Cephalonia

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Kefalonia

Κεφαλονιά
Kefaloniá
Asos, Kefalonia.jpg
View of Asos, Kefalonia
2011 Dimos Kefalonias.png
Cephalonia within the Ionian Islands
Coordinates: 38°15′N20°30′E / 38.250°N 20.500°E / 38.250; 20.500 Coordinates: 38°15′N20°30′E / 38.250°N 20.500°E / 38.250; 20.500
Country Greece
Region Ionian Islands
Capital Argostoli
Government
  Vice-GovernorStavros Travlos
  MayorTheofilos Michalatos
Area
  Total786.58 km2 (303.70 sq mi)
  Land773 km2 (298 sq mi)
 Total area includes other islands which form part of the Cephalonia regional unit
Population
 (2011)
  Total35,801
  Density46/km2 (120/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal codes
280 xx
Area codes 267x0
Car plates ΚΕ
Website www.kefallonia.gov.gr

Cephalonia or Kefalonia (Greek : Κεφαλονιά or Κεφαλλονιά), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (Κεφαλληνία), is the largest of the Ionian Islands [1] in western Greece and the 6th largest island in Greece after Crete, Evoia, Lesbos, Rhodes, and Chios. It is also a separate regional unit of the Ionian Islands region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. It was also a former Latin Catholic diocese Kefalonia–Zakynthos (Cefalonia–Zante) and short-lived titular see as just Kefalonia.

Contents

The capital of Cephalonia is Argostoli. [2]

History

Antiquity

Legend

Excavations from Melissani in the Archaeological Museum of Argostoli Melissani-exc.jpg
Excavations from Melissani in the Archaeological Museum of Argostoli

An aition explaining the name of Cephallenia and reinforcing its cultural connections with Athens associates the island with the mythological figure of Cephalus, who helped Amphitryon of Mycenae in a war against the Taphians and Teleboans. [3] He was rewarded with the island of Same, which thereafter came to be known as Cephallenia.

Kefalonia has also been suggested as the Homeric Ithaca, the home of Odysseus, rather than the smaller island bearing this name today. Robert Bittlestone, in his book Odysseus Unbound , has suggested that Paliki, now a peninsula of Cephalonia, was a separate island during the late Bronze Age, and it may be this which Homer was referring to when he described Ithaca. A project which started in the Summer of 2007 and lasted three years has examined this possibility. [4]

Kefalonia is also referenced in relation to the goddess Britomartis, as the location where she is said to have 'received divine honours from the inhabitants under the name of Laphria'.

Middle Ages

Evangelistria Church, St. George's castle. Kastro Kefalonia church.JPG
Evangelistria Church, St. George's castle.

During the Middle Ages, the island was the center of the Byzantine theme of Cephallenia until 1185. [5] After 1185 it became part of the County palatine of Kephalonia and Zakynthos under the Kingdom of Sicily until its last Count Leonardo III Tocco was defeated and the island conquered by the Ottomans in 1479. [1]

Venetian rule

The Turkish rule lasted only until 1500, when Cephalonia was captured by a Spanish-Venetian army, [1] a rare Venetian success in the Second Ottoman–Venetian War. From then on Cephalonia and Ithaca remained part of the Stato da Mar of the Venetian Republic until its very end, following the fate of the Ionian islands, completed by the capture of Lefkas from the Turks in 1684. The Treaty of Campoformio dismantling the Venetian Republic awarded the Ionian Islands to France, a French expeditionary force with boats captured in Venice taking control of the islands in June 1797.

Because of the liberal situation on the island, the Venetian governor Marc'Antonio Giustiniani (1516–1571) printed Hebrew books and exported them to the whole eastern Mediterranean. In 1596 the Venetians built the Assos Castle, one of Cephalonia's main tourist attractions today. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, the island was one of the largest exporters of currants in the world with Zakynthos, and owned a large shipping fleet, even commissioning ships from the Danzig shipyard. Its towns and villages were mostly built high on hilltops, to prevent attacks from raiding parties of pirates that sailed the Ionian Sea during the 1820s.

French, Ionian state period and British rule

The sea mills at the bay of Argostoli (1849) were a natural curiosity in the 19th century. Mount Ainos in the background. Meeresmuhlen-argostoli.jpg
The sea mills at the bay of Argostoli (1849) were a natural curiosity in the 19th century. Mount Ainos in the background.
The central square of Lixouri, 1910. Lixouri 1910.jpg
The central square of Lixouri, 1910.

Venice was conquered by France in 1797 and Cephalonia, along with the other Ionian Islands, became part of the French département of Ithaque.

In the following year, 1798, the French were forced to yield the Ionian Islands to a combined Russian and Turkish fleet. From 1799 to 1807, Cephalonia was part of the Septinsular Republic, nominally under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, but protected by Russia.

By the Tilsit Treaty in 1807, the Ionian Islands were ceded back to France, which remained in control until 1809.

In 1809 Great Britain mounted a blockade on the Ionian Islands as part of the war against Napoleon, and in September of that year they hoisted the British flag above the castle of Zakynthos. Cephalonia and Ithaca soon surrendered, and the British installed provisional governments. The treaty of Paris in 1815 recognised the United States of the Ionian Islands and decreed that it become a British protectorate. Colonel Charles Philippe de Bosset became provisional governor between 1810 and 1814. During this period he was credited with achieving many public works, including the Drapano Bridge.

A few years later resistance groups started to form. Although their energy in the early years was directed to supporting the Greeks in the revolution against the Turks, it soon started to turn towards the British. By 1848 the resistance movement was gaining strength and there were skirmishes with the British Army in Argostoli and Lixouri, which led to some relaxation in the laws and to freedom of the press. Union with Greece was now a declared aim, and by 1849, a growing restlessness resulted in even more skirmishes. The twenty-one instigators were hanged, another 34 were jailed and 87 whipped. [6]

Cephalonia, along with the other islands, were transferred to Greece in 1864 as a gesture of goodwill when the British-backed Prince William of Denmark became King George the First of the Hellenes.

Union with Greece

In 1864, Cephalonia, together with all the other Ionian Islands, became a full member of the Greek state.

World War II

Fiskardo in the 1940s. Royal Air Force Operations in Malta, Gibraltar and the Mediterranean, 1940-1945. C3822.jpg
Fiskardo in the 1940s.
The Italian President Giorgio Napolitano in Cephalonia during remembrance ceremonies in honour of the soldiers of the Massacre of the Acqui Division. Napolitano cefalonia.jpg
The Italian President Giorgio Napolitano in Cephalonia during remembrance ceremonies in honour of the soldiers of the Massacre of the Acqui Division.

In World War II, the island was occupied by Axis powers. Until late 1943, the occupying force was predominantly Italian – the 33rd Infantry Division Acqui plus Navy personnel totalled 12,000 men – but about 2,000 troops from Germany were also present. The island was largely spared the fighting, until the armistice with Italy concluded by the Allies in September 1943. Confusion followed on the island, as the Italians were hoping to return home, but German forces did not want the Italians' munitions to be used eventually against them; Italian forces were hesitant to turn over weapons for the same reason. As German reinforcements headed to the island the Italians dug in and, eventually, after a referendum among the soldiers as to surrender or battle, they fought against the new German invasion.[ citation needed ] The fighting came to a head at the siege of Argostoli, where the Italians held out. Ultimately the Germans prevailed, taking full control of the island.

Approximately five thousand of the nine thousand surviving Italian soldiers were executed in reprisal by the German forces. The book Corelli's Mandolin , by Louis de Bernieres (which was later made into the film 'Captain Corelli's Mandolin'), is based on this story. While the war ended in central Europe in 1945, Cephalonia remained in a state of conflict due to the Greek Civil War. Peace returned to Greece and the island in 1949. [ citation needed ]

The Great earthquake of 1953

Some ruins of the earthquake are still visible. Z-assos-1953.jpg
Some ruins of the earthquake are still visible.

Cephalonia lies just to the east of a major tectonic fault, where the European plate meets the Aegean plate at a slip boundary. This is similar to the more famous San Andreas Fault. There are regular earthquakes along this fault.

A series of four earthquakes hit the island in August 1953, and caused major destruction, with virtually every house on the island destroyed. The third and most destructive of the quakes took place on August 12, 1953 at 09:24 UTC (11:24 local time), with a magnitude of 7.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Its epicentre was directly below the southern tip of Cephalonia, and caused the entire island to be raised 60 cm (24 in) higher, where it remains, with evidence in water marks on rocks around the coastline.

The 1953 Ionian earthquake disaster caused huge destruction, with only regions in the north escaping the heaviest tremors and houses there remaining intact. Damage was estimated to run into tens of millions of dollars, equivalent to billions of drachmas, but the real damage to the economy occurred when residents left the island. The majority of the population left the island soon after, seeking a new life elsewhere.

Recent history

Promenade of Argostoli Argostoli paralia.JPG
Promenade of Argostoli

The forest fire of the 1990s caused damage to the island's forests and bushes, especially a small scar north of Troianata, and a large area of damage extending from Kateleios north to west of Tzanata, ruining about 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi) of forest and bushes and resulting in the loss of some properties. The forest fire scar was visible for some years.

In mid-November 2003, an earthquake measuring 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale caused minor damage to business, residential property, and other buildings in and near Argostoli. Damages were in the 1,000,000 range.

On the morning of Tuesday, September 20, 2005, an early-morning earthquake shook the south-western part of the island, especially near Lixouri and nearby villages. The earthquake measured 4.9 on the Richter magnitude scale, and its epicentre was located off the island at sea. Service vehicles took care of the area, and no damage was reported. From January 24–26, 2006, a major snowstorm blanketed the entire island, causing extensive blackouts. The island was recently struck yet again by another forest fire in the south of the island, beginning on Wednesday, July 18, 2007 during an unusual heatwave, and spreading slowly. Firefighters along with helicopters and planes battled the blaze for some days and the spectacle frightened residents on that area of the island.

In 2011 the eight former municipalities of the island lost their independence to form one united municipality. After losing its role as the capital of the island in the 19th century, Lixouri lost also its role as a seat of a municipality after 500 years. The Technological Educational Institute of the Ionian Islands closed one faculty in Lixouri and one in Argostoli.

In January 2014, an earthquake measuring 5.9 on the Richter magnitude scale left at least seven injured. There are reports of minor injuries and some damage to property,” said the Foreign Office, on its website. “The airport remains operational but there may be some disruption to port services.”

Archaeology

Coins from Pale/Pali, the ancient town north of Lixouri. Pale-bronze-coins.jpg
Coins from Pale/Pali, the ancient town north of Lixouri.

In the southwestern portion of the island, in the area of Leivatho, an ongoing archaeological field survey by the Irish Institute at Athens has discovered dozens of sites with dates ranging from the Palaeolithic to the Venetian period.

From an archaeological point of view, Cephalonia is an extremely interesting island. Archaeological finds go back to 40,000 BP. Without doubt, the most important era for the island is the Mycenaean era, from approximately 1500–1100 B.C. The archaeological museum in Cephalonia's capital, Argostoli – although small – is regarded as the most important museum in Greece for its exhibits from this era.

The most important archaeological discovery in Cephalonia (and indeed in Greece) of recent decades is that, in 1991, of the Mycenaean Tholos tomb at the outskirts of Tzanata, near Poros in southeastern Cephalonia (former Municipality of Elios-Pronni) in a lovely setting of olive trees, cypresses and oaks. The tomb was erected around 1300 B.C; kings and highly ranked officials were buried in such tombs during the Mycenaean period. It constitutes the largest tholos tomb yet found in northwestern Greece and was excavated by archaeologist Lazaros Kolonas. The size of the tomb, the nature of the burial offerings found there, and its well-chosen position point to the existence of an important Mycenaean town in the vicinity.

In late 2006, a Roman grave complex was uncovered as the foundation of a new hotel was being excavated in Fiskardo. The remains date to the period between the 2nd century BC and the 4th century AD. Archaeologists described it as the most important find of its kind in the Ionian Islands. Inside the complex, five burial sites were found, including a large vaulted tomb and a stone coffin, along with gold earrings and rings, gold leaves that may have been attached to ceremonial clothing, glass and clay pots, bronze artefacts decorated with masks, a bronze lock, and bronze coins. The tomb had escaped the attention of grave robbers and remained undisturbed for thousands of years. In a tribute to Roman craftsmanship, when the tomb was opened, the stone door easily swung on its stone hinges. Very near to the tomb, a Roman theatre was discovered, so well preserved that the metal joints between the seats were still intact.

A dissertation published in 1987 claims that St. Paul, on his way from Palestine to Rome in AD 59, was shipwrecked and confined for three months not on Malta but on Cephalonia. [7] [8]

According to Clement of Alexandria, the island had the largest community of Carpocratians, an early Gnostic Christian sect, because Carpocrates lived on the island.

Population: historical evolution

In the ancient period, the people lived in four cities on the island. Krani, Sami, Pale and Pronni formed a federation called "tetrapolis".

The population reached 70,000 in 1896, but declined gradually in the 20th century. The great 1953 Ionian earthquake forced many people to leave the island. [9] Many people who left the island moved to Patras or Athens, or they immigrated to America and Australia, following relatives who had left the island decades before. In the same time, people from poorer areas of Greece such as Epirus and Thrace came to the island. The population has hovered between 35,000 and 42,000 since then; in the 2011 census, it was 35,801. [10]

YearPopulation
187968,321 [11]
189670,077 [12]
192055,030 [13]
194058,437 [14]
196139,793 [15]
198141,319 [16]
200134,544 [17]
201135,801 [10]

Most of the indigenous people of Cephalonia have surnames ending in "-atos", such as the Alexatos (Greek: Αλεξάτος) families, and almost every settlement on the island has a name ending in "-ata", such as Metaxata, Chavriata, Frangata, Lourdata, Favata, Delaportata and others.

Ecclesiastical history

In 1222 the Frankish Crusaders established the Diocese of Kefalonia–Zakynthos (Cefalonia–Zante in Curiate Italian), which survived their rule and even the Turks. In 1919, the residential see was suppressed but immediately transformed into a Titular bishopric of Kefalonia (Cefalonia in Italian). The territory and title were merged into the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Corfu–Zakynthos–Kefalonia. In 1921, this was also suppressed, never having had an incumbent.

Geography

A poppy field Poppy field at Kefalonia island, Greece.jpg
A poppy field
Argostoli and Lixouri from the mountains. Argostoli and Lixouri from the mountains of Kefalonia.jpg
Argostoli and Lixouri from the mountains.
The famous Myrtos Beach Myrtos Beach, Kefalonia.jpg
The famous Myrtos Beach
Melissani Cave Lake-Melissani.JPG
Melissani Cave

The main island of the regional unit is Cephalonia and has a size of 773 km2 (300 mi2), with a population density of 55 people per km2 (140/mi2). The town of Argostoli has one-third of the island's inhabitants. Lixouri is the second major settlement, and the two towns together account for almost two-thirds of the prefecture's population.

The other major islands are: Petalas Island and Asteris Island, but they are uninhabited.

Cephalonia lies in the heart of an earthquake zone, and dozens of minor, unrecorded tremors occur each year. In 1953, a massive earthquake destroyed almost all of the settlements on the island, leaving only Fiskardo in the north untouched.

Important natural features include Melissani Lake, the Drogarati caves, and the Koutavos Lagoon in Argostoli.

The island has a rich biodiversity, with a substantial number of endemic and rare species. Some areas have been declared a site in the European Union's Natura 2000 network.

Mountains

The island's highest mountain is Mount Ainos, with an elevation of 1628 meters; to the west-northwest are the Paliki mountains, where Lixouri is found, with other mountains including Geraneia (Gerania) and Agia Dynati. The top of Mount Ainos is covered with fir trees and is a natural park.

Forestry is rare on the island; however its timber output is one of the highest in the Ionian islands, although lower than that of Elia in the Peloponnese. Forest fires were common during the 1990s and the early 2000s, and still pose a major threat to the population.

Capes

Flora

Most of the Ainos mountain range is designated as a National Park [18] and is covered with the unique species of Greek fir (Abies Cephalonica) and black pine (Pinus nigra). [19]

Fauna

Cephalonia is well known for its endangered Loggerhead turtle population, also known as the Caretta caretta turtle, which nests on many of the beaches along the south coast of the island. A small population of the endangered Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus, also lives around the island's coast, especially on parts of the coast which are inaccessible to humans due to the terrain. Caves on these parts of the coast offer ideal locations for the seals to give birth to their pups and nurse them through the first months of their lives. The most famous breeding ground in Cephalonia is a cave on Foki beach, located on the north-east coast near Fiskardo.

The European pine marten also inhabits the island.

Over 200 species of birds have been spotted on the island. [20]

Climate

Cephalonia has hot, sunny summers and mild rainy winters. During winter it can occasionally snow on the mountain peaks of the island's mountain ranges. The winter months can experience up to 156 mm of rainfall, resulting in high levels of humidity on the island. Winter temperature on Kefalonia average at 14-15 C the day and fall at night to an average of 8-9 C. During the summer months there is usually little to no rainfall. Rain in the summer can usually be seen, but the dry air prevents it from being felt as it is evaporated before it reaches the ground.

Climate data for Argostoli (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)14.3
(57.7)
14.1
(57.4)
15.7
(60.3)
18.5
(65.3)
22.9
(73.2)
27.0
(80.6)
29.5
(85.1)
29.9
(85.8)
26.9
(80.4)
23.5
(74.3)
19.0
(66.2)
15.5
(59.9)
21.5
(70.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)11.3
(52.3)
11.1
(52.0)
12.3
(54.1)
14.9
(58.8)
19.7
(67.5)
22.6
(72.7)
25.1
(77.2)
25.7
(78.3)
23.0
(73.4)
19.9
(67.8)
15.9
(60.6)
12.6
(54.7)
17.8
(64.0)
Average low °C (°F)8.3
(46.9)
8.0
(46.4)
9.0
(48.2)
11.2
(52.2)
14.5
(58.1)
18.2
(64.8)
20.6
(69.1)
21.6
(70.9)
19.1
(66.4)
16.3
(61.3)
12.8
(55.0)
9.7
(49.5)
14.2
(57.6)
Average rainfall mm (inches)93.1
(3.67)
100.0
(3.94)
66.6
(2.62)
49.7
(1.96)
20.4
(0.80)
10.5
(0.41)
1.3
(0.05)
5.6
(0.22)
31.3
(1.23)
94.7
(3.73)
155.9
(6.14)
150.0
(5.91)
779.1
(30.68)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)9995310137111270
Source: meteo-climat-bzh [21]

Economy

Calcium carbonate loaded in the port of Argostoli. Kalk-kefalonia.jpg
Calcium carbonate loaded in the port of Argostoli.
Fiscardo is a tourist attraction on the northern part of the island. Fiskardo, Kefalonia.jpg
Fiscardo is a tourist attraction on the northern part of the island.

Wine and raisins are the oldest products exported, being important until the 20th century. Today fish farming and calcium carbonate are most important.

A beach close to Argostoli in 1930 Paralia tou Platu Gialou.jpg
A beach close to Argostoli in 1930

Agriculture

The primary agricultural occupations are animal breeding and olive growing, with the remainder largely composed of grain and vegetables. Most vegetable production takes place on the plains, which cover less than 15% of the island, most of which is rugged and mountainous, suitable only for goats. Less than a quarter of the island's land is arable.

Until the 1970s, most Cephalonians lived in rural areas, while today, two-thirds of the population lives in urban areas, with the other third in rural towns and villages close to farmland.

The island has a long winemaking tradition and is home to the dry, white lemony wines made from the Robola grape. [22]

Olive oil production

Olive oil production is a major component of Cephalonia's economy. Until the 18th century, the quantity of olive oil produced on the island just covered the needs of the residents. However, the pressure of Venetian conquerors’ for olive plantation, especially after the loss of Peloponnese and Crete, resulted in increasing the production to such a degree that the first exports to Venice began. Before the 1953 Ionian earthquake, there were 200 oil presses operating on the island; today, there are thirteen. There are over one million olive trees on Cephalonia, covering almost 55% of the island's area. Olive oil is very important to the island's local, agricultural economy. “Koroneiki” and “theiako” are the two main varieties cultivated on the island, followed by a smaller number of “ntopia” and “matolia”. Kefalonian olive oil has a green tone, a rich, greasy touch, and low acidity.

Tourism

Tourism to Cephalonia started in the early 19th century. The Royal Family of Greece sent their children in the summer months to Lixouri, in the early 20th century, but the island was not discovered by most tourists until the 1980s. Cephalonia is a popular vacation destination for many Italians, due to its proximity to Italy.[ citation needed ]

Two cultural attractions, the fishing villages of Fiscardo and Assos, and other natural attractions, including Melissani underground lake, Drogarati cave and Myrtos beach, have helped popularize Cephalonia.[ citation needed ] The film, Captain Corelli's Mandolin (2001), shot on the island itself, made Cephalonia more widely known.

Listed in The Daily Telegraph as one of the 20 Mediterranean islands you must visit in your lifetime.

Culture

The Church of Gerasimus of Kefalonia, patron saint of Cephalonia, in Skala. St.Gerasimos1.jpg
The Church of Gerasimus of Kefalonia, patron saint of Cephalonia, in Skala.
Cambana Square, Argostoli. Kambana Square.JPG
Cambana Square, Argostoli.

Monasteries and churches

Across the broader island, two large monasteries are to be found: the first is that of Haghia Panagia in Markopoulo to the southeast, and the other lies on the road between Argostoli and Michata, on a small plain surrounded by mountains. This second has an avenue of about 200 trees aligned from NW to SE, with a circle in the middle, and is the monastery of Saint Gerasimus of Kefalonia, patron saint of the island, whose relics can be seen and venerated at the old church of the monastery. The monastery of "Sissia" was probably founded by Francis of Assisi, it was destroyed in 1953 but the ruins still exist. Although much of the island was destroyed by earthquakes, many notable churches all over the island have survived, some dating back to the renaissance. The ornaments of the churches are influenced by Venetian manierism.

Music

The Lixouri Philharmonic Orchestra during Easter. Lixouri Philharmonic Orchestra 1836.JPG
The Lixouri Philharmonic Orchestra during Easter.

The Ionian Islands have a musical tradition called the Ionian School. Lixouri has the Philharmonic Orchestra (since 1836) and Argostoli the Rokos Vergottis Conservatory. Richard Strauss visited Lixouri some times where he had an affair with the pianist Dora Wihan (born Weiss).

Literature and film

The novelists Nikos Kavvadias (1910–1975) and the Swiss Georges Haldas  [ de ] (1917–2010) spent parts of their life on the island. Andreas Laskaratos was a satirical poet and wrote about the society in the town of Lixouri. Lord Byron wrote parts of "Prelude" and "Don Juan" in Livatho.

Perhaps the best known appearance of Cephalonia in popular culture is in the novel Captain Corelli's Mandolin , by the English author Louis de Bernières. The book is believed to have been inspired by the village of Farsa, just outside Argostoli. The love story comprising the theme of the book is set before and after the Acqui Division massacre, [23] during the Second World War. A film adaptation was released in 2001. During filming there was lively debate between the production team, local authorities as well as groups of citizens, as to the complex historical details of the island's antifascist resistance. As a result, political references were omitted from the film, and the romantic core of the book was preserved, without entering complex debates about the island's history. In 2005, Riccardo Milani made his TV movie, Cefalonia, also about the massacre, with music by Ennio Morricone.

Museums

Higher education

Sport

Baseball

Cycling

Football (soccer)

  • Anogi F.C.
  • Argostoli A.U.
  • Asteras Lixouri
  • Asteras Z
  • Dilinata AU
  • Efgeros Faraklades Argostoli
  • Ikossimias AU
  • Kefalliniakos
  • Kefalonia-Ithaca
  • Leivatho A.U.
  • Papavrgiakos
  • PAO Kefalos
  • Pylariakos
  • Proodos Ithaki
  • Sami AU

Other sports

Transportation

The ferry between Lixouri and Argostoli. Ferry loading at, Argostoli, Kephalonia, Greece.jpg
The ferry between Lixouri and Argostoli.

Harbours and ports

There are five harbours and ports in the prefecture: four main harbours on the island, Sami, a major port with links to Patras and Ithaca; Poros, in the south, has ferry routes to Kyllini; Argostoli, in the west, is the largest port, for local boats and ferries to Zante and regularly to Lixouri; Fiscardo, in the north, has links to Lefkas and Ithaca. There is room for about 100 small boats in Argostoli, where the port stretches 1 kilometre around the bay, while Lixouri is situated 4 km (2 mi) across the bay from Argostoli, on the Lixouri peninsula. There is a road connection to the rest of the island, but driving from Lixouri to Argostoli involves a 30 km (19 mi) detour.

Roads

The first larger roads were built by the British in the 19th century. In the 20th century asphalted roads were built, and since 1995 almost all streets connecting villages and beaches are covered with asphalt. Since c. 2000 the Lixouri bypass was built and a four lane street south of Argostoli was constructed. Some important roads include:

Public transportation

The ferry between Argostoli and Lixouri goes every hour and every half-hour in the season. There are a few bus lines serving the more rural areas of Kefalonia, but often only two times a day. The KTEL bus cooperation offers services from Lixouri, Poros and Argostoli to the mainland.

Airport

Cephalonia has one airport, Kefalonia Island International Airport, named Anna Pollatou (IATA: EFL, ICAO: LGKF) with a runway around 2.4 km (1.5 mi). in length, located about 10 km (6 mi) south of Argostoli. Almost every scheduled flight is an Olympic Air route, flying mainly to and from Athens, although there is an Ionian Island Hopper [24] service three times a week calling at Cephalonia, Zante and Lefkas. In summer the airport handles a number of charter flights from all over Europe.

In December 2015 the privatisation of Kefalonia Airport and 13 other regional airports of Greece was finalised with the signing of the agreement between the Fraport AG/Copelouzos Group joint venture and the state privatisation fund. "We signed the deal today," the head of Greece's privatisation agency HRADF, Stergios Pitsiorlas, told Reuters. According to the agreement, the joint venture will operate the 14 airports (including Kefallinia International Airport) for 40 years as of autumn 2016. [25]

Administration

Cephalonia is a distinct regional unit of the Ionian Islands region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. The seat of administration is Argostoli, the island's main town. Amid the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit of Kefallinia was created from part of the former Kefalonia and Ithaca Prefecture. During the same reform, the current municipality of Cephalonia was created from the eight former municipalities: [2]

The municipality has an area of 786.575 km2. [26] The Cephalonia regional unit also includes a number of uninhabited islands of the Echinades group. They are administered by the municipality of Pylaros. The most significant are as follows:

NameGreekSubgroupArea (km²) [27] Highest
Point [28]
Location
Praso ΠράσοDrakoneres 38°28′58″N20°58′10″E / 38.48278°N 20.96944°E / 38.48278; 20.96944 (Praso)
Sofia ΣοφίαDrakoneres0.174 38°28′49″N21°0′5″E / 38.48028°N 21.00139°E / 38.48028; 21.00139 (Sofia)
Lamprinos ΛαμπρινόςDrakoneres0.35261 m 38°28′22″N21°0′18″E / 38.47278°N 21.00500°E / 38.47278; 21.00500 (Lambrinos)
Filippos ΦίλιπποςDrakoneres0.046 [29] 38°28′17″N21°0′55″E / 38.47139°N 21.01528°E / 38.47139; 21.01528 (Philippos)
Pistros ΠίστροςDrakoneres0.11441 m 38°27′51″N21°0′58″E / 38.46417°N 21.01611°E / 38.46417; 21.01611 (Pistros)
Kalogiros ΚαλόγηροςDrakoneres0.249 38°29′28″N21°8′49″E / 38.49111°N 21.14694°E / 38.49111; 21.14694 (Kalogiros)
Tsakalonisi ΤσακαλονήσιDrakoneres0.1 38°27′44″N21°2′11″E / 38.46222°N 21.03639°E / 38.46222; 21.03639 (Tsakalonisi)
Girovaris or GkravarisΓηρόβαρης or ΓκράβαρηςModia24 m 38°26′24″N21°1′36″E / 38.44000°N 21.02667°E / 38.44000; 21.02667 (Gravaris)
Soros ΣωρόςModia0.038 [29] 31 m 38°26′5″N21°1′30″E / 38.43472°N 21.02500°E / 38.43472; 21.02500 (Soros)
Apasa ΆπασαModia0.024 [29] 17 m 38°25′53″N21°1′29″E / 38.43139°N 21.02472°E / 38.43139; 21.02472 (Apasa)
Modio or ModiΜοδιό or ΜόδιModia0.25866 m 38°25′25″N21°1′20″E / 38.42361°N 21.02222°E / 38.42361; 21.02222 (Modi)
Petalas ΠεταλάςOuniades5.497251 m 38°24′50″N21°5′41″E / 38.41389°N 21.09472°E / 38.41389; 21.09472 (Petalas)

Notable people and residents

Constantine Phaulkon. Constantin Phaulkon.jpg
Constantine Phaulkon.
Melissinos Petros.JPG
Spiridione Lusi (1741 - 1815).jpg
Cephalonia-born Greeks of the 18th century. Petros Melissinos (c. 1726–1797) (left) and Spiridon Louzis (c. 1741–1815) (right). [30]
Statue of Panayis Athanase Vagliano in Argostoli. Panagis Vallianos.jpg
Statue of Panayis Athanase Vagliano in Argostoli.
Antiquity
Middle Ages to 1800
1800 to recent past
Recent past to present

Cephalonia is the home of Kassandra and Alexios, main characters of the videogame Assassin's Creed Odyssey (2018). [35]

See also

Related Research Articles

Ithaca Regional unit in Ionian Islands, Greece

Ithaca, Ithaki or Ithaka is a Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, off the northeast coast of Kefalonia and to the west of continental Greece.

Ionian Islands Traditional region of Greece

The Ionian Islands are a group of islands in Greece. They are traditionally called the Heptanese, but the group includes many smaller islands as well as the seven principal ones.

Zakynthos Regional unit in Ionian Islands, Greece

Zakynthos or Zante is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the third largest of the Ionian Islands. Zakynthos is a separate regional unit of the Ionian Islands region, and its only municipality. It covers an area of 405.55 km2 (156.6 sq mi) and its coastline is roughly 123 km (76 mi) in length. The name, like all similar names ending in -nthos, is pre-Mycenaean or Pelasgian in origin. In Greek mythology the island was said to be named after Zakynthos, the son of the legendary Arcadian chief Dardanus.

Argostoli Place in Greece

Argostoli is a town and a former municipality on the island of Kefalonia, Ionian Islands, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Kefalonia, of which it is a municipal unit. It has been the capital and administrative centre of Kefalonia since 1757, following a population shift down from the old capital of Agios Georgios to take advantage of the trading opportunities provided by the sheltered bay upon which Argostoli sits. Argostoli developed into one of the busiest ports in Greece, leading to prosperity and growth. The municipal unit has an area of 157.670 km2. The 2011 census recorded a population of 10,633 in the Argostoli municipal unit. Its largest towns are Argostóli, Razata (507), Dilináta (496) and Kompothekráta (449).

Markopoulo, Cephalonia Place in Greece

Markopoulo is a village and a community in the southeastern part of the island of Cephalonia, Greece. It is situated at the southeastern foot of Mount Ainos, at about 250 m elevation. The community consists of the villages Markopoulo, Kateleios and the beach village Kato Kateleios. Markopoulo is located 1 km east of Chionata, 2 km west of Kateleios, 2 km northwest of Kato Kateleios, 6 km west of Skala and 9 km southwest of Poros.

Septinsular Republic former Napoleonic client state in the Greek islands

The Septinsular Republic was an oligarchic republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under nominal Russian and Ottoman sovereignty in the Ionian Islands.

Vlachata Place in Greece

Vlachata is a village and a community in the eastern part of the municipal unit of Leivatho near the south coast of the island of Kefalonia, Greece. To avoid confusion with another Vlachata near Sami, it is also known as Vlachata Eikosimias. The community consists of the villages Vlachata and Simotata, which is 2 km east of Vlachata. Vlachata is situated on a mountain slope above the Ionian Sea coast, at about 200 m elevation. Mount Ainos, the highest point of Cephalonia, is 4 km to the northeast. Vlachata is 1 km northwest of Lourdata, 2 km southeast of Mousata, 13 km southwest of Poros and 13 km southeast of Argostoli. The road from Argostoli to Poros runs through Vlachata. Vlachata suffered great damage from the 1953 Ionian earthquake.

Poros, Cephalonia Place in Greece

Poros, is a picturesque small town located in the municipal unit of Eleios-Pronnoi, some 40 km SE of Argostoli, 28 km SE of Sami and 12 km NE of Skala, in the southeast of Cephalonia, one of the Ionian Islands of Greece.

Fiskardo Place in Greece

Fiskardo is a village and a community on the Ionian island of Kefalonia, Greece. It is part of the municipal unit of Erisos. It is the northernmost port of Kefalonia, a short distance from Ithaca. Fiskardo has a small and diminishing fishing fleet. The coast around Fiskardo is mainly rocky with numerous pebble-beached coves. The port serves ferry routes to the ports of Frikes (Ithaca) and Lefkada. It is 5 km north of Vasilikades, 24 km north of Sami and 32 km north of Argostoli. Cephalonia International Airport is 61 km to the south, by road. The community of Fiskardo consists of the villages Fiskardo, Evreti, Katsarata, Matsoukata and Tselentata.

Moussata Place in Greece

Mousata is a village in the municipal unit of Leivatho on the island of Cephalonia, Greece. It is situated between Mount Ainos and the Ionian Sea, at about 200 m elevation. It is 2 km northwest of Vlachata, 4 km east of Peratata and 12 km southeast of Argostoli. The road from Poros to Argostoli passes through the village. Mousata suffered great damage from the 1953 Ionian earthquake.

Paliki Place in Greece

Paliki is a peninsula and a former municipality on the island of Kefalonia, Ionian Islands, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Kefalonia, of which it is a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 119.341 km2. The name comes from the ancient town of Pale/Pali, which was north of Lixouri and is now an archaeological site. The peninsula is the westernmost part of Kefalonia. The seat of the municipality was the town Lixouri (3.752).

Skala, Cephalonia Place in Greece

Skala is a village located in the municipal unit of Eleios-Pronnoi, some 39 km south from the island's main town of Argostoli and 14 km SW of Poros, in the south of Cephalonia, one of the Ionian Islands of Greece.

Lixouri Place in Greece

Lixouri is the main town on the peninsula of Paliki in the island of Kefalonia, one of the Ionian Islands of western Greece. Lixouri is the second largest community in Kefalonia after Argostoli and before Sami and is the capital of the peninsula. It is located south of Fiskardo and west of Argostoli.

Farsa, Greece Place in Greece

Farsa is a village on the island of Kefalonia, Greece, part of the municipal unit of Argostoli. It is situated on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Argostoli. Farsa is 2 km northwest of Davgata, 4 km northeast of Lixouri and 6 km north of Argostoli. Records exist in the Venetian archives for this village since the early Venetian period. During World War II many Italian soldiers were posted there and it was one of the places that the Massacre of the Acqui Division took place. The 1953 Ionian earthquake damaged many buildings in the old village of Farsa but did not totally destroy it. The remains of the old village are visible today. Dr. Nicholas Zaferatos, an environmental studies professor in the Huxley College at Western Washington University has made a study with his students on the renovation of the old village. The entire population that time as well as other parts of the island were homeless and part of the population left Farsa.

United States of the Ionian Islands former British protectorate in the Greek islands

The United States of the Ionian Islands was a state and amical protectorate of the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1864. It was the successor state of the Septinsular Republic. It covered the territory of the Ionian Islands, in modern Greece, and it was ceded to Greece as a gift of the United Kingdom to the newly enthroned King George I after the Resolution for union with Greece which was proposed by the Party of the Radicals.

Cephalonia Prefecture Former prefecture in Ionian Islands, Greece

The Cephalonia Prefecture was a prefecture in Greece, containing the Ionian islands of Cephalonia and Ithaca. In 2011 the prefectural self-government was abolished and the territory is now covered by the regional units of Cephalonia and Ithaca.

Arginia Place in Greece

Arginia is a small village in the southern part of the island of Kefalonia, Greece. In 2011 its population was 15. It is situated on the southeastern slope of the Mount Ainos, at about 550 m elevation. It is 2 km north of Valerianos, 3 km west of Pastra, 8 km southwest of Poros and 22 km southeast of Argostoli. Arginia was devastated by the 1953 Ionian earthquake.

Xenopoulo Place in Greece

Xenopoulo is a small village and a community in the island of Kefalonia, Greece. Its population in 2011 was 50 for the village, and 108 for the community, which includes the villages Andriolata and Kapandriti. Xenopoulo is situated at the eastern slope of Mount Ainos, at about 320 m elevation. It is 3 km northwest of Agia Eirini, 5 km west of Poros and 21 km east of Argostoli. Xenopoulo was devastated by the 1953 Ionian earthquake.

Agios Dimitrios, Cephalonia Place in Greece

Agios Dimitrios is a village, about 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Lixouri in the Paliki peninsula of Cephalonia. The village which lies on the hillside just above the gulf of Argostoli and is a five-minute drive along the main road out of Lixouri.

1953 Ionian earthquake August 1953 earthquake in Greece

The 1953 Ionian earthquake struck the southern Ionian Islands in Greece on August 12. In mid-August there were over 113 recorded earthquakes in the region between Kefalonia and Zakynthos, and the most destructive was the August 12 earthquake. The event measured 6.8 on the moment magnitude scale, raised the whole island of Kefalonia by 60 cm (24 in), and caused widespread damage throughout the islands of Kefalonia and Zakynthos. The maximum felt intensity of shaking was X (extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. Between 445 and 800 people were killed.

References

Notes
  1. 1 2 3 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cephalonia"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. 1 2 Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior hi 👋🏻 (in Greek)
  3. Robert L. Fowler, 'The myth of Kephalos as aition of rain-magic' (Pherekydes FrGHist 3F34), in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik97 (1993), pp. 29–42
  4. Gatopoulos, Derek (March 27, 2007). "Engineers to Help Find Homer's Ithaca". USA Today, Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-03-28.
  5. Harrison, Dr. David (December 2013). "The Hidden Mysteries of Kefalonia; Crusaders, Byzantium and Venetians" (PDF). Knight Templar Magazine. pp. 25–27. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  6. British Occupation
  7. Loggerhead Turtles In Agnes Seppelfricke: Paulus war nie auf Malta
  8. "Hmc - St. Paul The Apostle". Imk.gr. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  9. Odysseus Unbound: The Search for Homer’s Ithaca – excerpt. Robert Bittlestone, Cambridge University Press, 2005. Page relating the account of a local to the 1953 great earthquake.
  10. 1 2 Detailed census results 2011 Archived December 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (in Greek)
  11. "Detailed census results 1879" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-25. (145 MB)(in Greek and French)
  12. "Detailed census results 1896" (PDF). (53 MB)(in Greek and French)
  13. "Detailed census results 1920" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-30. (88 MB)(in Greek and French)
  14. "Detailed census results 1940" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-24. (47 MB)(in Greek and French)
  15. "Detailed census results 1961" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-24. (35 MB)(in Greek and French)
  16. "Detailed census results 1981" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-05-04. (13 MB)(in Greek)
  17. "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  18. "Ιστοσελίδα ΕΚΒΥ / Προστατευόμενες περιοχές". www.ekby.gr. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
  19. "kefaloniainfo.net". www.kefaloniainfo.net. Archived from the original on 2011-09-12. Retrieved 2016-09-26.
  20. "Loggerhead Turtles In". Allkefalonia.com. Archived from the original on 2013-06-09. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
  21. "moyennes 1981/2010".
  22. J. Robinson Jancis Robinson's Guide to Wine Grapes pg 158 Oxford University Press 1996 ISBN   0198600984
  23. "Cefalonia 1943". La Storia siamo noi. Archived from the original on 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  24. "Airsealines.com". www.airsealines.com. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  25. en:Kephalonia_International_Airport, oldid 879040110 [ circular reference ]
  26. "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  27. Arnold, Charles. Die Inseln des Mittelmeers. (German.)
  28. Data from GTP. Archived 2010-07-04 at the Wayback Machine
  29. 1 2 3 Προσδιορισμός και χαρτογράφηση των ορνιθολογικά ευαίσθητων στα αιολικά πάρκα περιοχών της Ελλάδας, Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία (Griechische Ornithologische Gesellschaft) PDF Online [ permanent dead link ] (1,883 MB), griechisch
  30. 1 2 Kosch, Wilhelm (1959). Biographisches Staatshandbuch: Lexikon der Politik, Presse und Publizistik, Volume 1. Francke. p. 798. OCLC   9227578. Lusi, Spiridion Count of, born 1741 studied on the island of Cephalonia, who died in 1811, at Potsdam, educated at the Greek College in Venice, Padua
  31. Bernabeu Albert, Salvador (1995). Trillar los mares: la expedición descubridora de Bruno de Hezeta al noroeste de América, 1775. Editorial CSIC - CSIC Press. p. 32. ISBN   9788400074593.
  32. WindowSeater (14 August 2017). "The Astonishing Story of Constantine and Maria of Lop Buri". Medium.com . Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  33. Masson, Charles François Philibert (1802). Secret memoirs of the court of Petersburg: particularly towards the end of the reign of Catharine II and the commencement of that of Paul I. T.N. Longman and O. Rees. pp. 339–340. OCLC   35652011. GENERAL MELISSINO – In these Memoirs we have frequently spoken of general Melissino, whose name will long live in Russia. He originally came from Cephalonia and prided himself on his Greek origin, which he was fond of recollecting.
  34. Folklore, April, 2004 by Thornton B. Edwards
  35. "Assassin's Creed: Odyssey put to the test". The Star . Star Media Group. 21 October 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2018.

Further reading