|A chancroid lesion on penis|
|Specialty|| Infectious disease |
Chancroid ( // SHANG-kroyd) (also known as soft chancre and ulcus molle ) is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid is known to spread from one individual to another solely through sexual contact. While uncommon in the western world, it is the most common cause of genital ulceration worldwide.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Many times STIs initially do not cause symptoms. This results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. STIs can be transmitted to an infant before or during childbirth and may result in poor outcomes for the baby. Some STIs may cause problems with the ability to get pregnant.
These are only local and no systemic manifestations are present.The ulcer characteristically:
Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency. Lymphadenopathy of an inflammatory type is lymphadenitis, producing swollen or enlarged lymph nodes. In clinical practice, the distinction between lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis is rarely made and the words are usually treated as synonymous. Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels is known as lymphangitis. Infectious lymphadenitis affecting lymph nodes in the neck is often called scrofula.
Dysuria refers to painful urination. Difficult urination is also sometimes, but rarely, described as dysuria.
Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes. The pain can primarily be on the external surface of the genitalia, or deeper in the pelvis upon deep pressure against the cervix. It can affect a small portion of the vulva or vagina or be felt all over the surface. Understanding the duration, location, and nature of the pain is important in identifying the causes of the pain.
About half of infected men have only a single ulcer. Women frequently have four or more ulcers, with fewer symptoms.
The initial ulcer may be mistaken as a "hard" chancre, the typical sore of primary syphilis, as opposed to the "soft chancre" of chancroid.
A chancre is a painless genital ulcer most commonly formed during the primary stage of syphilis. This infectious lesion forms approximately 21 days after the initial exposure to Treponema pallidum, the gram-negative spirochaete bacterium yielding syphilis. Chancres transmit the sexually transmissible disease of syphilis through direct physical contact. These ulcers usually form on or around the anus, mouth, penis and vagina. Chancres may diminish between four and eight weeks without the application of medication.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages it presents. The primary stage classically presents with a single chancre but there may be multiple sores. In secondary syphilis, a diffuse rash occurs, which frequently involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. There may also be sores in the mouth or vagina. In latent syphilis, which can last for years, there are few or no symptoms. In tertiary syphilis, there are gummas, neurological problems, or heart symptoms. Syphilis has been known as "the great imitator" as it may cause symptoms similar to many other diseases.
Approximately one-third of the infected individuals will develop enlargements of the inguinal lymph nodes, the nodes located in the fold between the leg and the lower abdomen.
Half of those who develop swelling of the inguinal lymph nodes will progress to a point where the nodes rupture through the skin, producing draining abscesses. The swollen lymph nodes and abscesses are often referred to as buboes.
Chancroid is a bacterial infection caused by the fastidious Gram-negative streptobacillus Haemophilus ducreyi . It is a disease found primarily in developing countries, most prevalent in low socioeconomic groups, associated with commercial sex workers.
Chancroid, caused by H. ducreyi has infrequently been associated with cases of Genital Ulcer Disease in the US, but has been isolated in up to 10% of genital ulcers diagnosed from STD clinics in Memphis and Chicago.
Infection levels are very low in the Western world, typically around one case per two million of the population (Canada, France, Australia, UK and US).[ citation needed ] Most individuals diagnosed with chancroid have visited countries or areas where the disease is known to occur frequently, although outbreaks have been observed in association with crack cocaine use and prostitution.[ citation needed ]
Chancroid is a risk factor for contracting HIV, due to their ecological association or shared risk of exposure, and biologically facilitated transmission of one infection by the other. Approximately 10% of people with chancroid will have a co-infection with syphilis and/or HIV.
H. ducreyi enters skin through microabrasions incurred during sexual intercourse. A local tissue reaction leads to development of erythomatous papule, which progresses to pustule in 4–7 days. It then undergoes central necrosis to ulcerate.
Some of clinical variants are as follows.
|Dwarf chancroid||Small, superficial, relatively painless ulcer.|
|Giant chancroid||Large granulomatous ulcer at the site of a ruptured inguinal bubo, extending beyond its margins.|
|Follicular chancroid||Seen in females in association with hair follicles of the labia majora and pubis; initial follicular pustule evolves into a classic ulcer at the site.|
|Transient chancroid||Superficial ulcers that may heal rapidly, followed by a typical inguinal bubo.|
|Serpiginous chancroid||Multiple ulcers that coalesce to form a serpiginous pattern.|
|Mixed chancroid||Nonindurated tender ulcers of chancroid appearing together with an indurated nontender ulcer of syphilis having an incubation period of 10 to 90 days.|
|Phagedenic chancroid||Ulceration that causes extensive destruction of genitalia following secondary or superinfection by anaerobes such as Fusobacterium or Bacteroides.|
|Chancroidal ulcer||Most often a tender, nonindurated, single large ulcer caused by organisms other than Haemophilus ducreyi ; lymphadenopathy is conspicuous by its absence.|
From bubo pus or ulcer secretions, H. ducreyi can be identified. PCR-based identification of organisms is available. Simple, rapid, sensitive and inexpensive antigen detection methods for H. ducreyi identification are also popular. Serologic detection of H. ducreyi is and uses outer membrane protein and lipooligosaccharide.
Despite many distinguishing features, the clinical spectrums of following diseases may overlap with chancroid:
Practical clinical approach for this STI as Genital Ulcer Disease is to rule out top differential diagnosis of Syphilis and Herpes and consider empirical treatment for Chancroid as testing is not commonly done for the latter.
There are many differences and similarities between the conditions syphilitic chancre and chancroid.
Chancroid spreads in populations with high sexual activity, such as prostitutes. Use of condom, prophylaxis by azithromycin, syndromic management of genital ulcers, treating patients with reactive syphilis serology are some of the strategies successfully tried in Thailand.
The CDC recommendation for chancroid is either a single oral dose (1 gram) of azithromycin, a single IM dose of 250 mg ceftriaxone, oral 500 mg of erythromycin q.i.d for seven days, or 500 mg of Ciprofloxacin b.i.d for three days. Treatment may include more than one prescribed medication.
Abscesses are drained.
H. ducreyi is resistant to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, penicillins, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim.Recently, several erythromycin resistant isolates have been reported.
Aminoglycosides such as Gentamicin, Streptomycin, and Kanamycin have been used to successfully treat Chancroid; however aminoglycoside-resistant strain of H. ducreyi have been observed in both laboratory and clinical settings.Treatment with aminoglycosides should be considered as only a supplement to a primary treatment.
Pregnant and lactating women, or those below 18 years of age regardless of gender, should NOT use Ciprofloxacin as treatment for Chancroid. Treatment failure is possible with HIV co-infection and extended therapy is sometimes required.
Over the last two decades, no new treatment regime for Chancroid or H. ducreyi infection has been published. It is still assumed that the above described treatment regime is and will be effective against H. ducreyi infection.
Prognosis is excellent with proper treatment. Treating sexual contacts of affected individual helps break cycle of infection.
Chancroid has been known to humans since time of ancient Greeks.Some of important events on historical timeline of chancre are:
|1852||Leon Bassereau distinguished chancroid from syphilis (i.e. soft chancre from hard chancre)|
|1890s||Augusto Ducrey identified H. ducreyi|
|1900||Benzacon and colleagues isolated H. ducreyi|
|1970s||Hammond and colleagues developed selective media|
A mouth ulcer is an ulcer that occurs on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. Mouth ulcers are very common, occurring in association with many diseases and by many different mechanisms, but usually there is no serious underlying cause.
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the invasive serovars L1, L2, L2a or L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis.
Granuloma inguinale is a bacterial disease caused by Klebsiella granulomatis characterized by genital ulcers. It is endemic in many less-developed regions. It is also known as donovanosis, granuloma genitoinguinale, granuloma inguinale tropicum, granuloma venereum, granuloma venereum genitoinguinale, lupoid form of groin ulceration, serpiginous ulceration of the groin, ulcerating granuloma of the pudendum, and ulcerating sclerosing granuloma.
Haemophilus ducreyi is a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus bacteria, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, a major cause of genital ulceration in developing countries characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid starts as an erythematous papular lesion that breaks down into a painful bleeding ulcer with a necrotic base and ragged edge.
Aphthous stomatitis is a common condition characterized by the repeated formation of benign and non-contagious mouth ulcers (aphthae) in otherwise healthy individuals. The informal term canker sores is also used, mainly in North America, although this may also refer to any mouth ulcers.
Genital herpes is an infection by the herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the genitals. Most people either have no or mild symptoms and thus do not know they are infected. When symptoms do occur, they typically include small blisters that break open to form painful ulcers. Flu-like symptoms, such as fever, aching, or swollen lymph nodes, may also occur. Onset is typically around 4 days after exposure with symptoms lasting up to 4 weeks. Once infected further outbreaks may occur but are generally milder.
Vulvar cancer is a malignant, invasive growth in the vulva, or the outer portion of the female genitals. The disease accounts for only 0.6% of cancer diagnoses but 5% of gynecologic cancers in the United States. The labia majora are the most common sites involved representing about 50% of all cases, followed by the labia minora. The clitoris and Bartholin glands may rarely be involved. Vulvar cancer is separate from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), a superficial lesion of the epithelium that has not invaded the basement membrane—or a pre-cancer. VIN may progress to carcinoma-in-situ and, eventually, squamous cell cancer.
A bubo is defined as adenitis or inflammation of the lymph nodes and is an example of reactive lymphadenopathy.
A genital ulcer is located on the genital area, usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes, syphilis or chancroid. Some other signs of having genital ulcers include enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area, or vesicular lesions, which are small, elevated sores or blisters. The syndrome may be further classified into penile ulceration and vulval ulceration for males and females respectively.
Condom effectiveness is how effective condoms are at preventing STDs and pregnancy. Correctly using male condoms and other barriers like female condoms and dental dams, every time, can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis. They can also provide protection against other diseases that may be transmitted through sex like Zika and Ebola. Using male and female condoms correctly, every time, can also help prevent pregnancy.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis. One testis is typically lower than the other to avoid compression in the event of impact. The perineal raphe is a small, vertical, slightly raised ridge of scrotal skin under which is found the scrotal septum. It appears as a thin longitudinal line that runs front to back over the entire scrotum. The scrotum contains the external spermatic fascia, testes, epididymis, and ductus deferens. It is a distention of the perineum and carries some abdominal tissues into its cavity including the testicular artery, testicular vein, and pampiniform plexus. In humans and some other mammals, the scrotum becomes covered with pubic hair at puberty. The scrotum will usually tighten during penile erection and when exposed to cold temperature.
Herpes simplex is a viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. Infections are categorized based on the part of the body infected. Oral herpes involves the face or mouth. It may result in small blisters in groups often called cold sores or fever blisters or may just cause a sore throat. Genital herpes, often simply known as herpes, may have minimal symptoms or form blisters that break open and result in small ulcers. These typically heal over two to four weeks. Tingling or shooting pains may occur before the blisters appear. Herpes cycles between periods of active disease followed by periods without symptoms. The first episode is often more severe and may be associated with fever, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes and headaches. Over time, episodes of active disease decrease in frequency and severity. Other disorders caused by herpes simplex include: herpetic whitlow when it involves the fingers, herpes of the eye, herpes infection of the brain, and neonatal herpes when it affects a newborn, among others.
Herpes labialis, commonly known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip. Symptoms typically include a burning pain followed by small blisters or sores. The first attack may also be accompanied by fever, sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes. The rash usually heals within 10 days, but the virus remains dormant in the trigeminal ganglion. The virus may periodically reactivate to create another outbreak of sores in the mouth or lip.
Lipschütz ulcer,ulcus vulvae acutum or reactive non-sexually related acute genital ulcers is a rare disease characterized by painful genital ulcers, fever, and lymphadenopathy, occurring most commonly, but not exclusively, in adolescents and young women. Previously, it was described as being more common in virgins. It is not a sexually transmitted disease, and is often misdiagnosed, sometimes as a symptom of Behçet's disease.
The vulva consists of the external female sex organs. The vulva includes the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibular bulbs, vulval vestibule, urinary meatus, the vaginal opening, and Bartholin's and Skene's vestibular glands. The urinary meatus is also included as it opens into the vulval vestibule. Other features of the vulva include the pudendal cleft, sebaceous glands, the urogenital triangle, and pubic hair. The vulva includes the entrance to the vagina, which leads to the uterus, and provides a double layer of protection for this by the folds of the outer and inner labia. Pelvic floor muscles support the structures of the vulva. Other muscles of the urogenital triangle also give support.
Herpetic simplex keratitis is a form of keratitis caused by recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the cornea.
Bartholin gland carcinoma is an uncommon type of malignancy in the Bartholin gland that accounts for 1% of all vulvar malignant neoplasms. It is most common in women in their mid-60s. The tumor can become large before a woman is aware of symptoms. One of the first symptoms can be dyspareunia. In other instances a woman may find a mass or ulcer in the vulva area. Many clinicians assume that an enlarged Bartholin gland is malignant in postmenopausal woman until proven otherwise. The growth of the tumor can spread to nearby areas such as the ischiorectal fossa and inguinal lymph nodes. Approximately 50% of bartholin gland carcinomas originate from squamous cell carcinomas. Another uncommon characteristic of Bartholin gland malignancies is that the growth of a lesion originates from the three types of epithelial tissue present in the gland: mucinous, transitional, and squamous.
Crohn’s disease (CD) of the vulva is a rare extra intestinal condition, with granulomatous cutaneous lesions affecting the female genitalia. Lesions connected to the affected gut via a healthy tissue are referred to as metastatic lesions.