Chamber of Deputies
Cámara de Diputados
|Founded||September 28, 1821|
| Government (314)|
| Parallel voting |
300 Seats elected by plurality voting
200 seats elected by largest remainder method
|July 1, 2018|
|Chamber of Deputies|
San Lázaro Legislative Palace
|Official Website of the Chamber of Deputies|
The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution.
Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. As of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures are bicameral.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.
The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative (in Spanish: diputado federal) for every 200,000 citizens. The Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system.
Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.
Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected by plurality from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts. The remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; rather, they are allocated to parties based on each party's share of the national vote. The 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare.
A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature. This is also sometimes called single-winner voting or winner takes all. The alternative are multi-member districts, or the election of a body by the whole electorate voting as one constituency.
The federal electoral districts of Mexico are the 300 constituencies or electoral districts into which Mexico is divided for the purpose of federal elections. Each district returns one federal deputy (diputado), who sits in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Federal Congress. An additional 200 deputies are elected by proportional representation from the five electoral regions.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result - not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.
From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitution's ban on immediate re-election to the legislature. Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world that was completely renewed at an election. However, this will change at the 2018 elections; deputies are now permitted to run for re-election. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six-year mandate are known as mid-term elections.
|National Regeneration Movement||661,068||1.18||2||21,261,577||37.50||13||55||New|
|National Action Party||600,423||1.07||1||9,971,804||17.59||6||23||–15|
|Institutional Revolutionary Party||3,855,984||6.86||0||9,013,658||15.90||6||13||–44|
|Party of the Democratic Revolution||96,393||0.17||0||2,984,861||5.27||2||8||–15|
|Ecologist Green Party||1,198,011||2.13||0||2,528,175||4.46||2||7||+3|
|Social Encounter Party||28,878||0.05||0||1,320,559||2.33||0||8||New|
|New Alliance Party||593,507||1.06||0||1,307,015||2.31||0||1||0|
After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, which was later put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location.
The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared independence from the Spanish Empire. This founding document of the Mexican nation was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City on September 28, 1821, by Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros, secretary of the Provisional Governmental Board.
The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial, Anahis term as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, published in 1917. The constituent states of the federation must also have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions.
The Dominican Republic is a representative democracy, where the President of the Dominican Republic functions as both the head of the government and head of the multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral National Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
The Congress of Deputies is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch. It is located in the Palace of the Parliament.
The Congress of the Union, formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States, is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.
The Senate of the Republic, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union, is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.
The National Assembly is the de jure legislature for Venezuela that was first elected in 2000. The National Assembly has been rendered ceremonial since the introduction of the Constituent Assembly in 2017. It is a unicameral body made up of a variable number of members, who were elected by a "universal, direct, personal, and secret" vote partly by direct election in state-based voting districts, and partly on a state-based party-list proportional representation system. The number of seats is constant, each state and the Capital district elected three representatives plus the result of dividing the state population by 1.1% of the total population of the country. Three seats are reserved for representatives of Venezuela's indigenous peoples and elected separately by all citizens, not just those with indigenous backgrounds. For the 2010-2015 period the number of seats was 165. All deputies serve five-year terms. The National Assembly meets in the Federal Legislative Palace in Venezuela's capital, Caracas.
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower chamber of the Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the Dominican Republic.
The National Congress of Brazil is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government. Unlike the state Legislative Assemblies and Municipal Chambers, the Congress is bicameral, composed of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. The Congress meets annually in Brasília, from 2 February to 27 July and from 1 August to 22 December.
The Honourable Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile is the lower house of Chile's bicameral Congress. Its organisation and its powers and duties are defined in articles 42 to 59 of Chile's current constitution.
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Argentine National Congress. It is made up of 257 national deputies who are elected in multi-member constituencies corresponding with the territories of the 23 provinces of Argentina by party list proportional representation. Elections to the Chamber are held every two years; half of its members are renewed each election.
Elections in Mexico determine who, on the national level, takes the position of the head of state – the president – as well as the legislature.
The Plurinational Legislative Assembly is the national legislature of Bolivia, placed in La Paz, the country's seat of government.
The Chamber of Deputies is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. The chamber comprises 513 deputies, who are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. The current President of the Chamber is the deputy Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), who was elected in July 14, 2016 to serve for the remainder of the 2015–2016 term.
The President of the Congress of Deputies is the speaker of the Congress of Deputies, the lower house of Spain's Cortes Generales. The current office was established in 1978 by Article 72, Section 2 of the Spanish Constitution, which states in part, "The Chambers shall choose their respective Presidents...". However, the position has a tradition of more than 200 years, since its creation in 1810 as President of the Cortes of Cadiz.
The Federal government of Mexico is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations. The Mexican federal government has three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial and functions per the Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, and as amended.
The President of the Senate of Spain is the speaker of the Spanish Senate, the upper house of Spain's Cortes Generales. The current office was established in 1978 by Article 72, Section 2 of the Spanish Constitution, which states in part, "The Houses shall choose their respective Presidents...". However, the position has a tradition of almost 200 years, since its creation in 1834.
Roberto Gil Zuarth is a Mexican politician affiliated with the PAN. He was Undersecretary of the Interior. He also served as Deputy between 2009 and 2011 during the 61st Legislature. He contended in 2010 for the presidency of the National Action Party against Gustavo Madero Muñoz. He was Private Secretary to Mexican President Felipe Calderón. He currently serves as Senator of the LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress. Since September 1, 2015 he is the President of the Mexican Senate.
General elections were held in Dominican Republic on 15 May 2016 to elect a president, vice-president and the Congress, as well as 20 deputies to the Central American Parliament, municipal councils, mayors and vice mayors. On 15 May 2015 Roberto Rosario, president of the Central Electoral Board, said that there would be about 4,300 seats up for election in the "most complex elections in history".
The LXIII Legislature of the Mexican Congress is made up of senators and deputies that are members of their respective chambers. It convened on September 1, 2015 and concluded on August 31, 2018.
The history of the Costa Rican legislature is long and starts from even before its formal independence from the Spanish Empire. Costa Rica is one of the world's oldest democracies, thus, its parliamentary history dates back several centuries.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.