New South Wales
Cessnock, New South Wales
Aerial photo of countryside around Cessnock
|Population||21,725 (2016 census)|
|Elevation||80 m (262 ft)|
|Time zone||AEST (UTC+10)|
|• Summer (DST)||AEDT (UTC+11)|
|LGA(s)||City of Cessnock|
Cessnock is a city in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, about 52 km (32 mi) by road west of Newcastle. It is the administrative centre of the City of Cessnock LGA and was named after an 1826 grant of land called Cessnock Estate, which was owned by John Campbell. The local area was once known as "The Coalfields", and it is the gateway city to the vineyards of the Hunter Valley, which includes Pokolbin, Mount View, Lovedale, Broke, Rothbury, and Branxton.
The Hunter Region, also commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales, Australia, extending from approximately 120 km (75 mi) to 310 km (193 mi) north of Sydney. It contains the Hunter River and its tributaries with highland areas to the north and south. Situated at the northern end of the Sydney Basin bioregion, the Hunter Valley is one of the largest river valleys on the NSW coast, and is most commonly known for its wineries and coal industry.
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In March 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 7.9 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.
The transition to wine service centre from a once prosperous mining town has been a long and at times difficult process.
Cessnock lies between Australia’s earliest European settlements – Sydney, the Hawkesbury River and Newcastle. Lying on the land route between these important settlements it provided early European contact with indigenous people who have inhabited the Cessnock area for more than 3,000 years. The Wonnarua people were the major inhabitants at the time of European contact, which subsequently proved to be disastrous for the Wonnarua tribe. Many were killed or died as a result of European diseases. Others were forced onto neighbouring tribal territory and killed. The city of Cessnock abounds in indigenous place names and names with indigenous association which is indicative of this settlement and include Congewai, Kurri Kurri, Laguna, Nulkaba and Wollombi.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,131,326, and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.
The Hawkesbury River, is a semi–mature tide dominated drowned valley estuary located to the west and north of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Hawkesbury River and its associated main tributary, the Nepean River, virtually encircle the metropolitan region of Sydney.
The Newcastle metropolitan area is the second most populated area in the Australian state of New South Wales and the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie local government areas. It is the hub of the Greater Newcastle area which includes most parts of the local government areas of City of Newcastle, City of Lake Macquarie, City of Cessnock, City of Maitland and Port Stephens Council.
Pastoralists commenced settling the land in the 1820s. Cessnock was named by Scottish settler John Campbell, after his grandfather's baronial Cessnock Castle in Galston, East Ayrshire, to reflect the aristocratic heritage and ambitions for this estate.The township of Cessnock developed from 1850, as a service centre at the junction of the Great North Road from Sydney to the Hunter Valley, with branches to Maitland and Singleton.
Galston is a municipality in East Ayrshire, Scotland which has a population of 5,001 (2001). It is situated in wooded countryside 4 miles up-river from Kilmarnock and is one a group of the small towns located in the Irvine Valley between the towns of Hurlford and Newmilns. To the north of the town is the ruin of Loudoun Castle, the site of Loudoun Castle theme park from 1995 to 2010. In 1874 the population was 4,727.
Maitland is a city in the Lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia and the seat of Maitland City Council, situated on the Hunter River approximately 166 kilometres (103 mi) by road north of Sydney and 35 km (22 mi) north-west of Newcastle. It is on the New England Highway about 17 km (11 mi) from its start at Hexham.
Singleton is a town on the banks of the Hunter River in New South Wales, Australia. Singleton is 197 kilometres (122 mi) north-north-west of Sydney, and 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Newcastle. At June 2015, Singleton had an urban population of 16,921.
The establishment of the South Maitland coalfields generated extensive land settlement between 1903 and 1923. The current pattern of urban development, transport routes and industrial landscape was laid at this time. The surveying of the Greta coal seam by Professor Edgeworth David around 1888 became the impetus for considerable social and economic change in the area with the development of the coal mining industry. [ citation needed ]
The South Maitland coalfields was the most extensive coalfield in New South Wales until the great coal mining slump of the 1960s. It was discovered by Lieutenant-Colonel Paterson's party when they were engaged in an exploratory visit to the Hunter River Valley during July 1801.
Sir Tannatt William Edgeworth David, professionally known as Edgeworth David, was a Welsh Australian geologist and Antarctic explorer. A household name in his lifetime, David's most significant achievements were discovering the major Hunter Valley coalfield in New South Wales and leading the first expedition to reach the South Magnetic Pole. He also served with distinction in World War I.
According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 21,725 people in the Cessnock urban centre.
The decline of mining on the South Maitland Coalfields has been paralleled by growth in the wine industry and better access to other employment centres.
The Hunter Valley wine-growing area near Cessnock is Australia's oldest wine region and one of the most famous, with around 1,800 hectares (4,448 acres) under vine. The vineyards of Pokolbin, Mount View and Allandale, with their rich volcanic soils tended by entrepreneurial vignerons, are also the focus of a thriving and growing tourism industry. The extension and eventual completion of the F3 Freeway, created a property and tourism boom during the 1990s.
Cessnock has begun to develop other tourist ventures beyond the wine industry such as championship golf courses, hot air ballooning,sky-diving, and guest house accommodation.
The city council has actively pursued a policy of urban renewal in the city centre since 2001. The local council was one of the first to introduce a recycling program for waste disposal in the state. [ citation needed ]
Most employment comes from the local port city of Newcastle, the nearby major centres of Maitland and Singleton and in service industries in the local council area, which comprises many small towns, such as Kurri Kurri, Weston, Neath, Abernethy, Kearsley and Pokolbin.
The town is located in the rich alluvial and volcanic soils of the Hunter Valley. Rich coal seams underlie much of the area. [ citation needed ] The Brokenback Range (part of the Great Dividing Range) rises to the west of the city. The Hunter River flows down the Hunter Valley approximately 20 km (12 mi) to the north. Cessnock lies within the Hunter Valley Important Bird Area.
Cessnock has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with hot summers and cool winters, similar to Penrith, a suburb in Greater Western Sydney to the south. Summers may be dry due to their inland location, but humid days are not uncommon. Winters are usually dry with cold nights, which may be frosty.
|Climate data for Cessnock Airport|
|Record high °C (°F)||45.0|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.1|
|Average low °C (°F)||16.9|
|Record low °C (°F)||6.1|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||81.2|
|Average precipitation days||10.1||10.8||10.1||9.7||9.3||9.8||8.2||8.0||8.1||9.6||10.1||10.6||114.4|
Cessnock is serviced by a number of regional newspapers, radio stations and television stations.
Radio stations include:
Cessnock is part of the Newcastle-Hunter Region television market, which is served by 5 television networks, three commercial and two national services (which include new sub-channels that started in 2009 for the commercial networks and in recent years from the national services). . These networks are listed as follows:
NBN Television produces an evening news bulletin combining local, state, national and international news screening nightly at 6.00PM, while subscription television service Foxtel is also available via satellite.
The city has many sporting facilities. The city competes in several regional sporting competitions, particularly the Newcastle-based leagues of various sports. Some very successful sporting players can trace their roots to the local district, including Australian Rugby League representative players and brothers Andrew and Matthew Johns. World-renowned golfer and TV commentator Jack Newton is also from Cessnock. His annual Sub-Juniors Golf Tournament has unearthed some talented young golfers and is held on the local championship courses of Pokolbin. Cessnock was the base camp for the Japanese national football team during the 2015 AFC Asian Cup.
For a century Cessnock was served by the South Maitland Railway network, originally constructed for the coal industry, but which, at one time, had considerable passenger services, including a direct train to Sydney known as the Cessnock Flyer.
The Sydney-Newcastle Freeway's Cessnock exit at Freemans Waterhole provides one of the main road connections from Sydney to Cessnock via "The Gap", a pass through the Watagan Mountains range just north of Mount Heaton.
Until the Hunter Expressway opened in 2014, linking the New England Highway at Branxton and the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway at West Wallsend, through traffic passed through Cessnock.
The local airport is placed just to the north of the city, at the entrance to the Vineyard District. It has a small public passenger terminal and also serves as the base for aviation training organisations such as Avondale College's school of Aviation and Hunter Valley Aviation. The airport is not served by RPT flights. Access by air to the region is by Newcastle Airport at Williamtown, 53 km (33 mi) away.
The local bus service is run by Rover Coaches which provide services to Maitland, Newcastle and Morisset and school bus services.
Greater Cessnock contains a number of buildings and sites that are on the Register of the National Estate.
Morisset is a commercial centre and suburb of the City of Lake Macquarie in New South Wales, Australia, and is located west of Lake Macquarie just off the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway. The count at the 2011 Census was 2,857 for the gazetted suburb of Morisset. The estimated urban population of the Morisset area, including Cooranbong, was 24,127 as at June 2015. The area is growing steadily, with population increasing 8.9 percent over the prior year, 2014, and having five-year average annual growth of 1.4 percent.
Branxton is a town in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. Branxton is 171 kilometres (106 mi) north of Sydney via the Sydney-Newcastle Freeway and New England Highway. Branxton is located mostly in the City of Cessnock, but part of it is in Singleton Shire. It had a population of 1,991 at the 2016 census.
Mount Sugarloaf, also known as Great Sugar Loaf, is a mountain in the lower Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, overlooking the cities of Newcastle, Lake Macquarie, Cessnock and Maitland. The summit of the mountain is in the Lake Macquarie suburb of West Wallsend and access to the summit is gained via this suburb. However, the mountain itself is also part of the city of Cessnock suburbs Mulbring and Richmond Vale. It is home to television transmitters that broadcast to the lower Hunter region. On 18 and 19 July 1965, the mountain received 10 centimetres (4 in) of snow. It also snowed on the summit in the winter of 1975.
Maitland railway station is located on the Main Northern line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the city of Maitland opening on in 1880 as West Maitland being renamed on 1 April 1949. It is the junction station for the Main Northern and North Coast lines. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
Cessnock is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales in the rural fringe of the Hunter. It is represented by Clayton Barr of the Labor Party. It includes all of City of Cessnock, part of Singleton Council and a small part of the City of Lake Macquarie.
TAFE NSW Hunter and Central Coast now forms a part of TAFE NSW, the largest training and education provider in Australia. All TAFE NSW Institutes were united as one 'TAFE NSW' in an ongoing process starting in 2017. TAFE NSW Hunter and Central Coast was also known as Hunter Institute of TAFE NSW.
Kurri Kurri is a small town in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia, in the Cessnock LGA. At the 2016 census, its population was 6,044. Kurri Kurri is the largest town in a group of towns and hamlets, including Stanford Merthyr, Pelaw Main, Weston, Abermain and Heddon Greta, called Kurri Kurri – Weston by the ABS. Its estimated population was 17,241 at 2016 census.
Greta is a suburb of the Cessnock and Maitland local government areas in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. Most of the population lives in the town of the same name, located in the north of the suburb, which is bisected by the New England Highway. At the 2011 census the town had a population of 2,483. It is largely a commuter town located midway between Cessnock, Singleton and Maitland. The town is linked to nearby Branxton especially during community events. Greta is close to major grape-growing areas of the Hunter Region.
Pokolbin is a rural locality in the Hunter Region of New South Wales Australia. It is part of the Singleton Council local government area and the city of Cessnock. The area is the centre of the Lower Hunter Valley wine region. Pokolbin lies within the Hunter Valley Important Bird Area.
The Country Rugby League of New South Wales (CRL), formed in 1934, is the governing body for the sport of rugby league football in areas of New South Wales outside the Sydney metropolitan area. Despite its name, CRL also governs rugby league in the Australian Capital Territory. Apart from selecting a Country Origin side to play in the annual City vs Country Origin game, the CRL administers a large number of senior and junior competitions across the state.
Newcastle bus routes connect suburbs in and around Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, about 100 kilometres north of Sydney.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Maitland-Newcastle is a suffragan Latin Rite diocese of the Archdiocese of Sydney, established in 1847, initially as the Diocese of Maitland and changed to the current name in 1995. The diocese covers the Hunter and Mid North Coast regions of New South Wales in Australia.
The Hunter Expressway is a 39.5-kilometre (24.5 mi) long dual carriageway freeway in New South Wales, Australia. It was previously known as the F3 to Branxton link or Kurri Kurri Corridor during the planning stage. It has two lanes in each direction, running generally north west from the Pacific Motorway at the Newcastle Link Road interchange to the eastern end of the Belford Bends Deviation on the New England Highway north of Branxton. The road allows traffic to bypass the Maitland area, Lochinvar, Greta and Branxton. The expressway opened on 22 March 2014.
Wollombi is a small village in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia. It is within the Cessnock City Council LGA, situated 29 kilometres (18 mi) southwest of Cessnock and 128 km (80 mi) north of Sydney. To the south is the village of Laguna, to the east, the village of Millfield and to the north, the village of Broke.
The Hunter Valley is one of Australia's best known wine regions. Located in the state of New South Wales, the region has played a pivotal role in the history of Australian wine as one of the first wine regions planted in the early 19th century. Hunter Valley Semillon is widely considered the iconic wine of the region but the Hunter produces wine from a variety of grapes including Shiraz, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon and Verdelho.
Rover Coaches is an Australian bus company operating services in the Hunter Valley
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