Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)

Last updated
Chamber of Deputies

Cámara de Diputados
LXIV Legislature
Chamber of Deputies (Mexico).svg
Type
Type
History
FoundedSeptember 28, 1821 (1821-09-28)
Leadership
Porfirio Muñoz Ledo (MORENA)
since 1 September 2018
Structure
Seats500
Mexico Chamber of Deputies as of Sept. 2019.svg
Political groups
Government (335)

Opposition (164)

  •      PAN (78)
  •      PRI (47)
  •      MC (28)
  •      PRD (11)

Vacancies (1)

Elections
Parallel voting
300 Seats elected by first-past-the-post
200 seats elected by largest remainder method
[1]
Last election
July 1, 2018 (2018-07-01)
Meeting place
Mexico Chamber of Deputies backdrop.jpg
Chamber of Deputies
San Lázaro Legislative Palace
Mexico City
Mexico
Website
Official Website of the Chamber of Deputies
Footnotes
"Diputadas y Diputados por Entidad Federativa" http://sitl.diputados.gob.mx/LXIV_leg/info_diputados.php

The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Spain and the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

A bicameral legislature has legislators in two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. As of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures are bicameral.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

Contents

Composition

The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative (in Spanish: diputado federal) for every 200,000 citizens. The Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system. Elections are every 3 years.

Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.

Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected by plurality from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts (with each state divided into at least two districts). The remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; rather, they are allocated to parties based on each party's share of the national vote. The 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare.

A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature. This is also sometimes called single-winner voting or winner takes all. The alternatives are multi-member districts, or the election of a body by the whole electorate voting as one constituency.

The federal electoral districts of Mexico are the 300 constituencies or electoral districts into which Mexico is divided for the purpose of federal elections. Each district returns one federal deputy (diputado), who sits in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Federal Congress. An additional 200 deputies are elected by proportional representation from the five electoral regions.

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party as their favorite, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result—not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.

From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitution's ban on immediate re-election to the legislature. Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world that was completely renewed at an election. However, this changed with the 2018 elections, and deputies are now permitted to run for re-election. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six-year mandate are known as mid-term elections.

Sexenio is the popular term for the term limit on the President of Mexico. The president is limited to a single six-year term, and no one who holds the office even on a caretaker basis is permitted to run for or hold the office again. It is one of the country's most important political institutions because it is one of the few significant limitations on executive power in Mexico, which is strong at local, state, and national levels. The sexenio is seen as a reaction to the failed experiment of re-election in Mexico during part of the Porfiriato era (1876–1911). In addition to restricting the presidency, state governors also face this restriction; no one elected as a governor may ever hold the post again, even on an interim basis.

Last election

2018

PartyDistrictProportionalTotal
seats
+/−
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
National Regeneration Movement 709,8401.27820,972,57337.2584189+154
National Action Party 697,5951.25510,096,58817.934183−25
Institutional Revolutionary Party 4,351,8247.7819,310,52316.543845−158
Party of the Democratic Revolution 124,8080.2202,967,9695.271221−35
Ecologist Green Party 1,429,8022.5502,695,4054.791116−31
Citizens' Movement 268,8760.4802,485,1984.411027+1
Labor Party 67,4290.1202,211,7533.93461+55
New Alliance Party 705,4321.2601,391,3762.4702−8
Social Encounter Party 54,9060.1001,353,9412.40056+48
MORENA–PT–PES [a] 23,513,13242.01210
PAN–PRD–MC [b] 14,381,87225.7063
PRI–PVEM–PNA [c] 6,862,37212.2613
Independents539,3470.960539,3470.9600−1
Write-ins32,6250.0632,9590.06
Invalid/blank votes2,227,5733.982,242,6153.98
Total55,967,43310030056,300,2471002005000
Registered voters/turnout89,994,03962.2089,994,03963.21
Source: INE

a Of the 210 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 97 were taken by MORENA, 57 by the PT, and 56 by the PES

b Of the 63 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 37 were taken by the PAN, 17 by the MC, and 9 by the PRD

c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 6 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, and 2 by the PNA

Popular Vote
MORENA
37.25%
PAN
17.93%
PRI
16.54%
PRD
5.27%
PVEM
4.79%
MC
4.41%
PT
3.93%
PNA
2.47%
PES
2.40%
Independents
0.96%
Write-ins
0.06%
Invalid/blank
3.98%
Seats
MORENA
37.8%
PAN
16.6%
PT
12.2%
PES
11.2%
PRI
9.0%
MC
5.4%
PRD
4.2%
PVEM
3.2%
PNA
0.4%
Independents
0.0%
Chamber of Deputies party composition Mexican Chamber of Deputies 2018 elections.svg
Chamber of Deputies party composition
Electoral alliances in the Chamber of Deputies. Juntos Haremos Historia 306 seats, Por Mexico al Frente 131 seats, Todos por Mexico 63 seats Mexican GE 2018 Alliances.svg
Electoral alliances in the Chamber of Deputies. Juntos Haremos Historia 306 seats, Por México al Frente 131 seats, Todos por México 63 seats

History

After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, which was later put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location. [2]

See also

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References

  1. "Mexico: Democratization Through Electoral Reform —". aceproject.org. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  2. "Celebra SEGOB los 187 años de la firma del acta de Independencia". Presidencia de la Republica. Retrieved March 24, 2014.Cite web requires |website= (help)

Coordinates: 19°25′48″N99°07′04″W / 19.43000°N 99.11778°W / 19.43000; -99.11778