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Chakhansur (Persian : چخانسور) is a district in the Nimruz Province of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 11,165 as of 2004, which includes Pashtun, Tajik, Baloch and Hazara ethnic groups.
The economy is primarily based on agriculture, and the necessary water for irrigation is dependent on the status of the Sistan Basin, an endorheic basin which periodically becomes dry.
This area of Afghanistan was a major medieval cultural hub on the Silk Road but most ancient structures are now covered by sand. Signs of historical irrigation systems, including canals, are still visible in the Chakhansur area while elsewhere canals are filled with silt and agricultural fields buried by shifting sand. Today the area is relatively sparsely populated. There continue to be problems with water control and periodic flooding and drought.
Currently the Chakhansur farmers are experiencing a severe and long term drought. Even with help from the World Food Program, many have abandoned their homes, perhaps as many as 20,000, to search for water and jobs.
The Amu Darya is a major river in Central Asia and Afghanistan. Rising in the Pamir Mountains, north of the Hindu Kush, the Amu Darya is formed by the confluence of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, in the Tigrovaya Balka Nature Reserve on the border between Afghanistan and Tajikistan, and flows from there north-westwards into the southern remnants of the Aral Sea. In its upper course, the river forms part of Afghanistan's northern border with Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. In ancient history, the river was regarded as the boundary of Greater Iran with "Turan", which roughly corresponded to present-day Central Asia.
Irrigation is the artificial process of applying controlled amounts of water to land to assist in production of crops. Irrigation helps to grow agricultural crops, maintain landscapes, and revegetate disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of less than average rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, including frost protection, suppressing weed growth in grain fields and preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed.
Nimruz or Nimroz is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southwestern part of the country. It lies to the east of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province of Iran and north of Balochistan, Pakistan, also bordering the Afghan provinces of Farah and Helmand. It has a population of about 630,000 people. The province is divided into five districts, encompassing about 649 villages.
Lake Hāmūn or "Hamoun Oasis" is a term applied to wetlands in endorheic Sīstān Basin on the Irano-Afghan border in the Sistan region. In Iran, it is also known as Hāmūn-e Helmand, Hāmūn-e Hīrmand, or Daryācheh-ye Sīstān.
The Sriram Sagar Project, also known as the Pochampadu Project is an Indian flood-flow project on the Godavari. The Project is located in Nizamabad district, 3 km away from National Highway 44. It has been described by The Hindu as a "lifeline for a large part of Telangana".
The Indian Rivers Inter-link is a proposed large-scale civil engineering project that aims to effectively manage water resources in India by linking Indian rivers by a network of reservoirs and canals to enhance irrigation and groundwater recharge, reduce persistent floods in some parts and water shortages in other parts of India. India accounts for 18% of the world population and about 4% of the world’s water resources. One of the solutions to solve the country’s water woes is to link rivers and lakes.
Environmental issues in Afghanistan predate the political turmoil of the past few decades. Forests have been depleted by centuries of grazing and farming, practices which have only increased with modern population growth. In Afghanistan, environmental conservation and economic concerns are not at odds; with over 44% of the population dependent on herding or farming, the welfare of the environment is critical to the economic welfare of the people. In 2007, the World Health Organization released a report ranking Afghanistan as the lowest among non-African nations in deaths from environmental hazards.
Rajanpur is a district of the Pakistani province of Punjab, with its administrative headquarters the city of Rajanpur. According to the 1998 census, the district had a population of 1,100,000, and 14.27% of these were inhabitants of urban areas.
Surkh-Rōd.(Pashto/Persian: سرخرود/ سره رود), also spelled as Surkh-Rūd or Sorkh-Rūd,Also called Sra-rod or Sra- road, is a district in the north of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. The district centre is the town of Sultanpur. It is well known to locals because of its abundance of fertile land, however it is currently facing a lack of water.
Nāwa-I-Barakzāyi District is an administrative district in Helmand Province, Afghanistan located south of the provincial capital of Lashkar Gah along the Helmand River. It is bordered by the districts of Lashkar Gah, Nad Ali, Garmsir, and Rig, as well as the provinces of Nimruz and Kandahar. It falls within the area known as Pashtunistan,, an area comprising most of southeast Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. The dominant language is Pashto and many of the 89,000 residents practice the traditional code of Pashtunwali. Nawa-I-Barakzayi's name reflects the dominant Pashtun tribe in the district, the Barakzai. Prior to the 1970s, it was called Shamalan after a small village at the south end of the district
Reg (Khanashin) District is situated in the southeastern part of Helmand Province, Afghanistan along the Helmand River on its western bank. The population is 25,600. The main village is Khanashin.
Irrigation is a widespread practice required in many areas of Australia, the driest inhabited continent, to supplement low rainfall with water from other sources to assist in growing crops and pasture. Overuse or poor management of irrigation is held responsible by some for environmental problems such as soil salinity and loss of habitat for native flora and fauna.
The Sistan Basin is an inland endorheic basin encompassing large parts of southwestern Afghanistan and minor parts of southeastern Iran, one of the driest regions in the world and an area subjected to prolonged droughts. Its watershed is a system of rivers flowing from the highlands of Afghanistan into freshwater lakes and marshes and then to its ultimate destination: Afghanistan's saline Godzareh depression, part of the extensive Sistan terminal basin. The Helmand River drains the basin's largest watershed, fed mainly by snowmelt from the mountains of Hindu Kush, but other rivers contribute also.
The Gowd-i zerrah, i.e., Zerrah Depression is the lowest part of an inland drainage basin covering large parts of southern Afghanistan and Iran known as the Sistan Basin. The Sistan Basin is an endorheic basin and encompasses a complex system of rivers, shallow lakes, marshes and wetlands as its watershed, draining into the Hamun Lakes in southeastern Iran. Occasional outflows from these lakes are carried back into Afghanistan by the seasonal Shile river to the basin's terminus, the Godzareh depression in Afghanistan. The depression is flat and very shallow with fine textured sediment at its lowest portions. The lowest section of the Godzareh depression is 467 m above sea level. The depression only receives runoff water when the main tributaries are overflowing every 10 years on the average.
Ujjani Dam, also known as Bhima Dam or Bhima Irrigation Project, on the Bhima River, a tributary of the Krishna River, is an earthfill cum Masonry gravity dam located near Ujjani village of Madha Taluk in Solapur district of the state of Maharashtra in India.
Mexico, a classified arid and semi-arid country, has a total land area of 2 million square kilometres, 23% of which is equipped for irrigated agriculture. The agricultural sector plays an important role in the economic development of the country accounting for 8.4 of agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and employing 23% of the economically active population. Irrigated agriculture contributes about 50% of the total value of agricultural production and accounts for about 70% of agriculture exports. Mexico's government initiated a number of structural reforms in the water sector aimed to introduce modern water management and irrigation.
The Changane River is a river in Mozambique, a tributary to the Limpopo River which it joins near the coast, just past the town of Chibuto. It forms part of the eastern boundary of Gaza Province. The Changane is the easternmost tributary of the Limpopo, entering it from the left near its mouth on the Indian Ocean
The Sardeh Band Dam is located near Sardeh Band town, in the eastern part of Andar District of Ghazni Province of Afghanistan. It was constructed in 1967 by the Soviet Union and Afghanistan during the reign of Mohammed Zahir Shah prior to the Soviet–Afghan War. The dam provided irrigation water for more than 67,000 jeribs of land after completion. Currently only 2,000 jeribs of land is under cultivation. Maximum capacity of the reservoir is 259 million cubic meters of water, and the reservoir holds about 164 million gallons at present.
Irrigation in India includes a network of major and minor canals from Indian rivers, groundwater well based systems, tanks, and other rainwater harvesting projects for agricultural activities. Of these groundwater system is the largest. In 2013-14, only about 36.7% of total agricultural land in India was reliably irrigated, and remaining 2/3rd cultivated land in India is dependent on monsoons. 65% of the irrigation in India is from groundwater. Currently about 51% of the agricultural area cultivating food grains is covered by irrigation. The rest of the area is dependent on rainfall which is most of the times unreliable and unpredictable.
The 120-day wind or wind of 120 days is a strong summer wind occurring from late May to late September in the east and southeast of the Iranian Plateau, particularly the Sistan Basin. It is so called because it lasts for four months. The typical wind speed is 30–40 kilometres per hour (19–25 mph) or less, but it can occasionally exceed 100–110 kilometres per hour (60–70 mph). Strong speeds are caused by the topography surrounding the region. The wind moves fairly consistently south-to-southeastward; along with the shamal, it is one of two well-known winds in Iran.