Champs-Élysées

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Avenue des Champs-Élysées
Avenue des Champs-Elysees July 24, 2009 N1.jpg
The Champs-Élysées as seen from the Arc de Triomphe
Paris department land cover location map.svg
Reddot.svg
Shown within Paris
Length1,910 m (6,270 ft)
Width70 m (230 ft)
Arrondissement 8th
Quarter Champs-Élysées. Faubourg du Roule.
Coordinates 48°52′11″N2°18′27″E / 48.8698°N 2.3076°E / 48.8698; 2.3076
From Place de la Concorde
To Place Charles de Gaulle
Construction
Completion1670
Denomination2 March 1864

The Avenue des Champs-Élysées (French pronunciation:  [av(ə).ny de ʃɑ̃z‿e.li.ze] ) is an avenue in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France, 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) long and 70 metres (230 ft) wide, running between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located. It is known for its theatres, cafés, and luxury shops, for the annual Bastille Day military parade, and as the finish of the Tour de France cycle race.

8th arrondissement of Paris French municipal arrondissement in Île-de-France, France

The 8th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is colloquially referred to as huitième.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Place de la Concorde square in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France

The Place de la Concorde is one of the major public squares in Paris, France Measuring 7.6 hectares in area, it is the largest square in the French capital. It is located in the city's eighth arrondissement, at the eastern end of the Champs-Élysées. It was the site of many notable public executions during the French Revolution.

Contents

The name is French for the Elysian Fields, the paradise for dead heroes in Greek mythology. Champs-Élysées is widely regarded to be one of the most recognisable avenues in the world.

Elysium Where the good go after death in Greek mythology

Elysium or the Elysian Fields is a conception of the afterlife that developed over time and was maintained by some Greek religious and philosophical sects and cults. Initially separate from the realm of Hades, admission was reserved for mortals related to the gods and other heroes. Later, it expanded to include those chosen by the gods, the righteous, and the heroic, where they would remain after death, to live a blessed and happy life, and indulging in whatever employment they had enjoyed in life.

Greek mythology body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks

Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities, heroes, and mythological creatures, and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.

Description

The avenue runs for 1.91 km (1.19 mi) through the 8th arrondissement in northwestern Paris, from the Place de la Concorde in the east, with the Obelisk of Luxor, [1] to the Place Charles de Gaulle (formerly the Place de l'Étoile) in the west, location of the Arc de Triomphe. The Champs-Élysées forms part of the Axe historique .

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Luxor Obelisk Egyptian obelisk in Paris

The Luxor Obelisk is a 23 metres (75 ft) high Ancient Egyptian obelisk standing at the centre of the Place de la Concorde in Paris, France. It was originally located at the entrance to Luxor Temple, in Egypt. The Luxor Obelisk was classified as a historical monument in 1936.

The lower part of the Champs-Élysées, from the Place de la Concorde to the Rond-Point, runs through the Jardin des Champs-Élysées, a park which contains the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais, the Théâtre Marigny, and several restaurants, gardens and monuments. The Élysée Palace, the official residence of the Presidents of France, borders the park, but is not on the Avenue itself. The Champs-Élysées ends at the Arc de Triomphe, built to honour the victories of Napoleon Bonaparte.

Jardin des Champs-Élysées urban park in Paris, France

The Jardin des Champs-Élysées is a public park located in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. It occupies 13.7 hectares, and is located on both sides of the Avenue des Champs-Élysées between the Place de la Concorde on the east and the Rond-point des Champs-Élysées on the west and between Avenue Gabriel to the north and the Seine to the south. It includes within its boundaries the Grand Palais and the Petit Palais, as well as a theater and other buildings. It was one of the first parks in the city, laid out by André Le Notre in 1667, and was the site of the Paris International Exposition of 1855 and an important part of the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900, for which the Grand Palais and Petit Palais were created.

Grand Palais Historic site, exhibition hall in Paris, France

The Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées, commonly known as the Grand Palais, is a large historic site, exhibition hall and museum complex located at the Champs-Élysées in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France. Construction of the Grand Palais began in 1897 following the demolition of the Palais de l'Industrie as part of the preparation works for the Universal Exposition of 1900, which also included the creation of the adjacent Petit Palais and Pont Alexandre III. It has been listed since 2000 as a monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture.

Petit Palais museum in Paris, France

The Petit Palais is an art museum in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, France.

History

1900 panoramic view of the Champs-Élysées.

Until the reign of Louis XIV, the land where the Champs-Élysées runs today was largely occupied by fields and kitchen gardens. The Champs-Élysées and its gardens were originally laid out in 1667 by André Le Nôtre as an extension of the Tuileries Garden, the gardens of the Tuileries Palace, which had been built in 1564, and which Le Nôtre had rebuilt in his own formal style for Louis XIV in 1664. Le Nôtre planned a wide promenade between the palace and the modern Rond Point, lined with two rows of elm trees on either side, and flowerbeds in the symmetrical style of the French formal garden. [2] The new boulevard was called the "Grand Cours", or "Grand Promenade". It did not take the name of Champs-Élysées until 1709.

André Le Nôtre French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France

André Le Nôtre, originally rendered as André Le Nostre, was a French landscape architect and the principal gardener of King Louis XIV of France. Most notably, he was the landscape architect who designed the park of the Palace of Versailles, and his work represents the height of the French formal garden style, or jardin à la française.

Tuileries Garden public garden in Paris, France

The Tuileries Garden is a public garden located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. Created by Catherine de' Medici as the garden of the Tuileries Palace in 1564, it was eventually opened to the public in 1667 and became a public park after the French Revolution. In the 19th and 20th centuries, it was a place where Parisians celebrated, met, strolled and relaxed.

Tuileries Palace royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine

The Tuileries Palace was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine. It was the usual Parisian residence of most French monarchs, from Henry IV to Napoleon III, until it was burned by the Paris Commune in 1871.

In 1710 the avenue was extended beyond the Rond-Pont as far as the modern Place d'Étoile. In 1765 the garden was remade in the Le Nôtre style by Abel François Poisson, the marquis de Marigny, brother of the Madame de Pompadour and Director-General of the King's Buildings. Marigny extended the avenue again in 1774 as far as the modern Porte Maillot.

By the late 18th century, the Champs-Élysées had become a fashionable avenue; the trees on either side had grown enough to form rectangular groves (cabinets de verdure). The gardens of the town houses of the nobility built along the Faubourg Saint-Honoré backed onto the formal gardens. The grandest of the private mansions near the Avenue was the Élysée Palace, a private residence of the nobility which during the Third French Republic became the official residence of the Presidents of France.

Following the French Revolution, two equestrian statues, made in 1745 by Nicolas and Guillaume Coustou, were transferred from the former royal palace at Marly and placed at the beginning of the boulevard and park. After the downfall of Napoleon and the restoration of the French monarchy, the trees had to be replanted, because the occupation armies of the Russians, British and Prussians during the Hundred Days had camped in the park and used the trees for firewood. [3]

The avenue from the Rond-Point to the Étoile was built up during the Empire. The Champs-Élysées itself became city property in 1828, and footpaths, fountains, and, later, gas lighting were added.

Champs-Elysees circa 1850 Av des Ch Elysees au XIXe Felix Benoist.jpg
Champs-Élysées circa 1850

In 1834, under King Louis Philippe, the architect Mariano Ruiz de Chavez was commissioned to redesign the Place de la Concorde and the gardens of the Champs-Élysées. He kept the formal gardens and flowerbeds essentially intact, but turned the garden into a sort of outdoor amusement park, with a summer garden café, the Alcazar d'eté, two restaurants, the Ledoyen and the restaurant de l'Horloge; a theater, the Lacaze; the Panorama, built in 1839, where large historical paintings were displayed, and the cirque d'eté (1841), a large hall for popular theater, musical and circus performances. He also placed several ornamental fountains around the park, of which three are still in place.

The major monument of the Boulevard, the Arc de Triomphe, had been commissioned by Napoleon after his victory at the Battle of Austerlitz, but it was not finished when he fell from power in 1815. The monument remained unfinished until 1833-36, when it was completed by King Louis Philippe.

In 1855 Emperor Napoleon III selected the park at the beginning of the avenue as the site of the first great international exposition to be held in Paris, the Exposition Universelle. The park was the location of the Palace of Industry, a giant exhibit hall which covered thirty thousand square meters, where the Grand Palais is today. In 1858, following the Exposition, the Emperor's prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, had the gardens transformed from a formal French garden into a picturesque English style garden, based on a small town called Southport, with groves of trees, flowerbeds and winding paths. The rows of elm trees, which were in poor health, were replaced by rows of chestnut trees.

The park served again as an exposition site during the Universal Exposition of 1900; it became the home of the Grand Palais and Petit Palais. It also became the home of a new panorama theater, designed by Gabriel Davioud, the chief architect of Napoleon III, in 1858. The modern theater Marigny was built by Charles Garnier, architect of the Paris Opera, in 1883. [4]

Throughout its history, the avenue has been the site of military parades; the most famous were the victory parades of German troops in 1871 and again in 1940 celebrating the Fall of France on 14 July 1940, and the three most joyous were the parades celebrating the Allied victory in the First World War in 1919, and the parades of Free French and American forces after the liberation of the city, respectively, the French 2nd Armored Division on 25 August 1944, and the U.S. 28th Infantry Division on 29 August 1944.

Champs-Élysées Association and retail stores on the avenue

In 1860, the merchant joined together to form the Syndicat d'Initiative et de Défense des Champs-Élysées, to an association to promote commercially the Avenue. In 1980, the group changed its name to the Comité des Champs-Élysées and to Comité Champs-Élysées in 2008. It is the oldest standing committee in Paris. The committee has always dedicated itself to seeking public projects to enhance the Avenue's unique atmosphere, and to lobby the authorities for extended business hours and to organizing special events. Today, the committee, in coordination with other professional organisations, may review with the Parisian administration the addition to the Avenue of new businesses whose floor area would exceed 1000 square meters. The arrival of global chain stores in recent years has strikingly changed its character, and in a first effort to stem these changes, the City of Paris (which has called this trend "banalisation") initially decided in 2007 to prohibit the Swedish clothing chain H&M from opening a store on the Avenue; [5] however, a large H&M store opened two years later at 88 Champs-Élysées. [6] In 2008, American clothing chain Abercrombie & Fitch was given permission to open a store. [7] The Champs Elysees have mid-size shopping malls, extending the shopping area : Elysees 26 (26) with Agatha jewellery and l'Eclaireur fashion, Galeries du Claridge (74) with Annick Goutal perfumes, Fnac, Paul & Shark, Arcades des Champs Elysees (78) with Starbucks. The list of fashion stores include Banana Republic (22), Abercrombie Fitch (23), Gap (36), Zara (40, 44), Levi's (76), H & M (88), Lacoste (93-95), Marks & Spencer (100), Louis Vuitton (101), Hugo Boss (115), Petit Bateau116). The list of perfume stores include Guerlain (68) (Le 68 de Guy Martin), Sephora multi brand (70), Yves Rocher (102). Jewellers: Tiffany & Co (62). Book and music store: FNAC (74). The list of car show-rooms include Citroen (42), Renault (53), Toyota (79), Mercedes (118), Peugeot (136). [8]

Events

Every year on Bastille Day on 14 July, the largest military parade in Europe passes down the Champs-Élysées, reviewed by the President of the Republic. [9]

Every year during Advent, Christmastide, and Epiphany, the 'Champs-Élysées' Committee contribute for the holidays seasons lighting of the Champs-Élysées. This generally occurs from late November until early January.

Since 1975, the last stage of the Tour de France cycling race has finished on the Champs-Élysées. The subsequent awards ceremony also takes place directly on the avenue.

Huge gatherings occasionally take place on the Champs-Élysées in celebration of popular events, such as New Year's Eve, or when France won the FIFA World Cups in 1998 and 2018. The Champs-Élysées has occasionally been the site of large political protest meetings.

On 20 April 2017, a police officer was shot dead on the Champs-Élysées by an extremist and two other officers were injured. They were all sitting in a parked police van, when the attacker pulled up in front of the van. The attacker tried to shoot civilians (including a tourist [10] ) and was immediately shot dead by other police on the spot. [11] The shooting happened two days before the first round of voting in the 2017 French presidential election.

On 19 June 2017, a suspected terrorist drove a munitions-laden car into a police vehicle on the Champs-Élysées. [12]

Public transport

Paris Métro Line 1 runs under the Champs-Élysées. Station Charles de Gaulle – Étoile is at the street's west end, and there are three stations with entrances on the street itself; from west to east these are: George V by the Hôtel George-V, Franklin D. Roosevelt at the rond-point des Champs-Élysées, Champs-Élysées – Clemenceau at place Clemenceau and Concorde at the southern end of the avenue, where the Place de la Concorde is located.

See also

Related Research Articles

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This article presents the main landmarks in the city of Paris within administrative limits, divided by its 20 arrondissements. Landmarks located in the suburbs of Paris, outside of its administrative limits, while within the metropolitan area are not included in this article.

History of parks and gardens of Paris

Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than three thousand hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees. Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden, created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace, and redone by André Le Nôtre in 1664; and the Luxembourg Garden, belonging to a château built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the French Senate. The Jardin des Plantes was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants. Between 1853 and 1870, the Emperor Napoleon III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Alphand, created the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris and the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the neighborhoods of the city. One hundred sixty-six new parks have been created since 1977, most notably the Parc de la Villette (1987–1991) and Parc André Citroën (1992).

Parc Georges-Brassens public park in Paris

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Parc floral de Paris

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Parc Kellermann urban park in Paris, France

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Jardin du port de lArsenal urban park in Paris, France

The Jardin du Bassin de l'Arsenal is a public park in the 12th arrondissement of Paris, located on the east bank of the Canal Saint-Martin between the Place de la Bastille and the Seine. It was created in 1983. The access to the park is from boulevard de la Bastille. The nearest metro station is Bastille.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Paris:

References

  1. "The Obelisk of Luxor at place de la Concorde". Davidphenry.com. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  2. Jarrassé, Dominique, Grammaire des jardins Parisiens, p. 51-55
  3. Jarrassé, Dominique, Grammaire des jardins Parisiens, p. 52.
  4. Jarrassé, Dominique, Grammaire des jardins Parisiens, p. 551–555
  5. Sciolino, Elaine (21 January 2007). "Megastores March Up Avenue, and Paris Takes to Barricades". New York Times.
  6. "H&M Champs Elysées : horaires et adresse, ouvert même le dimanche, meltyFashion". Meltyfashion.fr. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
  7. "Abercrombie & Fitch to open Champs Elysées store on May 19th". Fmag.com. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  8. "Champs Elysees stores and shops". Paris Digest. 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  9. "Champs-Elysées city visit in Paris and suggested itineraries". Paris.com. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  10. "One Paris police officer killed, two wounded in Champs-Elysees shooting". nbcnews.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  11. "Paris shooting: Gunman was 'focus of anti-terror' probe". BBC News. 21 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  12. Bell, Melissa (19 June 2017). "Car rams police van on Champs-Elysees, armed suspect dead". CNN. Retrieved 19 June 2017.

Bibliography

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