Champ Car

Last updated
Champ Car
Champ Car logo.svg
Category Single seaters
CountryInternational
Inaugural season1979 (as CART)
2004 (as Champ Car)
Folded 2008
Engine suppliers Cosworth
Last Drivers' champion Flag of France.svg Sébastien Bourdais (2007)
Last Constructors' champion Flag of the United States.svg Panoz (2007)

Champ Car was the trade name for Open Wheel Racing Series Inc., a sanctioning body for American open-wheel car racing that operated from 2004 to 2008. It was the successor to Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART), which sanctioned the PPG Indy Car World Series from 1979 until dissolving after the 2003 season.

Contents

CART was founded in 1979 by United States Auto Club (USAC) Championship Division team owners who disagreed with the direction and leadership of USAC, with the then-novel idea of car owners sanctioning and promoting their own series collectively instead of relying on a neutral body to do so. Through the 1980s, the Indy Car World Series became the pre-eminent open-wheel auto racing series in North America, featuring street circuits, road courses, and oval track racing. CART drivers continued to compete at the USAC-sanctioned Indianapolis 500.

Even as the series prospered, concerns about costs, competitiveness, and revenue sharing began to create opposition to CART's organizational structure. Attempts at reform, which saw the company rebranded as IndyCar in 1992 [1] and a compromise board formed, failed. In 1996, an open wheel "split" saw the newly created Indy Racing League (IRL) take full control over the Indianapolis 500 and start a competing oval-based open-wheel series. CART ceased using the IndyCar name but continued its series without participating in the Indianapolis 500.

The "split" saw a dramatic fall in general interest for open wheel racing in the United States, which was compounded by the growing popularity of NASCAR, creating a downward trend in sponsorship and attendance at some tracks. After a series of setbacks in the early 2000s saw the departure of major racing teams and engine manufacturers to the IRL, CART went bankrupt at the end of the 2003 season. A trio of team owners acquired the assets of the series renamed it the Champ Car World Series. Continuing financial difficulties caused Champ Car to file for bankruptcy before its planned 2008 season; its assets and history were merged into the IRL's IndyCar Series, reuniting both series of American open-wheel racing.

Vehicles

Emerson Fittipaldi in a Penske-Chevrolet at Mid-Ohio, 1993 Emerson-fittipaldi mid-ohio keyhole.jpg
Emerson Fittipaldi in a Penske-Chevrolet at Mid-Ohio, 1993

Champ Cars (before 1997, advertised as IndyCars) were single-seat, open-wheel racing cars, with mid-mounted engines. Champ cars had sculpted undersides to create ground effects and prominent wings to create downforce. The cars would use different aerodynamic kits depending on whether they were racing on an oval or a road-course.

Teams typically purchased chassis constructed by independent suppliers such as Lola, Swift, Reynard, and March, with some owners, such as Dan Gurney and Roger Penske, constructing their own. The series exclusively used Goodyear tires until 1995, when Firestone entered, creating a spirited competition between the brands. Firestone ultimately became the exclusive supplier in 2000, with their parent company Bridgestone taking over the role in 2003 and maintained it until 2007.

Champ Cars used turbocharged engines that ran on methanol fuel. Cosworth (branded as Ford), Ilmor (branded as Chevrolet), and Buick engines were common until the mid-1990s, which saw Mercedes-Benz take over as Ilmor's branding and Honda and Toyota enter factory efforts. Until 2003 engines were typically leased from manufacturers, who conducted research and development during the racing season; one engine could easily dominate competition in the first part of the season and then fall behind. The exclusive availability of more advanced versions of engines to certain teams in the early-1990s became a major source of contention within the organization, and manufacturers fiercely resisted proposals to have engines simply be purchased by teams.

Starting in 2003, after the withdrawal of Honda and Toyota, Champ Car purchased a series of identical 2.65L V-8 turbocharged Cosworth engines and leased them to teams under Ford branding. In 2007, Champ Car was effectively a "spec" series, with all teams running a Panoz DP01 chassis and a Cosworth engine.

Champ Cars were visually similar, and often compared to, Formula 1 cars, which also featured wings, mid-engines, and an open-wheel design. Due to their use on ovals, Champ Cars weighed more and were more substantial in size, but typically had more powerful engines. Both series tended to downplay comparisons for commercial reasons, but 2002 saw a rare occurrence in both series running the same track (Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in Montreal) within a month of each other. Juan Pablo Montoya won the pole position for the Formula One race with a lap time of 1'12.836, with the slowest being Alex Yoong's 1'17.34; Several weeks later, Cristiano da Matta won the pole position in a Champ Car race with a lap time of 1'18.959.

History

Foundation

A. J. Foyt March/Cosworth at Pocono in 1984. AJFoyt1984Pocono.jpg
A. J. Foyt March/Cosworth at Pocono in 1984.

In 1905 the AAA established a national driving championship and became the first sanctioning body for auto racing in the United States. The AAA ceased sanctioning auto racing in the general outrage over motor racing safety that followed the 1955 Le Mans disaster. In response, Indianapolis Motor Speedway president Tony Hulman formed the United States Auto Club (USAC) to take over the sanctioning of what was called "championship" auto racing, or open wheel racing, whose biggest event was the annual Indianapolis 500 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. USAC sanctioned the championship exclusively until 1978, and was the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's recongized American authority with regard to open wheel racing.

Competitors in the chapmionship circuit, coalescing around Dan Gurney, began to become critical of USAC's sanctioning though the 1970s. Notable incidents included the loss of a lucrative sponsorship by Marlboro in 1971 after USAC failed to enforce the brand's exclusivity at events, the existence of dirt tracks, purses that teams said would result in a loss in money even if the team made the podium, and a lack of modern promotion for the non-Indianapolis events in the series.

In early 1978, Gurney wrote what came to be known as the "Gurney White Paper", the blueprint for an organization called Championship Auto Racing Teams. [2] Gurney took his inspiration from the improvements Bernie Ecclestone had forced on Formula One with his creation of the Formula One Constructors Association. The White Paper called for the owners to form CART as an advocacy group to promote USAC's national championship. The group would also work to negotiate television rights, sponsorship agreements, and race purses, and ideally hold seats on USAC's governing body. In 1978, the last season that USAC was sole sanctioning body for Championship racing, their 18 race schedule had 4 road course races and 14 oval track races.

On April 23, 1978, 8 top USAC officials died in an airplane crash, creating an organizational vacuum that severely hampered the 1978 season. In November 1978 Gurney, joined by other leading team owners including Roger Penske and Pat Patrick, took their requests to USAC's Board, but the proposal was rejected, leading to the creation of a new stand-alone series The first CART race was held in March 1979, with the Sports Car Club of America sanctioning the series.

USAC initially tried to ban all CART drivers from the 1979 Indianapolis 500, informing CART teams by telegram during their event at Atlanta Motor Speedway, until CART succeeded in obtaining an injunction to allow its cars to qualify. [3] Of the 20 races held in 1979, 13 were part of the 1979 CART Championship. An attempt by USAC and CART to jointly sanction races in 1980 as the Championship Racing League saw USAC withdraw after 5 races, and by the end of 1981 the only USAC sanctioned asphalt championship race was the Indianapolis 500.

CART PPG Indy Car World Series (1982-1991)

In order, Rick Mears, Mario Andretti, and Bobby Rahal at Laguna Seca, 1991. Rick Mears, Mario Andretti and Bobby Rahal 1991 Laguna Seca Cropped.jpg
In order, Rick Mears, Mario Andretti, and Bobby Rahal at Laguna Seca, 1991.

By 1982, the CART PPG Indy Car World Series was universally recognized as the American national championship in open wheel racing. In 1983, USAC agreed to allow CART to add the Indy 500 to its schedule and have drivers be awarded points in the CART championship in return for retaining the authority to sanction the 500. Beginning with a schedule mainly based on oval speedways like its USAC predecessor, the series began to move into prominent North American road racing circuits such as Road America, Mid-Ohio, and Laguna Seca, replacing the declining Can-Am series. Many racing stars, including Mario Andretti, Bobby Rahal, and Danny Sullivan found success in CART, which by the mid-1980s moved into sanctioning street races, taking over the Detroit Grand Prix and the Grand Prix of Long Beach from Formula One, and expanding to Toronto and Cleveland. CART founded the first full-time driver safety team that traveled with the series, instead of depending on local staff provided by promoters.

For the first time, open-wheel racing outside of Indianapolis had developed a stable schedule, enabling more generous sponsorship and television opportunities for the owners. Despite the corresponding increases in attendance, TV revenue, and purses, CART's egalitarian governing structure created its own headaches. CART owners were incredibly diverse: For example, owners such as Carl Haas and Roger Penske owned speedways and had generous contracts with tire, chassis, and engine manufactures, while other teams simply purchased older cars and ran the races they could afford to attend. The diversity of interests led to annual fights and accusations of real and apparent conflicts of interest with regard to rules, sponsorship, driver safety, track selection, and other matters.

In 1988, CART joined ACCUS, allowing foreign drivers to compete without risking their FIA superlicenses. [4] This, combined with former F1 champion Emerson Fittipaldi's series title in 1989, attracted drivers from South America and Europe to join what had previously been a mostly American dominated series. A growing contingent of international drivers helped make the series a valuable television property for growing sports cable networks worldwide. CART would host its first race outside North America, in Surfer's Paradise, Australia, in 1991.

IndyCar and the "Split" (1992-1996)

IndyCar branding (1992-96) IndyCar Logo (1992-1996).jpg
IndyCar branding (1992-96)
Nigel Mansell racing in a Lola-Ford in 1993 Mansell cart.jpg
Nigel Mansell racing in a Lola-Ford in 1993

As the larger teams and engine and chassis manufactures competed for victories, costs were rapidly increasing, pricing out smaller teams. Tony George, by 1989 the president of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS), and others viewed foreign drivers and street circuits as discouraging USAC American sprint racing talent, such as Indiana driver Jeff Gordon, from competing in IndyCars. [5] NASCAR, which ran predominantly on ovals, was gaining in popularity in IndyCar's traditional Midwestern US market.

CART was regularly accused of serving only the interest of team owners, especially the richest ones, and not of the sport as a whole. CART owners believed that the teams, who took the most risks, paid the drivers, and expended the most cash, should control the general direction of the sport. CART owners also resented George, and felt that his close relationship with USAC meant he could jeopardize the series' involvement in the Indianapolis 500 on a whim. Debate continued for a number of years over the proper oversight mechanism for the sport, with IMS resisting any revenue sharing or control over Indianapolis and owners not wanting to give too much power to track promoters. In an attempt to address these concerns, in 1992, CART rebranded as IndyCar, and later in 1992 formed a compromise board with owners electing five members with voting rights, with the IndyCar CEO (representing the other owners) and George (representing IMS) having non-voting seats.

1993 would see British driver Nigel Mansell, the 1992 F1 Driver's Champion, switch to IndyCar and beat Fittipaldi for the championship. The new board collapsed at the end of the season after a series of controversial decisions, mainly shutting out Japanese manufacturers, cancelling a planned race at Brands Hatch in the United Kingdom, and keeping the schedule exactly the same, that were seen as driven by conflicts of interest of George and the five owners elected to the new board. [6]

In March 1994, George announced his resignation from the IndyCar board. That year, Team Penske introduced a Mercedes-Benz engine specifically designed for the 1994 Indianapolis 500 that exploited a rule difference between the USAC and IndyCar, dominating the race and prompting fears that costs would continue to grow out of control. [7] In July, IMS announced the founding of the Indy Racing League, which would be cost controlled and race solely on American ovals and be sanctioned by USAC. [8]

Target-Chip Ganassi Racing would win CART drivers championships with Jimmy Vasser (1996, car pictured), Alex Zanardi (1997 and 1998), and Juan Pablo Montoya (1999). Reynard 96I right Honda Collection Hall.jpg
Target-Chip Ganassi Racing would win CART drivers championships with Jimmy Vasser (1996, car pictured), Alex Zanardi (1997 and 1998), and Juan Pablo Montoya (1999).

After the 1995 Indianapolis 500 saw driver complaints about USAC's oversight, George announced that for the 1996 Indianapolis 500 the top 25 drivers in IRL points would be guaranteed a spot in the race, leaving only eight of the 33 grid positions available to others. This was known as the "25/8 Rule," [9] and was unprecedented, as the 500 had traditionally always put every spot up for open qualification. [9] CART declared they had been locked out of the event and would no longer race at Indianapolis, while George declared that CART was boycotting. [10] To placate sponsors who contractually required the accommodation of large contingents to attend Indianapolis, CART created a rival showcase event, the U.S. 500, at Michigan International Speedway on the same day as the Indy 500 in 1996. [10] In March, Indianapolis Motor Speedway attempted to terminate CART's license to their "IndyCar" trademark in Federal Court. [11]

The lead-up to Memorial Day 1996 saw a public relations war, pitting the owners and drivers of CART against George and IMS. Michael Andretti publicly stated that allowing the IRL regulars to run the race and compensating by increasing turbo boost would provoke injury, calling it "unconscionable." [12]

The 1996 Indianapolis 500 did see a series of accidents, with a quarter of the race run under caution before Buddy Lazier won his first race. [12] The US 500, starting halfway through the Indy 500, had a disastrous start with a twelve-car crash, delaying the race for an hour. [12] Jimmy Vasser, who won by 11 seconds, quipped "Who needs milk?" while exiting his car for the podium, referring to the tradition of the Indy 500 winner drinking milk. Both at the time and in retrospect, the weekend was seen as a fiasco that began a serious decline in open-wheel racing, with both the Indy 500 and other Indycar events seeing drastic decline in prominence, TV viewership, and attendance.

CART FedEx Championship Series (1997–2000)

Logo, 1997-2002 Cart.gif
Logo, 1997–2002

After a number of competing lawsuits, CART agreed to revert to their formal initialism following the 1996 season, on the condition that the IRL would not use the name before the end of the 2002 season. [13] CART began promoting its vehicles as "champ cars," a term that had previously been used by USAC's championship division.

In the early years after the launch of the IRL in 1996, CART was in a far stronger position: It held most of the prestigious races, sponsorship money, most of the "name" drivers and teams, and was the preferred series for manufacturers due to the IRL's ban on engine leases. IRL's primary asset was Indianapolis Motor Speedway and its 500. 1996 and 1997 saw generally well regarding racing with stars such as Jimmy Vasser, rookie sensation Alex Zanardi, and Michael Andretti leading the points standings, while the IRL experienced growing pains, including a rain-soaked 1997 Indianapolis 500, off-putting engine sounds from their new normally-aspirated engines, and the abandonment of USAC sanctioning due to incompetence. [14]

CART, in further contrast to IMS's sole ownership of the IRL, opted to proceed with a public stock offering, selling on the NASDAQ as stock symbol MPH. The offering raised US$100 million by selling 35% of the company. While this allowed CART to have sufficient cash reserves to expand and purchase the Indy Lights series, commentators suggested it was short-sighted to subject the notoriously secretive and fluctuating finances of the auto racing industry to public trading requirements. [15]

Greg Moore in a 1996 Reynard-Mercedes. Moore's death in 1999 left the series without one of its rising stars. Greg-moore mid-hio-cart 08-10-1996.jpg
Greg Moore in a 1996 Reynard-Mercedes. Moore's death in 1999 left the series without one of its rising stars.

Efforts, led mostly by engine manufacturers, to pressure CART and the IRL to at least adopt uniform engine standards were met with a cold refusal from the IRL, which started to carve a niche in the motorsports landscape by leveraging close relationships with the new NASCAR spec ovals being built, with the series' substantial losses being underwritten by the other revenue streams of IMS. [16]

Despite the split, CART saw its annual revenues increase from $38,000,000 in 1995 to $68,800,000 by 1999, street races remained lucrative, and teams were able to make some gains on sponsorship revenues. [17] The success was uneven, as the series' traditional oval races in Michigan and Nazareth began to see dramatic attendance declines, [18] which CART blamed on substandard marketing. [19] Television ratings and revenue were anemic, with the series receiving $5,000,000 annually for the entirety of its television package, less than the rate for some individual NASCAR races. [20] While CART's stock was generally considered healthy, investors noted that the company's valuation tended to fluctuate with the perceived success or failure of IRL merger talks. [21]

CART's championship battle in 1999 between young stars Juan Pablo Montoya and Dario Franchitti was overshadowed by the deaths of drivers Gonzalo Rodríguez and Greg Moore within two months of each other. Moore's death at the 1999 Marlboro 500 especially raised serious concerns about safety in the 500 mile races conducted in Fontana and Michigan that saw Champ Cars average speeds of near 240 mph (390 km/h).

In 2000, in an attempt to recover domestic market share, CART owners forced Andrew Craig to resign as CEO, and popular driver/owner Bobby Rahal stepped in as interim CEO. One of his first acts was to replace the PPG Cup (used from 1979–1999) with the Vanderbilt Cup as the series championship trophy. Chip Ganassi, under pressure from his main sponsors, also persuaded the board to leave Memorial Day open on the schedule and returned to the Indy 500 with Vasser and Montoya. Montoya put on a dominating performance at Indy, leading 167 of the 200 laps to win. The Ganassi team's primary advantage was the greater engineering put into their IRL-spec car. 2000 would see Team Penske's return to prominence as Gil de Ferran won the driver's title.

Decline (2001-2002)

Adrian Fernandez in a 2002 Lola-Honda. Adrian Fernandez - 2002 Sure For Men Rockingham 500 (1).jpg
Adrian Fernandez in a 2002 Lola-Honda.

For 2001, CART unveiled their most ambitious schedule yet, with 22 races in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany and Australia. The loss of Homestead-Miami and Gateway to the IRL was to be offset by the addition of Texas Motor Speedway, which had seen an exciting IRL race the year prior. Rahal retired to head Jaguar Racing in Formula 1, leading to marketing expert Joseph Heitzler taking the helm. [22]

Brazil was cancelled after track promoters defaulted. The race at Texas Motor Speedway had to be cancelled on race day, due to concerns of drivers blacking out at the high G forces created by Champ cars on the heavily banked course during qualifying. While applauded for putting driver safety first, the cancellation was a publicity disaster, and CART was criticized for not testing cars on the track earlier as requested. A resulting lawsuit, while settled, produced a quarterly loss for CART's stock and forever harmed its relationship with Speedway Motorsports. [23]

Despite CART teams sweeping the top 6 positions in the 2001 Indianapolis 500 and a highly competitive four-way points battle among Gil de Ferran, Kenny Brack, Hélio Castroneves, and Michael Andretti, headlines centered on a technological controversy regarding a turbo pop off valve that Honda and Ford had developed, prompting complaints by Toyota. [24] When CART mandated changes in the valve to help equalize the competition, Honda successfully obtained an injunction barring the change, leading to all three manufacturers being upset. Toyota would announce it would move to the IRL for 2003 at the end of the season. [25]

The series' first foray into Europe, the German 500, was overshadowed by the 9/11 attacks that occurred the Tuesday before the Sunday race. With the teams unable to leave due to the worldwide shutdown of airspace, CART decided to run the race as scheduled after some controversy, with ESPN refusing to air the race live. The race would see popular former champion Alex Zanardi lose both legs in an accident. The series inaugural event in the United Kingdom would come close to being cancelled due to track concerns. [26]

To keep coverage of the Indianapolis 500, ABC/ESPN signed an exclusive television deal for 2002 onwards with the IRL, forcing CART to turn to Speed Channel for cable coverage and buy time on CBS to maintain a broadcast presence. [27] Team Penske announced after the season that they would became permanent entrants in the IRL for 2002 due to pressure from sponsor Marlboro resulting from the American tobacco settlements that prevented cigarette advertising in multiple series. [28]

The loss of ESPN/ABC's exposure and engine manufacturer sponsoring began a downward spiral for the series, as race promoters began demanding reduced sanctioning fees for 2002 and sponsors began to review their agreements. [29] Heitzler was fired by the CART board in the offseason, being replaced by Chris Pook, the well-regarded CEO of the Long Beach Grand Prix. [30] Making matters worse was CART's growing ownership instability due to the public offering: Despite an initial agreement for the car owners to maintain 65% of the stock, agreements allowed owners to divest shares in the company. [29] As car owners began to sell off their shares, the board's chronic issues grew more complicated with aggressive stockholders beginning to pressure the board alongside owners. [31]

During the 2002 season, Honda announced that it would move to the IRL the following year, causing a drastic decline in CART's stock and leaving Cosworth/Ford as the sole engine manufacturer for 2003. [32] Attempts to subsidize teams to have enough cars racing to avoid breaching sanctioning contracts led to a further decline in cash reserves and the stock price. [33] Team owner Gerald Forsythe was able to purchase enough stock to control 22.5% of the voting shares in concert with the board. [33] Star driver Michael Andretti purchased the prominent Team Green and moved them to the IRL with heavy direction from Honda, [34] and Chip Ganassi Racing left due to pressure from its primary sponsor, Target.

Champ Car World Series (2003-2007)

Bourdais driving a Panoz-Cosworth in 2007. Sebastien Bourdais 2007.jpg
Bourdais driving a Panoz-Cosworth in 2007.

Beginning in 2003, after the withdrawal of FedEx as series sponsor, CART re-branded itself as "Bridgestone Presents The Champ Car World Series Powered by Ford". [35] CART, running out of cash reserves, declared bankruptcy after the 2003 season and its assets were liquidated. The IRL made a strategic bid to keep the series dormant, while a trio of CART owners (Forsythe, Paul Gentilozzi, and Kevin Kalkhoven) along with Dan Pettit made a bid for CART's assets as Open Wheel Racing Series, LLC. The bankruptcy court ruled in favor of the OWRS bid as more beneficial to creditors than the IRL bid, despite it being smaller.

While some prominent teams, such as Team Rahal and Fernández Racing moved to the IRL for 2004, the CCWS was able to maintain a full field and most of CART's street circuit sanctioning agreements. The series would see a pitched multi-season battle between Newman/Haas Racing and Forsythe Racing, including a heated personal rivalry between three-time champion Sébastien Bourdais and veteran Canadian Paul Tracy. The series would experiment with dramatic rule changes, including special compound tires that were to be used for a fixed portion of the race, standing starts, and timed races.

The IRL began to race on road and street circuits in 2005, creating some competition for series traditional road racing tracks, but both series continued to suffer from reduced fields, sponsorship, and television ratings. Merger talks in 2006 were halted after disagreements regarding the upcoming Panoz chassis and leaked details of a shared new series upset IMS. [36] The 2007 season saw the withdrawal of Bridgestone and Ford as presenting sponsors [36] and some race cancellations.

By January 2008, both the IRL and Champ Car feared they did not have enough participating cars to maintain their TV and sanctioning contract minimums. [37] After successful merger negotiations, in mid-February 2008, Champ Car authorized bankruptcy to facilitate a February 22 agreement in principle to merge with the IRL. [38] The IRL purchased the CCWS's sanctioning contracts, the Champ Car Mobile Medical Unit, the series history, and goodwill for $6 million, with Forsythe and Kalkhoven signing a non-compete agreement in exchange for $2 million each. [39]

While the first "merged" event of the rechristened "IndyCar Series" was the GAINSCO Auto Insurance Indy 300 from Homestead-Miami Speedway on March 29, 2008, due to a scheduling conflict with the 2008 Indy Japan 300, the 2008 Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach was held on April 20, 2008 as a Champ Car sanctioned event using CCWS-spec Panoz-Cosworth cars and the winners getting IRL points, with the event described as a final celebration of CART/CCWS.

Television

In its early years, television coverage of CART races were shared by NBC, ABC and ESPN. NBC left after the 1990 season, and returned for 1994's race in Toronto only. CBS also aired races from 1989 to 1991 and also aired the 1995 race at Nazareth. ABC, ESPN and ESPN2 continued as broadcasters until 2001.

In the 2002 and 2003 Champ Car seasons, coverage was split between CBS and Speed Channel (Fox aired the 2002 Toyota Grand Prix of Long Beach), while Spike TV aired the competition in 2004. Also from 2002 to 2004, select races aired on high definition channel HDNet such as Road America race in 2003.

In 2005 and 2006, coverage was split among NBC, CBS, and Speed Channel. In 2007, coverage was split among NBC, CBS, ABC, ESPN, ESPN2 and ESPN Classic.

Outside the United States, Eurosport aired CART and Champ Car in Europe from 1993 until its demise. In Latin America, ESPN aired CART and Fox Sports aired Champ Car. In Brazil, Champ Car was broadcast by SBT, Record and SporTV.

Champions

SeasonDriverTeamChassis/Engine Cup Jim Trueman
Rookie of the Year
SCCA/CART Citicorp Cup
1979 Flag of the United States.svg Rick Mears Penske Racing Penske/Cosworth Flag of the United States.svg Bill Alsup
CART PPG Indy Car World Series – sanctioned by CART
1980 Flag of the United States.svg Johnny Rutherford Chaparral Racing Chaparral/Cosworth Flag of Australia (converted).svg Dennis Firestone
1981 Flag of the United States.svg Rick Mears Penske Racing Penske/Cosworth Flag of the United States.svg Bob Lazier
1982 Flag of the United States.svg Rick Mears Penske Racing Penske/Cosworth Flag of the United States.svg Bobby Rahal
1983 Flag of the United States.svg Al Unser Penske Racing Penske/Cosworth Flag of Italy.svg Teo Fabi
1984 Flag of the United States.svg Mario Andretti Newman/Haas Racing Lola/Cosworth Flag of Colombia.svg Roberto Guerrero
1985 Flag of the United States.svg Al Unser Penske Racing March/Cosworth Flag of the Netherlands.svg Arie Luyendyk
1986 Flag of the United States.svg Bobby Rahal Truesports March/Cosworth Flag of the United States.svg Dominic Dobson
1987 Flag of the United States.svg Bobby Rahal Truesports Lola/Cosworth Flag of Italy.svg Fabrizio Barbazza
1988 Flag of the United States.svg Danny Sullivan Penske Racing Penske/Ilmor Chevrolet Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg John Jones
1989 Flag of Brazil.svg Emerson Fittipaldi Patrick Racing Penske/Ilmor Chevrolet Flag of Mexico.svg Bernard Jourdain
1990 Flag of the United States.svg Al Unser, Jr. Galles-Kraco Racing Lola/Ilmor Chevrolet Flag of the United States.svg Eddie Cheever
1991 Flag of the United States.svg Michael Andretti Newman/Haas Racing Lola/Ilmor Chevrolet Flag of the United States.svg Jeff Andretti
1992 Flag of the United States.svg Bobby Rahal Rahal/Hogan Racing Lola/Ilmor Chevrolet Flag of Sweden.svg Stefan Johansson
1993 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Nigel Mansell Newman/Haas Racing Lola/Cosworth Ford Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Nigel Mansell
1994 Flag of the United States.svg Al Unser, Jr. Penske Racing Penske/Ilmor Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Jacques Villeneuve
1995 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Jacques Villeneuve Team Green Racing Reynard/Cosworth Ford Flag of Brazil.svg Gil de Ferran
1996 Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy Vasser Chip Ganassi Racing Reynard/Honda Flag of Italy.svg Alex Zanardi
PPG CART World Series – sanctioned by CART
1997 Flag of Italy.svg Alex Zanardi Chip Ganassi Racing Reynard/Honda Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Patrick Carpentier
CART FedEx Championship Series – sanctioned by CART
1998 Flag of Italy.svg Alex Zanardi Chip Ganassi Racing Reynard/Honda Flag of Brazil.svg Tony Kanaan
1999 Flag of Colombia.svg Juan Pablo Montoya Chip Ganassi Racing Reynard/Honda Flag of Colombia.svg Juan Pablo Montoya
2000 Flag of Brazil.svg Gil de Ferran Penske Racing Reynard/Honda Flag of Sweden.svg Kenny Bräck
2001 Flag of Brazil.svg Gil de Ferran Penske Racing Reynard/Honda Flag of New Zealand.svg Scott Dixon
2002 Flag of Brazil.svg Cristiano da Matta Newman/Haas Racing Lola/Toyota Flag of Mexico.svg Mario Domínguez
Bridgestone Presents the Champ Car World Series Powered by Ford – sanctioned by CART
2003 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Paul Tracy Player's/Forsythe Racing Lola/Cosworth Ford Flag of France.svg Sébastien Bourdais
Bridgestone Presents the Champ Car World Series Powered by Ford – sanctioned by OWRS
2004 Flag of France.svg Sébastien Bourdais Newman/Haas Racing Lola/Cosworth Ford Flag of the United States.svg A. J. Allmendinger
2005 Flag of France.svg Sébastien Bourdais Newman/Haas Racing Lola/Cosworth Ford Flag of Germany.svg Timo Glock
2006 Flag of France.svg Sébastien Bourdais Newman/Haas Racing Lola/Cosworth Ford Flag of Australia (converted).svg Will Power
Champ Car World Series – sanctioned by OWRS
2007 Flag of France.svg Sébastien Bourdais Newman/Haas/Lanigan Racing Panoz/Cosworth Flag of the Netherlands.svg Robert Doornbos
2008 After "unification", Champ Car sanctioned a race at Long Beach where drivers scored points towards IndyCar title

By team

TeamChampionshipsLast
Flag of the United States.svg Penske Racing 92001
Flag of the United States.svg Newman/Haas Racing 82007
Flag of the United States.svg Chip Ganassi Racing 41999
Flag of the United States.svg Truesports 21987
Flag of the United States.svg Chaparral Racing 11980
Flag of the United States.svg Galles-Kraco Racing 11990
Flag of the United States.svg Team Green Racing 11995
Flag of the United States.svg Rahal/Hogan 11992
Flag of the United States.svg Patrick Racing 11989
Flag of the United States.svg Player's/Forsythe Racing 12003

Fatalities

Four drivers died in CART-sanctioned events:

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Indy Lights is an American developmental automobile racing series sanctioned by IndyCar, currently known as Indy Lights Presented by Cooper Tires for sponsorship reasons. Indy Lights is the highest step on the Road to Indy, a program of racing series leading up to the IndyCar Series. The Indy Lights series has been promoted by Anderson Promotions since 2014, which also manages the Road to Indy program.

1996 Indy Racing League sports season

The 1996 Indy Racing League, the first in the history of the league, consisted of only three races, as the season concluded in May with the 80th Indianapolis 500. Walt Disney World Speedway was completed in time to host the first race of the season, and the first ever event of the IRL, and Phoenix International Raceway switched alliances from CART to IRL and hosted the second event of the season. At the conclusion of the three-race schedule, Scott Sharp and Buzz Calkins ended up tied for first place in the season championship. With no tiebreaker rule in place, the two drivers were declared co-champions.

1993 PPG Indy Car World Series sports season

The 1993 PPG Indy Car World Series season was the 15th national championship season of American open wheel racing sanctioned by CART under the name "IndyCar". The season consisted of 16 races. Nigel Mansell was the national champion as well as the Rookie of the Year. The 1993 Indianapolis 500 was sanctioned by USAC, but counted towards the CART points championship. Emerson Fittipaldi won the Indy 500, his second career victory in that event.

1984 CART PPG Indy Car World Series sports season

The 1984 CART PPG Indy Car World Series season, the sixth in the CART era of U.S. open-wheel racing, consisted of 16 races, beginning in Long Beach, California on March 31 and concluding in Las Vegas, Nevada on November 10. The PPG Indy Car World Series Drivers' Champion was Mario Andretti and the Indianapolis 500 winner was Rick Mears. Rookie of the Year was Roberto Guerrero. The 68th Indianapolis 500 was sanctioned by the USAC, but counted in the CART points standings.

1990 CART PPG Indy Car World Series

The 1990 CART PPG Indy Car World Series season was the 12th national championship season of American open wheel racing sanctioned by CART. The season consisted of 16 races, and one non-points exhibition event. Al Unser Jr. was the national champion, and the rookie of the year was Eddie Cheever. The 1990 Indianapolis 500 was sanctioned by USAC, but counted towards the CART points championship. Arie Luyendyk won the Indy 500, his first-ever victory in championship-level competition, and the fastest 500 until the 2013 Indianapolis 500.

The 1981 CART PPG Indy Car World Series season, the third in the CART era of U.S. open-wheel racing, consisted of 11 races, beginning in Avondale, Arizona on March 22 and concluding at the same location on October 31. The PPG Indy Car World Series Drivers' Champion was Rick Mears despite missing Round 2 at Milwaukee due to injuries sustained in the Indianapolis 500. Rookie of the Year was Bob Lazier. After the disagreement with the USAC during the previous season, the 65th Indianapolis 500 was not part of the Series, however no competing race was scheduled and most CART teams and drivers did take part.

The 1983 CART PPG Indy Car World Series season was the 5th national championship season of American open wheel racing sanctioned by CART. The season consisted of 13 races. Al Unser, Sr. was the national champion, and the rookie of the year was Teo Fabi. The 1983 Indianapolis 500 was sanctioned by USAC, but an arrangement was made such that it counted towards the CART points championship. Tom Sneva won the Indy 500, after three previous runner-up finishes.

1986 CART PPG Indy Car World Series

The 1986 CART PPG Indy Car World Series season was the 8th national championship season of American open wheel racing sanctioned by CART. The season consisted of 17 races, and one non-points exhibition event. Bobby Rahal was the national champion, and the rookie of the year was Chip Robinson. The 1986 Indianapolis 500 was sanctioned by USAC, but counted towards the CART points championship. Bobby Rahal won the Indy 500, and would later become the first driver since 1980 to win Indy and the CART championship in the same season.

1989 CART PPG Indy Car World Series

The 1989 CART PPG Indy Car World Series season was the 11th national championship season of American open wheel racing sanctioned by CART. The season consisted of 15 races, and one non-points exhibition event. Emerson Fittipaldi was the national champion, and the rookie of the year was Bernard Jourdain. Fittipaldi became the second driver after Mario Andretti to win the Formula One World Championship and the CART championship.

1992 PPG Indy Car World Series

The 1992 PPG Indy Car World Series season was the 14th national championship season of American open wheel racing sanctioned by CART. The season consisted of 16 races. Bobby Rahal was the national champion, his third career CART title. Stefan Johansson was named the Rookie of the Year. The 1992 Indianapolis 500 was sanctioned by USAC, but counted towards the CART points championship. Al Unser, Jr. won the Indy 500 in the closest finish in the history of that event.

1991 CART PPG Indy Car World Series

The 1991 CART PPG Indy Car World Series season was the 13th national championship season of American open wheel racing sanctioned by CART. The season consisted of 17 races, and one non-points exhibition event. Michael Andretti was the national champion, and the rookie of the year was his younger brother Jeff Andretti.

The 1979 USAC Championship Car season consisted of seven races, beginning in Ontario, California on March 25 and concluding in West Allis, Wisconsin on August 12. The USAC National Champion was A. J. Foyt and the Indianapolis 500 winner was Rick Mears. With the exception of the Indianapolis 500, most top drivers instead competed in races sanctioned by CART.

IndyCar Auto racing sanctioning body for North American open wheel racing

INDYCAR, LLC, is an American-based auto racing sanctioning body for Indy car racing and other disciplines of open wheel car racing. The organization sanctions four racing series: the premier IndyCar Series with its centerpiece the Indianapolis 500, and developmental series Indy Lights, the Indy Pro 2000 Championship and the U.S. F2000 National Championship, which are all a part of The Road To Indy. IndyCar is recognized as a member organization of the FIA through ACCUS.

References

  1. "CART now IndyCar". The Indianapolis News. February 19, 1992. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  2. Eagle-eye Feature: CART White Paper
  3. Hinton, Ed. "Honor, blood and a brewing battle". ESPN.com. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  4. Whitaker, p. 51.
  5. Hinton, Ed. "Honor, blood and a brewing battle". ESPN.com. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
  6. Weber, Jack (7 Aug 1993). "IndyCar Racing is at Important Crossroads". The Courier News. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  7. "Mercedosaurus Rex at Indianapolic Park, Part 23: The loose ends that didn't fit in anywhere else and the epilogue". forix.autosport.com.
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  9. 1 2 Whitaker, p. 70.
  10. 1 2 Whitaker, p. 73.
  11. Whitaker, p. 76.
  12. 1 2 3 Whitaker, p. 78.
  13. Whitaker, p. 81.
  14. Whitaker, p. 84-86.
  15. Whitaker, p. 80.
  16. Hinton, Ed. "May '96 memorable for wrong reasons". ESPN.com. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  17. Middlemiss, Jim (8 Jul 2000). "Off the track, CART is casting its net in other markets". National Post. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  18. Miller, Robin (22 Jul 1999). "Where the crowds are". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  19. Koenig, Bill (October 1, 1999). "CART Aims to Rev Up Series, Falling Shares". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  20. Koenig, Bill (October 1, 1999). "CART Aims to Rev Up Series, Falling Shares". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  21. Koenig, Bill (October 1, 1999). "CART Aims to Rev Up Series, Falling Shares". The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  22. Whitaker, p. 94.
  23. "The writing was on the wall long ago". ESPN.com. 2001-04-29. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
  24. Whitaker, p. 94-5.
  25. Whitaker, p. 97.
  26. Whitaker, p. 96.
  27. Whitaker, p. 96-7.
  28. Reinhard, Paul (December 11, 2001). "For Penske, switch to IRL was quite easy". The Morning Call . Archived from the original on December 22, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2018.
  29. 1 2 Whitaker, p. 98.
  30. Whitaker, p. 100.
  31. Whitaker, p. 98-99.
  32. Whitaker, p. 102.
  33. 1 2 Whitaker, p. 101-104.
  34. Glick, Shav (18 September 2019). "Andretti to Put IRL Before CART". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  35. Whitaker, p. 107.
  36. 1 2 Whitaker, p. 123.
  37. Whitaker, p. 126.
  38. "Done deal :: IndyCar® Series". 2008-03-13. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  39. Whitaker, p. 132.

See also