Chamber of Deputies
Cámara de Diputados
|Founded||September 28, 1821|
| Government (335)|
| Parallel voting |
300 Seats elected by first-past-the-post
200 seats elected by largest remainder method
|July 1, 2018|
|Chamber of Deputies|
San Lázaro Legislative Palace
|Official Website of the Chamber of Deputies|
|"Diputadas y Diputados por Entidad Federativa" http://sitl.diputados.gob.mx/LXIV_leg/info_diputados.php|
The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Iberian Peninsula and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Spain and the Americas. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
A bicameral legislature has legislators in two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. As of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures are bicameral.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.
The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative (in Spanish: diputado federal) for every 200,000 citizens. The Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system. Elections are every 3 years.
Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.
Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected by plurality from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts (with each state divided into at least two districts). The remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; rather, they are allocated to parties based on each party's share of the national vote. The 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare.
A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature. This is also sometimes called single-winner voting or winner takes all. The alternatives are multi-member districts, or the election of a body by the whole electorate voting as one constituency.
The federal electoral districts of Mexico are the 300 constituencies or electoral districts into which Mexico is divided for the purpose of federal elections. Each district returns one federal deputy (diputado), who sits in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Federal Congress. An additional 200 deputies are elected by proportional representation from the five electoral regions.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party as their favorite, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result—not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.
From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitution's ban on immediate re-election to the legislature. Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world that was completely renewed at an election. However, this changed with the 2018 elections, and deputies are now permitted to run for re-election. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six-year mandate are known as mid-term elections.
Sexenio is the popular term for the term limit on the President of Mexico. The president is limited to a single six-year term, and no one who holds the office even on a caretaker basis is permitted to run for or hold the office again. It is one of the country's most important political institutions because it is one of the few significant limitations on executive power in Mexico, which is strong at local, state, and national levels. The sexenio is seen as a reaction to the failed experiment of re-election in Mexico during part of the Porfiriato era (1876–1911). In addition to restricting the presidency, state governors also face this restriction; no one elected as a governor may ever hold the post again, even on an interim basis.
|National Regeneration Movement||709,840||1.27||8||20,972,573||37.25||84||189||+154|
|National Action Party||697,595||1.25||5||10,096,588||17.93||41||83||−25|
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||4,351,824||7.78||1||9,310,523||16.54||38||45||−158|
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||124,808||0.22||0||2,967,969||5.27||12||21||−35|
|Ecologist Green Party||1,429,802||2.55||0||2,695,405||4.79||11||16||−31|
|New Alliance Party||705,432||1.26||0||1,391,376||2.47||0||2||−8|
|Social Encounter Party||54,906||0.10||0||1,353,941||2.40||0||56||+48|
a Of the 210 seats won by the MORENA-PT–PES alliance, 97 were taken by MORENA, 57 by the PT, and 56 by the PES
b Of the 63 seats won by the PAN–PRD–MC alliance, 37 were taken by the PAN, 17 by the MC, and 9 by the PRD
c Of the 13 seats won by the PRI–PVEM–PNA alliance, 6 were taken by the PRI, 5 by the PVEM, and 2 by the PNA
After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, which was later put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location.
The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial, Anahis term as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, published in 1917. The constituent states of the federation must also have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions.
The Congress of the Union, formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States, is the legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Its 628 members meet in Mexico City.
The Mexican state of Chihuahua held an election on Sunday, 4 July 2004. At stake was the office of the Chihuahua State Governor, all 33 members of the unicameral Chihuahua State Congress, and 67 mayors and municipal councils.
The Labor Party is a political party in Mexico. It was founded on 8 December 1990. The party is currently led by Alberto Anaya.
The New Alliance Party was a political party in Mexico from 2005 to 2018.
The LX Legislature (60th) of the Congress of Mexico met from September 1, 2006, to September 1, 2009. All members of both the lower and upper houses of Congress were elected in the elections of July 2006.
The LXII Legislature of the Congress of Mexico met from September 1, 2012, to August 31, 2015. All members of both the lower and upper houses of the Congress were elected in the elections of July 2012.
General elections were held in Mexico on 1 July 2018. Voters elected a new President of Mexico to serve a term of five years and ten months, 128 members of the Senate for a period of six years and 500 members of the Chamber of Deputies for a period of three years. It was one of the largest election days in Mexican history, with most of the nation's states holding state and local elections on the same day, including nine governorships, with over 3,400 positions subject to elections at all levels of government. It was the most violent campaign Mexico has experienced in recent history, with 130 political figures killed since September 2017.
Legislative elections were held in Mexico on 7 June 2015, alongside municipal elections.
Lorena Cuéllar Cisneros is a Mexican politician affiliated with the Labor Party (PT). She currently serves as a federal deputy in the LXIV Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing Tlaxcala; she had previously been a senator and mayor of the state capital of Tlaxcala.
The National Regeneration Movement, also known by its acronym MORENA, is a Cardenist and social-democratic political party in Mexico. Established as a non-profit organization in 2011 and formally registered as a political party in 2014, it was led by three-time presidential candidate and current President of Mexico, Andrés Manuel López Obrador until 12 December 2017, when he registered himself as a candidate for the party's nomination, and was succeeded by Yeidckol Polevnsky Gurwitz.
Rutilio Cruz Escandón Cadenas is a Mexican lawyer and politician from Chiapas. He is affiliated with Morena and is the current Governor of Chiapas. Before becoming governor, he represented Chiapas as a senator of the LVIII and LIX and a federal deputy in the LX Legislature.
Liborio Vidal Aguilar is a Mexican politician from the Institutional Revolutionary Party. He is a federal deputy to the LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress representing the First Federal Electoral District of Yucatán.
Social Encounter Party was a Mexican conservative political party established on the national level in 2014 and dissolved in 2018. It is part of the coalition Juntos Haremos Historia with the National Regeneration Movement and Mexico's Labor Party for the 2018 Mexican election.
The LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress is made up of senators and deputies that are members of their respective chambers. It convened on September 1, 2015 and concluded on August 31, 2018.
Marco Antonio Mena Rodríguez is a Mexican politician from the Institutional Revolutionary Party, the Governor of Tlaxcala since January 2017. He won the 2016 gubernatorial elections after previously serving in several administrative positions as well as a deputy to the state congress.
The Constitutional Assembly of Mexico City is a body formed to create a new constitution for Mexico City in the wake of the 2016 political reforms that convert Mexico City into a federative entity comparable to the 31 states. It will be installed on September 15, 2016, and must create the new constitution by January 31, 2017.
Ángel García Yáñez is a Mexican politician affiliated to the New Alliance Party. He will serve as a senator in the LXIV Legislature of the Mexican Congress from the state of Morelos. From 2015 to 2018, he represented the Fifth Federal Electoral District of Morelos, centered on Yautepec, in the Chamber of Deputies of the LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress.
Everyone for Mexico, was a political coalition encompassing the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), New Alliance (PANAL), and the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM) to compete in the 2018 Mexican general election led by the presumptive nominee José Antonio Meade Kuribreña. The campaign was previously known as Meade Ciudadano por México until INE deemed unconstitutional the usage of the name of a political candidate within the name of a coalition, stating that allowing it would make Meade receive extra benefit from every piece of propaganda of the coalition.