Cerro Macá

Last updated
Cerro Macá
Volcan Maca.jpg
Highest point
Elevation 2,300 m (7,500 ft) [1] [2]
Prominence 2,066 m (6,778 ft) [2]
Listing Ultra
Coordinates 45°06′21″S73°10′09″W / 45.10583°S 73.16917°W / -45.10583; -73.16917 Coordinates: 45°06′21″S73°10′09″W / 45.10583°S 73.16917°W / -45.10583; -73.16917 [2]
Geography
Relief Map of Chile.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Cerro Macá
Location of Cerro Maca
Location Chile
Parent range Andes
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 410 CE ± 50 years

Cerro Macá is a stratovolcano located to the north of the Aisén Fjord and to the east of the Moraleda Channel, in the Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region of Chile. This glacier-covered volcano lies along the regional Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone. [3]

Contents

Cerro Macá is a relatively small volcano with a volume of only 39 cubic kilometres (9.4 cu mi). [4] It has a summit elevation of approximately 2,300 m above sea level [1] [2] and features glaciers [5] that in 2011 covered an area of 27.62 square kilometres (10.66 sq mi). [6] The edifice is partially eroded [7] and a sector collapse is probably the origin of a large steep sided depression in the summit area. [8] Pyroclastic cones with associated lava flows are found on its southwestern flank [9] but also on the other slopes of the volcano, as far down as sea level and in the Bahia Aysen. [10]

The volcano is part of the southernmost Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile, where volcanism is caused by the subduction of the Nazca Plate. Other volcanoes in the area are Melimoyu, Mentolat, Cay and Cerro Hudson. [11] Macá specifically is formed by basalt and basaltic andesite. [12]

1,440 ± 40 calibrated radiocarbon years ago a moderate explosive eruption deposited the MAC1 tephra, [13] which reaches thicknesses of 10–15 centimetres (3.9–5.9 in)70 kilometres (43 mi) east of Macá. [14] Ash from past eruptions has been tentatively identified close to Cochrane Lake. [15] A more recent eruption occurred in 410 ± 50 AD. [16]

In the early 20th century volcanic activity was observed at Ensenada Pérez, close to the southwestern flank of Macá. [17]

See also

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 The elevation given here is from SRTM data and independently confirmed by ASTER GDEM. Elevations around 3,000 m given by other authorities should be discounted. The contours around the summit are missing from official Chilean topographic mapping.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Argentina and Chile, Southern: Patagonia Ultra-Prominences" Peaklist.org. Listed as "Volcán Maca". Maca is a smooth volcanic cone, and SRTM indicates a summit elevation of 2300m ± 20m. This is supported by Biggar in "The Andes". Cited elevations of 2960-3079m are based on gross exaggeration. Note 9 Retrieved 2012-04-16.
  3. Finnische Expedition nach Patagonien; Väinö Auer (1941). Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Finnischen Expedition nach Patagonien 1937-38 (in German). p. 79.
  4. Weller, Derek J.; Porras, De; Eugenia, María; Maldonado, Antonio; Méndez, César; Stern, Charles R.; Weller, Derek J.; Porras, De; Eugenia, María; Maldonado, Antonio; Méndez, César; Stern, Charles R. (2017). "Tefrocronología holocena del curso inferior del valle de río Cisnes, Chile austral". Andean Geology. 44 (3): 229–248. doi:10.5027/andgeov44n3-a01. ISSN   0718-7106.
  5. Masiokas, Mariano H.; Rivera, Andrés; Espizua, Lydia E.; Villalba, Ricardo; Delgado, Silvia; Aravena, Juan Carlos (October 2009). "Glacier fluctuations in extratropical South America during the past 1000years". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 281 (3–4): 242–268. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.08.006. ISSN   0031-0182.
  6. Rivera, Andrés; Bown, Francisca (August 2013). "Recent glacier variations on active ice capped volcanoes in the Southern Volcanic Zone (37°–46°S), Chilean Andes". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 45: 345–356. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2013.02.004. ISSN   0895-9811.
  7. Naranjo, José A.; Stern, Charles R. (December 2004). "Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone". Revista Geológica de Chile. 31 (2): 224–240. doi:10.4067/S0716-02082004000200003. ISSN   0716-0208.
  8. D'Orazio, M; Innocenti, F; Manetti, P; Tamponi, M; Tonarini, S; González-Ferrán, O; Lahsen, A; Omarini, R (August 2003). "The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (∼45°S, Chile)". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 16 (4): 219–242. doi:10.1016/S0895-9811(03)00063-4. ISSN   0895-9811.
  9. Naranjo, José Antonio; Arenas, Manuel; Clavero, Jorge; Muñoz, Oscar (2009). "Mass movement-induced tsunamis: main effects during the Patagonian Fjordland seismic crisis in Aisén (45°25'S), Chile". Andean Geology. 36 (1). ISSN   0718-7092.
  10. D'Orazio, M; Innocenti, F; Manetti, P; Tamponi, M; Tonarini, S; González-Ferrán, O; Lahsen, A; Omarini, R (August 2003). "The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (∼45°S, Chile)". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 16 (4): 219–242. doi:10.1016/S0895-9811(03)00063-4. ISSN   0895-9811.
  11. Weller, Derek J.; Porras, De; Eugenia, María; Maldonado, Antonio; Méndez, César; Stern, Charles R.; Weller, Derek J.; Porras, De; Eugenia, María; Maldonado, Antonio; Méndez, César; Stern, Charles R. (2017). "Tefrocronología holocena del curso inferior del valle de río Cisnes, Chile austral". Andean Geology. 44 (3): 229–248. doi:10.5027/andgeov44n3-a01. ISSN   0718-7106.
  12. Weller, Derek J.; Porras, De; Eugenia, María; Maldonado, Antonio; Méndez, César; Stern, Charles R.; Weller, Derek J.; Porras, De; Eugenia, María; Maldonado, Antonio; Méndez, César; Stern, Charles R. (2017). "Tefrocronología holocena del curso inferior del valle de río Cisnes, Chile austral". Andean Geology. 44 (3): 229–248. doi:10.5027/andgeov44n3-a01. ISSN   0718-7106.
  13. Weller, Derek J.; Porras, De; Eugenia, María; Maldonado, Antonio; Méndez, César; Stern, Charles R.; Weller, Derek J.; Porras, De; Eugenia, María; Maldonado, Antonio; Méndez, César; Stern, Charles R. (2017). "Tefrocronología holocena del curso inferior del valle de río Cisnes, Chile austral". Andean Geology. 44 (3): 229–248. doi:10.5027/andgeov44n3-a01. ISSN   0718-7106.
  14. Naranjo, José A.; Stern, Charles R. (December 2004). "Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone". Revista Geológica de Chile. 31 (2): 224–240. doi:10.4067/S0716-02082004000200003. ISSN   0716-0208.
  15. Villa-Martínez, Rodrigo; Moreno, Patricio I.; Valenzuela, Marcela A. (January 2012). "Deglacial and postglacial vegetation changes on the eastern slopes of the central Patagonian Andes (47°S)". Quaternary Science Reviews. 32: 86–99. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.11.008. ISSN   0277-3791.
  16. Van Daele, Maarten; Versteeg, Willem; Pino, Mario; Urrutia, Roberto; De Batist, Marc (March 2013). "Widespread deformation of basin-plain sediments in Aysén fjord (Chile) due to impact by earthquake-triggered, onshore-generated mass movements". Marine Geology. 337: 67–79. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2013.01.006. ISSN   0025-3227.
  17. Naranjo, José Antonio; Arenas, Manuel; Clavero, Jorge; Muñoz, Oscar (2009). "Mass movement-induced tsunamis: main effects during the Patagonian Fjordland seismic crisis in Aisén (45°25'S), Chile". Andean Geology. 36 (1). ISSN   0718-7092.

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