Chamber of Deputies (Brazil)

Last updated
Chamber of Representatives

Câmara dos Deputados
56th Legislature of the National Congress
Camara dos Deputados.png
Type
Type
Term limits
None
History
FoundedMay 6, 1826 (1826-05-06)
New session started
February 1, 2020 (2020-02-01)
Leadership
Rodrigo Maia, DEM
since July 14, 2016
Government Leader
Major Vitor Hugo, PSL
Majority Leader
Aguinaldo Ribeiro, PP
Opposition Leader
Minority Leader
José Guimarães, PT
Structure
Seats513
Brazil Chamber of Deputies 2020.svg
Political groups
Government (257) [1]

Independent (125) [1]

Opposition (131) [1]

Length of term
4 years
Elections
Open list proportional representation
Last election
October 7, 2018
Next election
October 2, 2022
Meeting place
976088-16092015- wdo6763.jpg
Ulysses Guimarães plenary chamber
National Congress building
Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
Website
www.camara.gov.br
Coat of arms of Brazil.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Brazil
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The Chamber of Representatives (Portuguese : Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. The chamber comprises 513 representatives, who are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. The current President of the Chamber is the Representative Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), who was reelected on February 1, 2019.

Contents

Legislatures

The legislatures are counted from the first meeting of the Chamber of Representatives and of the Senate, on 6 May 1826, in the imperial era (the Chamber of Representatives met for preparatory sessions from 29 April 1826 to elect its officers and conduct other preliminary business, but the Legislature was formally opened on 6 May). The Chamber of Representatives and the Senate were created by Brazil's first Constitution, the Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, adopted in 1824. The numbering of the legislatures is continuous and counts all bicameral legislatures elected since the adoption of the 1824 Constitution including the imperial General Assembly and the republican National Congress. The previous constituent and legislative assembly of the Empire of Brazil, a unicameral national assembly convened in 1823 and dissolved by Emperor Pedro I before the Constitution was adopted, is not counted. The inauguration of a new composition of Chamber of Representatives for a four-year term of office marks the start of a new Legislature.

In the imperial era the national legislature was named General Assembly. It was made up of the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate. Senators were elected for life and the Senate was a permanent institution, whereas the Chamber of Representatives, unless dissolved earlier, was elected every four years. When Brazil became a republic and a federal state, the model of a bicameral legislature was retained at the federal level, but the parliament was renamed National Congress. The National Congress is made up of the Chamber of Representatives and the Federal Senate. Both houses have fixed terms and cannot be dissolved earlier. Under Brazil's present Constitution, adopted in 1988, senators are elected to eight-year terms and representatives are elected every four years.

Each Brazilian state (and the Federal District) is represented in the Senate by three senators.

Elections to the Senate are held every four years, with either a third or two thirds of the seats up for election.

The number of representatives elected is proportional to the size of the population of the respective state (or of the Federal District) as of 1994. However, no delegation can be made up of less than eight or more than seventy seats. Thus the least populous state elects eight federal representatives and the most populous elects seventy. These restrictions favour the smaller states at the expense of the more populous states and so the size of the delegations is not exactly proportional to population.

Elections to the Chamber of Representatives are held every four years, with all seats up for election.

Empire of Brazil [2]

Old Republic [3]

Vargas Era [4]

Legislatures elected under the Republic of 46 [5]

Legislatures elected under the Military Regime

Legislatures elected after the restoration of civilian government ("New Republic")

Federal representation

The number of seats per state is distributed according to the number of inhabitants per state, according to the official measurement taken by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics through a census held each 10 years. The Brazilian population is represented by one representative for each 362,013 inhabitants on average, but this proportionality is limited by having a minimum of eight members and a maximum of seventy members per state, these criteria being subject to an apportionment paradox.

Therefore, states with 3,258,117 inhabitants upwards have 9 to 70 representatives. Following this scenario for example the city of São Paulo with its 11,253,503 inhabitants [7] is represented by 31 representatives of the total members of the state and the rest of the state with its 28,670,588 inhabitants are represented by 39 MPs (Member of Parliament). [8]

There is a distorted representation of the Brazilian states in congress, having some groups of representatives representing on average more than the proportion of the population of the state, and others representing less. That proportionality means that Roraima is represented by a representative for every 51,000 inhabitants and, at the other extreme, São Paulo is represented by one representative for every 585,000 inhabitants. This difference is reflected in the representation of the states in the Brazilian Congress, where some states are over-represented, such as Roraima, with 681% of the population represented by their congressmen, and other states are under represented, such as the state of São Paulo, with 63% of the population represented by their congressmen. The proportionality is calculated through the division of the percentage of representatives of a state in the chamber by the percentage of the population of such state in the nation. The population of the state of São Paulo, for instance, elects only 70 representatives to the Chamber, because of the maximum limits of 70 congressmen by state, but it should have 40 more seats. [9]

Federal stateNumber of members% Of total membersPopulation (on the census also called Censo 2010)% Of the population (Censo 2010)Representativeness (Inhabitants / Mr)Representatives of national average% Representative distortion% Of the population represented by MPsRepresentatives required ignoring the limits
São Paulo 7013.6%39,924,09121.5%570,344110-7.90%63%40
Minas Gerais 5310.3%19,159,26010.3%361,495530.00%100%0
Rio de Janeiro 469%15,180,6368.2%330,014420.80%110%-4
Bahia 397.6%13,633,9697.3%349,589380.30%104%-1
Rio Grande do Sul 316%10,576,7585.7%341,186290.30%106%-2
Paraná 305.8%10,226,7375.5%340,891280.30%106%-2
Pernambuco 254.9%8,541,2504.6%341,650240.30%106%-1
Ceará 224.3%8,450,5274.4%371,82223-0.10%94%1
Maranhão 183.5%6,424,3403.5%356,908180.00%101%0
Goiás 173.3%5,849,1053.1%344,065160.20%105%-1
Pará 173.3%7,443,9044%437,87721-0.70%83%4
Santa Catarina 163.1%6,178,6033.3%386,16317-0.20%94%1
Paraíba 122.3%3,753,6332%312,803100.30%116%-2
Espírito Santo 101.9%3,392,7751.8%339,27890.10%107%-1
Piauí 101.9%3,086,4481.7%308,64590.20%117%-1
Alagoas 91.7%3,093,9941.7%343,77790.00%105%0
Acre 81.6%707,1250.4%88,39121.20%410%-6
Amazonas 81.6%3,350,7731.8%418,8479-0.20%86%1
Amapá 81.6%648,5530.3%81,06921.30%447%-6
Distrito Federal 81.6%2,469,4891.3%308,68670.30%117%-1
Mato Grosso do Sul 81.6%2,404,2561.3%300,53270.30%120%-1
Mato Grosso 81.6%2,954,6251.6%369,32880.00%98%0
Rio Grande do Norte 81.6%3,121,4511.7%390,1819-0.10%93%1
Rondônia 81.6%1,535,6250.8%191,95340.80%189%-4
Roraima 81.6%425,3980.2%53,17511.40%681%-7
Sergipe 81.6%2,036,2271.1%254,52860.50%142%-2
Tocantins 81.6%1,373,5510.7%171,69440.90%211%-4
Total513100%185,712,713100%362,013 (representative national average)514(Population / representative national average)0.30% accumulated (% of total members -% of the population) 156%average (number of members / Representatives of national average) 1

Present composition

Parties in the 56th Chamber of Representatives
PartyFloor leaderSeats% of seats
Workers Enio Verri5310.33%
Social Liberal Joice Hasselmann 417.99%
Progressistas Arthur Lira407.80%
Liberal Wellington Roberto397.60%
Social Democratic Diego Andrade367.02%
Brazilian Democratic Movement Baleia Rossi346.63%
Brazilian Social Democracy Carlos Sampaio326.24%
Republicanos Jhonatan de Jesus 326.24%
Brazilian Socialist Alessandro Molon 305.85%
Democratic Labour Wolney Queiroz285.46%
Democrats Efraim Filho285.46%
Solidariedade José Silva Soares142.73%
Brazilian Labour Pedro Lucas Fernandes122.34%
Podemos Léo Moraes112.14%
Republican Party of the Social Order Acácio Favacho101.95%
Socialism and Liberty Fernanda Melchionna 101.95%
Social Christian André Ferreira91.75%
Cidadania Arnaldo Jardim81.56%
Communist Party of Brazil Perpétua Almeida81.56%
New Paulo Ganime81.56%
Avante Luis Tibé71.36%
Patriota Fred Costa61.17%
Green Enrico Misasi40.78%
Sustainability Network Joênia Wapichana 10.19%
Independent 122.34%
Total513100.0%

Partisan blocs composition

BlocRepresentativesLeader
Government340Major Vitor Hugo (PSL)
Majority340Aguinaldo Ribeiro (PP)
Opposition166Alessandro Molon (PSB)
Minority166José Guimarães (PT)
PL, PP, PSD, MDB, DEM, SDD, PTB, PROS, AVANTE Bloc220Arthur Lira (PP)

Bodies

The House of Representatives is composed of the Bureau of the Chamber of Representatives of Brazil by College Leaders and the Commissions, which can be permanent, temporary, or special inquiry.

Bureau of the Chamber of Representatives of Brazil

The current composition of the Board of the Chamber of Representatives is the following:

President: Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ)
1st Vice President: Marcos Pereira (PRB-SP)
2nd Vice President: Luciano Bivar (PSL-PE)
1st Secretary: Soraya Santos (PR-RJ)
2nd Secretary: Mário Heringer (PDT-MG)
3rd Secretary: Fábio Faria (PSD-RN)
4th Secretary: André Fufuca (PP-MA)
1st Secretary Substitute: Rafael Motta (PSB-RN)
2nd Secretary Substitute: Geovania de Sá (PSDB-SC)
3rd Secretary Substitute: Isnaldo Bulhões Jr. (MDB-AL)
4th Secretary Substitute: Assis Carvalho (PT-PI)

Standing committees

On March 6 of 2012, was defined division of committees between parties. The President's House, Marco Maia, believes that the proportionality between the parties / blocs must take into account the data of the last election. Thus, PT and PMDB, with the highest benches, were three committees (the PT made the choice first). DEM and PSDB, the two largest opposition, were two commissions each. [10] On the other hand, PSD, most harmed by this decision, filed a lawsuit in the Supreme Court (STF) trying to reverse this decision. [11]

The chair of the committee, was defined as follows: [12]

CommitteeChair
Agriculture, Livestock, Supply and Rural Development Fausto Pinato (REPUBLICANOS-SP)
Consumer DefenceJoão Maia (PL-RN)
Constitution, Justice and Citizenship Felipe Francischini (PSL-PR)
Culture Benedita da Silva (PT-RJ)
Defense of Women Rights Luisa Canziani (PTB-PR)
Defense of Elderly RightsLídice da Mata (PSB-PA)
Defense of People with Disabilities Rights Gilberto Nascimento (PSC-SP)
Economic Development, Industry, Trade and ServicesBosco Saraiva (SD-AM)
Education Pedro Cunha Lima (PSDB-PB)
Environment and Sustainable DevelopmentRoberto Agostinho (PSB-SP)
Finances and TaxationSergio Souza (MDB-PR)
Financial Supervision and ControlLéo Motta (PSL-MG)
Foreign Affairs and National Defence Eduardo Bolsonaro (PSL-SP)
Human Rights and MinoritiesHelder Salomão (PT-MG)
Labor, Administration and Public ServiceProfessora Marcivania (PCdoB-AP)
Mines and Energy Silas Câmara (REPUBLICANOS-AM)
National Integration, Regional Development and AmazonÁtila Lins (PP-AM)
Participative LegislationLeonardo Monteiro (PT-MG)
Public Security and Fight Against Organized CrimeCapitão Augusto (PL-SP)
Roads and TransportsEli Corrêa Filho (DEM-SP)
Science and Technology, Communication and ComputingFelix Mendonça Junior (PDT-BA)
Social Security and FamilyAntonio Brito (PSD-BA)
SportsFábio Mitidieri (PSD-SE)
TourismNewton Cardoso Junior (MDB-MG)
Urban Development Marco Feliciano (PODE-SP)

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "A configuração da Câmara após a investida de Bolsonaro". Nexo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-06-15.
  2. "O Império do Brasil". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  3. "A 1ª República". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  4. "A 2a República". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  5. "A 4a República". Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  6. Constitutional Amendment 26, of 27 November 1985
  7. "IBGE Censo 2010". www.censo2010.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  8. "MP" . Retrieved 22 March 2018 via The Free Dictionary.
  9. "Gasto com deputados caminha para R$ 1 bilhão". uol.com.br. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  10. Finch, Nathalia (March 6, 2012), G1, defines the distribution of the standing committeesMissing or empty |title= (help)
  11. Santos, Deborah (February 27, 2012), G1, going to have the Supreme Command of committees in the HouseMissing or empty |title= (help)
  12. "Eleitos os presidentes das 25 comissões da Câmara" (in Portuguese). Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.