Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)

Last updated
Chamber of Deputies

Cámara de Diputados
LXIV Legislature
Chamber of Deputies (Mexico).svg
Type
Type
History
FoundedSeptember 28, 1821 (1821-09-28)
Leadership
Porfirio Muñoz Ledo (MORENA)
since 1 September 2018
Structure
Seats500
Diputados de Mexico (2018-2021).svg
Political groups
Government (314)

Opposition (186)

Elections
Parallel voting
300 Seats elected by plurality voting
200 seats elected by largest remainder method
Last election
July 1, 2018 (2018-07-01)
Meeting place
Mexico Chamber of Deputies backdrop.jpg
Chamber of Deputies
San Lázaro Legislative Palace
Mexico City
Mexico
Website
Official Website of the Chamber of Deputies

The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or more separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. As of 2015, fewer than half the world's national legislatures are bicameral.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government.

Contents

Composition

The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative (in Spanish: diputado federal) for every 200,000 citizens. The Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system.

Parallel voting describes a mixed electoral system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections for a single chamber using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other.

Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected by plurality from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts. The remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; rather, they are allocated to parties based on each party's share of the national vote. The 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare.

A single-member district or single-member constituency is an electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature. This is also sometimes called single-winner voting or winner takes all. The alternative are multi-member districts, or the election of a body by the whole electorate voting as one constituency.

The federal electoral districts of Mexico are the 300 constituencies or electoral districts into which Mexico is divided for the purpose of federal elections. Each district returns one federal deputy (diputado), who sits in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Federal Congress. An additional 200 deputies are elected by proportional representation from the five electoral regions.

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. If n% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly n% of seats will be won by that party. The essence of such systems is that all votes contribute to the result - not just a plurality, or a bare majority. The most prevalent forms of proportional representation all require the use of multiple-member voting districts, as it is not possible to fill a single seat in a proportional manner. In fact, the implementations of PR that achieve the highest levels of proportionality tend to include districts with large numbers of seats.

From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitution's ban on immediate re-election to the legislature. Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world that was completely renewed at an election. However, this will change at the 2018 elections; deputies are now permitted to run for re-election. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six-year mandate are known as mid-term elections.

Last election

2018

PartyConstituencyProportionalTotal

seats

+/–
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
National Regeneration Movement 661,0681.18221,261,57737.501355New
National Action Party 600,4231.0719,971,80417.59623–15
Institutional Revolutionary Party 3,855,9846.8609,013,65815.90613–44
Party of the Democratic Revolution 96,3930.1702,984,8615.2728–15
Citizens' Movement 570,7741.0122,654,4524.6827+6
Ecologist Green Party 1,198,0112.1302,528,1754.4627+3
Labor Party 51,2600.0902,164,4423.8216+2
Social Encounter Party 28,8780.0501,320,5592.3308New
New Alliance Party 593,5071.0601,307,0152.31010
MORENA–PT–PES [a] 23,754,42242.2453
PAN–PRD–MC [b] 14,222,04625.2925
PRI–PVEM–PNA [c] 7,145,86912.7113
Independents1,109,1491.971,109,1491.9700
Write-ins30,5680.0531,8200.06
Invalid/blank votes2,319,4894.122,344,3574.14
Total56,237,8411009656,691,869100321280
Registered voters/turnout89,994,03962.4989,994,03963.52
Source: INE

History

After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, which was later put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location. [1]

Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire

The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared independence from the Spanish Empire. This founding document of the Mexican nation was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City on September 28, 1821, by Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros, secretary of the Provisional Governmental Board.

See also

Politics of Mexico

The Politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial, Anahis term as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, published in 1917. The constituent states of the federation must also have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions.

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References

  1. "Celebra SEGOB los 187 años de la firma del acta de Independencia". Presidencia de la Republica. Retrieved March 24, 2014.

Coordinates: 19°25′48″N99°07′04″W / 19.43000°N 99.11778°W / 19.43000; -99.11778

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.