Yonah processor design and can be considered an iteration of the P6 microarchitecture introduced in 1995 with Pentium Pro. High power consumption and heat intensity, the resulting inability to effectively increase clock rate, and other shortcomings such as an inefficient pipeline were the primary reasons why Intel abandoned the NetBurst microarchitecture and switched to a different architectural design, delivering high efficiency through a small pipeline rather than high clock rates. The Core microarchitecture initially did not reach the clock rates of the NetBurst microarchitecture, even after moving to 45 nm lithography. However after many generations of successor microarchitectures which used Core as their basis, Intel managed to eventually surpass the clock rates of Netburst with the Devil's Canyon microarchitecture reaching a base frequency of 4 GHz and a maximum tested frequency of 4.4 GHz using 22 nm lithography.

Intel Viiv

Viiv was a platform initiative from Intel similar to Intel's Centrino and vPro. Initially, it was a collection of computer technologies with a particular combination of Intel ingredients to support a "media PC" concept. Intel also provided the Media Server as the core software stack on the PC to support "media" distribution through the home.

The AMD mobile platform is an open platform for laptops from AMD. Though little marketing was done on this platform, it has been competing with the Centrino platform in the segment to gain more marketshare. Each platform has its own specification, catching up the latest technology developments. Since the acquisition of ATI, AMD began to include Mobility Radeon GPUs and AMD chipsets as part of the requirements of the mobile platform; the first of such platforms is the Puma platform.

Yonah was the code name of Intel's first generation 65 nm process CPU cores, based on cores of the earlier Banias / Dothan Pentium M microarchitecture. Yonah CPU cores were used within Intel's Core Solo and Core Duo mobile microprocessor products. SIMD performance on Yonah improved through the addition of SSE3 instructions and improvements to SSE and SSE2 implementations; integer performance decreased slightly due to higher latency cache. Additionally, Yonah included support for the NX bit.

Intel vPro technology is an umbrella marketing term used by Intel for a large collection of computer hardware technologies, including VT-x, VT-d, Trusted Execution Technology (TXT), and Intel Active Management Technology (AMT). When the vPro brand was launched, it was identified primarily with AMT, thus some journalists still consider AMT to be the essence of vPro.

Intel Core 2 Processor family by Intel

Intel Core 2 is the processor family encompassing a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit x86-64 single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors based on the Core microarchitecture. The single- and dual-core models are single-die, whereas the quad-core models comprise two dies, each containing two cores, packaged in a multi-chip module. The Core 2 range was the last flagship range of Intel desktop processors to use a front-side bus.

Pentium Brand of microprocessors produced by Intel

Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993. In their form as of November 2011, Pentium processors are considered entry-level products that Intel rates as "two stars", meaning that they are above the low-end Atom and Celeron series, but below the faster Intel Core lineup, and workstation Xeon series.

Mobile Internet device a multimedia capable mobile device providing wireless Internet access

A mobile Internet device (MID) is a multimedia capable mobile device providing wireless Internet access. They are designed to provide entertainment, information and location-based services for personal or business use. They allow 2-way communication and real-time sharing. They have been described as filling a niche between smartphones and tablet computers.

Dell Vostro Line of laptop and desktop computers by Dell

Dell Vostro is a line of business-oriented laptop and desktop computers manufactured by Dell aimed at small businesses. From 2013–2015, the line was temporarily discontinued on some Dell websites but continued to be offered in other markets, such as Malaysia and India.

Intel Atom Microprocessor brand name by Intel

Intel Atom is the brand name for a line of IA-32 and x86-64 instruction set ultra-low-voltage microprocessors by Intel Corporation designed to reduce electric consumption and power dissipation in comparison with ordinary processors of the Intel Core series. Atom is mainly used in netbooks, nettops, embedded applications ranging from health care to advanced robotics, and mobile Internet devices (MIDs). The line was originally designed in 45 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology and subsequent models, codenamed Cedar, used a 32 nm process.

Haswell (microarchitecture) Intel processor microarchitecture

Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge. Intel officially announced CPUs based on this microarchitecture on June 4, 2013, at Computex Taipei 2013, while a working Haswell chip was demonstrated at the 2011 Intel Developer Forum. With Haswell, which uses a 22 nm process, Intel also introduced low-power processors designed for convertible or "hybrid" ultrabooks, designated by the "U" suffix.

Intel Active Management Technology (AMT) is hardware-based technology built into PCs with Intel vPro technology. AMT is designed to help sys-admins remotely manage and secure PCs out-of-band when PC power is off, the operating system (OS) is unavailable, software management agents are missing, or hardware has failed.

Merom (microprocessor)

Merom is the code name for various Intel processors that are sold as Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Solo, Pentium Dual-Core and Celeron. It was the first mobile processor to be based on the Core microarchitecture, replacing the Enhanced Pentium M-based Yonah processor. Merom has the product code 80537, which is shared with Merom-2M and Merom-L that are very similar but have a smaller L2 cache. Merom-L has only one processor core and a different CPUID model. The desktop version of Merom is Conroe and the dual-socket server version is Woodcrest. Merom was manufactured in a 65 nanometer process, and was succeeded by Penryn, a 45 nm version of the Merom architecture. Together, Penryn and Merom represented the first 'tick-tock' in Intel's Tick-Tock manufacturing paradigm, in which Penryn was the 'tick' to Merom's 'tock'.

Intel Core Mid-range to high-end central processing units

Intel Core are streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computers central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.

Bonnell is a CPU microarchitecture used by Intel Atom processors which can execute up to two instructions per cycle. Like many other x86 microprocessors, it translates x86 instructions into simpler internal operations prior to execution. The majority of instructions produce one micro-op when translated, with around 4% of instructions used in typical programs producing multiple micro-ops. The number of instructions that produce more than one micro-op is significantly fewer than the P6 and NetBurst microarchitectures. In the Bonnell microarchitecture, internal micro-ops can contain both a memory load and a memory store in connection with an ALU operation, thus being more similar to the x86 level and more powerful than the micro-ops used in previous designs. This enables relatively good performance with only two integer ALUs, and without any instruction reordering, speculative execution or register renaming. A side effect of having no speculative execution is invulnerability against Meltdown and Spectre.

Comet Lake is Intel's codename for its 10th generation Core microprocessors. They are manufactured using Intel's third 14 nm Skylake process refinement, succeeding the Whiskey Lake U-series mobile processor and Coffee Lake desktop processor families. Intel announced low-power mobile Comet Lake-U CPUs on August 21, 2019, H-series mobile CPUs on April 2, 2020, desktop Comet Lake-S CPUs April 30, 2020, and Xeon W-1200 series workstation CPUs on May 13, 2020. Comet Lake processors and Ice Lake 10 nm processors are together branded as the Intel "10th Generation Core" family. Intel officially launched Comet Lake-Refresh CPUs on the same day as 11th Gen Core Rocket Lake launch. The low-power mobile Comet Lake-U Core and Celeron 5205U CPUs were discontinued on July 7, 2021.

References

  1. Connect with Intel® Centrino® Processor Technology
  2. Intel dumbs down dual Santa Rosa cores with IDA - The INQUIRER, archived from the original on 2013-01-12CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. Intel 965 Express Chipset Family Datasheet - For the Intel 82Q965, 82Q963, 82G965 Graphics and Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) and Intel 82P965 Memory Controller Hub (MCH)
  4. Intel Santa Rosa Does Not Support DDR2-800
  5. Flynn, Laurie J. (2007-09-18), "Intel Previews a New Family of Power-Saving Chips", The New York Times, retrieved 2010-04-28
  6. Rickwood, Lee, Intel Unveils Next Gen Processor, PCWorld.ca, archived from the original on 2007-05-24, retrieved 2007-05-09
  7. Santa Rosa Revealed, TrustedReviews
  8. 1 2 Intel Wireless Connectivity Roadmap, The Register
  9. Intel, NextGen feature Nokia chip, CNET
  10. Santa Rosa officially dubbed Centrino Pro, Engadget
  11. Kim, Arnold (2008-02-18), Intel Processors and Platform (Montevina) Due in June 2008, MacRumors.com
  12. Kircos, Bill (2008-05-28), Intel Delays Next-Generation Centrino Chipset, pcmag.com
  13. Tony Smith (2006-10-11), Intel to follow 'Santa Rosa' Centrino with 'Montevina', The Register, archived from the original on 2008-10-07, retrieved 2006-10-19
  14. Intel to launch Calpella notebook platform in 3Q09, digitimes.com, 2008-08-05
  15. Notebook vendors looking for delay of Intel's Calpella platform, digitimes.com, 2009-01-05
  16. CPU list, archived from the original on 2012-03-01
  17. Intel:不會再有Centrino 3平台 Centrino品牌被降格成網絡模組品牌, 電腦領域 HKEPC Hardware, 2009-08-05, archived from the original on 2009-08-06
  18. Chipset list, archived from the original on 2011-07-12
  19. Intel® Centrino® Ultimate-N 6300 Intel webpage, March 2011
  20. Intel® Centrino® Advanced–N + WiMAX 6250 Intel webpage, March 2011
  21. Intel® Centrino® Advanced-N 6205 Intel webpage, March 2011
  22. Intel® Centrino® Advanced-N 6230 Intel webpage, March 2011
  23. Intel® Centrino® Advanced-N + WiMAX 6150 Intel webpage, March 2011
  24. Intel® Centrino® Wireless-N 1030 Intel webpage, March 2011
  25. Intel® Centrino® Wireless-N 1000 Intel webpage, March 2011
  26. Worrel, Jon (2012-04-15). "Intel migrates to desktop Multi-Chip Modules (MCMs) with 14nm Broadwell" . Retrieved 2016-05-19. The platform is called "Shark Bay" for notebooks and ultrabooks, and it will consist of a single Multi-Chip Module (MCM) package fully integrating the PCH from previous generation 22nm Ivy Bridge (2012) directly into the same die as the 22nm Haswell (2013) CPU.
  27. Intel Announces Intel Atom Brand for New Family of Low-Power Processors
  28. Intel Centrino Atom logo being dropped, archived from the original on 2008-08-17
  29. Intel Drops Centrino Atom Brand After Five Months - Business Center - PC World
  30. Intel Centrino 2 with vPro technology and Intel Core2 processor with vPro technology (PDF), Intel, retrieved 2008-08-07