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|Mission type||Lunar orbiter, lander, rover|
|Operator||Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)|
|Mission duration||Orbiter: ~ 7 years |
Elapsed: 14 days
Vikram lander ≤ 14 days
Pragyan rover: ≤ 14 days
|Manufacturer||Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)|
|Launch mass||Combined (wet): 3,850 kg (8,490 lb) |
Combined (dry): 1,308 kg (2,884 lb)
Orbiter (wet): 2,379 kg (5,245 lb)
Orbiter (dry): 682 kg (1,504 lb)
Vikram lander (wet): 1,471 kg (3,243 lb)
Vikram lander (dry): 626 kg (1,380 lb)
Pragyan rover: 27 kg (60 lb)
|Power||Orbiter: 1 kW |
Vikram lander: 650 WPragyan rover: 50 W
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||22 July 2019, 14:43:12 IST (09:13:12 UTC)|
|Rocket||GSLV Mk III|
|Launch site||Satish Dhawan Space Centre Second Launch Pad|
|Contractor||Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)|
|Orbital insertion||20 August 2019, 09:02 IST (03:32 UTC)|
|Periapsis altitude||100 km (62 mi)|
|Apoapsis altitude||100 km (62 mi)|
|Inclination||90° (polar orbit)|
|Landing date||7 September 2019, 01:55 IST |
(6 September 2019, 20:25 UTC)
Chandrayaan-2(candra-yāna, transl. "mooncraft";
The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959. Prior to that the only available means of exploration had been observation from Earth. The invention of the optical telescope brought about the first leap in the quality of lunar observations. Galileo Galilei is generally credited as the first person to use a telescope for astronomical purposes; having made his own telescope in 1609, the mountains and craters on the lunar surface were among his first observations using it.
The Indian Space Research Organisation is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bengaluru. Its vision is to "harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research and planetary exploration". The Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established in the tenure of Jawaharlal Nehru under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) in 1962, with the urging of scientist Vikram Sarabhai recognizing the need in space research. INCOSPAR grew and became ISRO in 1969, also under the DAE. In 1972, Government of India setup a Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS), bringing ISRO under the DOS. The establishment of ISRO thus institutionalized space research activities in India. It is managed by the DOS, which reports to the prime minister of India.
The mission was launched on its course to the Moon from the second launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM IST (09:13 UTC) by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III).The craft reached the Moon's orbit on 20 August 2019 and began orbital positioning manoeuvres for the landing of the Vikram lander. Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region at a latitude of about 70° south at approximately 20:23 UTC on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates two Earth weeks.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits the Earth as its only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits. The Moon is, after Jupiter's satellite Io, the second-densest satellite in the Solar System among those whose densities are known.
The Second Launch Pad of the Satish Dhawan Space Centre is a rocket launch site in Sriharikota, India. It is the second of two launch pads at the centre. The Second Launch Pad or SLP was designed, supplied, erected & commissioned by MECON Limited, a Government of Indian Enterprise, located at Ranchi during the period March 1999 to December 2003. It cost about ₹400 crore at that time. The second launch pad with associated facilities was built in 2005. However it became operational only on 5 May 2005 with the launching of PSLV-C6. MECON's sub-contractors for this project including Inox India, HEC, Tata Growth, Goderej Boyce, Simplex, Nagarjuna Construction, Steelage, etc. The other Launch Pad being the First Launch Pad. It is used by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicles, and is intended for use with future Indian rockets including the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk.III
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III, also referred to as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3 (LVM3) is a three-stage medium-lift launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Primarily designed to launch communication satellites into geostationary orbit, it is also identified as launch vehicle for crewed missions under the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme and dedicated science missions like Chandrayaan-2. The GSLV-III has a higher payload capacity than the similarly named GSLV Mk 2.
However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory starting at 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi) altitude, and had lost communication when touchdown confirmation was expected. Initial reports suggesting a crash have been confirmed by ISRO chairman K. Sivan, stating that the lander location had been found, and "it must have been a hard landing".
Kailasavadivoo Sivan is an Indian space scientist and the chairperson of the Indian Space Research Organization. He has previously served as the Director of the Vikram Sarabhai Space Center and the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre.
As of 8 September 2019, on-going efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes of restoring communications with Vikram. Both ISRO and NASA are in the process of trying to restore communications through their respective Deep Space Networks. Communication attempts will likely cease on 21 September 2019, fourteen days after Vikram's landing attempt. The orbiter, part of the mission with eight scientific instruments, remains operational and is expected to continue its seven-year mission to study the Moon.
On 12 November 2007, representatives of the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and ISRO signed an agreement for the two agencies to work together on the Chandrayaan-2 project.ISRO would have the prime responsibility for the orbiter and rover, while Roscosmos was to provide the lander. The Indian government approved the mission in a meeting of the Union Cabinet, held on 18 September 2008 and chaired by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The design of the spacecraft was completed in August 2009, with scientists of both countries conducting a joint review.
The Government of India, often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in New Delhi, the capital of India.
The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India. It consists of senior ministers, called 'cabinet ministers', junior ministers, called 'ministers of state' and, rarely, deputy ministers.
The prime minister of India is the leader of the executive of the government of India. The prime minister is also the chief adviser to the president of India and head of the Council of Ministers. They can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India—the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha —but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha.
Although ISRO finalised the payload for Chandrayaan-2 per schedule,the mission was postponed in January 2013 and rescheduled to 2016 because Russia was unable to develop the lander on time. Roscosmos later withdrew in wake of the failure of the Fobos-Grunt mission to Mars, since the technical aspects connected with the Fobos-Grunt mission were also used in the lunar projects, which needed to be reviewed. When Russia cited its inability to provide the lander even by 2015, India decided to develop the lunar mission independently.
Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt was an attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars. Fobos-Grunt also carried the Chinese Mars orbiter Yinghuo-1 and the tiny Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment funded by the Planetary Society.
The spacecraft's launch had been scheduled for March 2018, but was first delayed to April and then to October to conduct further tests on the vehicle.On 19 June 2018, after the program's fourth Comprehensive Technical Review meeting, a number of changes in configuration and landing sequence were planned for implementation, pushing the launch to the first half of 2019. Two of the lander's legs got minor damage during one of the tests in February 2019.
Chandrayaan-2 launch was initially scheduled for 14 July 2019, 21:21 UTC (15 July 2019 at 02:51 IST local time), with the landing expected on 6 September 2019.However, the launch was aborted due to a technical glitch and was rescheduled. The launch occurred on 22 July 2019 at 09:13 UTC (14:43 IST) on the first operational flight of a GSLV MK III M1.
The primary objectives of the Chandrayaan-2 lander were to demonstrate the ability to soft-land on the lunar surface and operate a robotic rover on the surface. Scientific goals include orbital studies of lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and signatures of hydroxyl and water ice.The orbiter will map the lunar surface and help to prepare 3D maps of it. The onboard radar will also map the surface while studying the water ice in the south polar region and thickness of the lunar regolith on the surface.
The mission was launched on a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III) with an approximate lift-off mass of 3,850 kg (8,490 lb) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island. As of June 2019 [update] , the mission has an allocated cost of ₹978 crore (approximately US$141 million) which includes ₹603 crore for space segment and ₹375 crore as launch costs on GSLV Mk III. Chandrayaan-2 stack was initially put in an Earth parking orbit of 170 km perigee and 40,400 km apogee by the launch vehicle.
As of September 2019, the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter was orbiting the Moon on a polar orbit at an altitude of 100 km (62 mi). It carries eight scientific instruments; two of which are improved versions of those flown on Chandrayaan-1. The approximate launch mass was 2,379 kg (5,245 lb). The Orbiter High Resolution Camera (OHRC) will conduct high-resolution observations of the landing site prior to separation of the lander from the orbiter. The orbiter's structure was manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and delivered to ISRO Satellite Centre on 22 June 2015.
The mission's lander is called Vikram (Sanskrit : विक्रम, lit. 'Valour ')
The Vikram lander detached from the orbiter and descended to a low lunar orbit of 30 km × 100 km (19 mi × 62 mi) using its 800 N (180 lbf) liquid main engines. It then performed a comprehensive check of all its on-board systems before attempting a soft landing that would have deployed the rover, and perform scientific activities for approximately 14 Earth days. Vikram spacecraft apparently crash-landed. The lander's location has been spotted on the surface via thermal imaging, but its condition is unknown. The approximate combined mass of the lander and rover is 1,471 kg (3,243 lb).
The preliminary configuration study of the lander was completed in 2013 by the Space Applications Centre (SAC) in Ahmedabad. 50 N (11 lbf) thrusters for attitude control and five 800 N (180 lbf) liquid main engines derived from ISRO's 440 N (99 lbf) Liquid Apogee Motor. Initially, the lander design employed four main liquid engines, but a centrally mounted engine was added to handle new requirements of having to orbit the Moon before landing. The additional engine was expected to mitigate upward draft of lunar dust during the soft landing. Vikram was designed to safely land on slopes up to 12°.The lander's propulsion system consists of eight
Some associated technologies include a high resolution camera, Laser Altimeter (LASA), N throttleable liquid main engine, attitude thrusters, Ka band radio altimeters (KaRA), Laser Inertial Reference & Accelerometer Package (LIRAP), and the software needed to run these components. Engineering models of the lander began undergoing ground and aerial tests in late October 2016, in Challakere in the Chitradurga district of Karnataka. ISRO created roughly 10 craters on the surface to help assess the ability of the lander's sensors to select a landing site.Lander Hazard Detection Avoidance Camera (LHDAC), Lander Position Detection Camera (LPDC), Lander Horizontal Velocity Camera (LHVC), an 800
The mission's rover is called Pragyan (Sanskrit : प्रज्ञान, lit. 'Wisdom ')
The expected operating time of Pragyan rover was one lunar day, or around 14 Earth days, as its electronics were not designed to endure the frigid lunar night. However, its power system has a solar-powered sleep/wake-up cycle implemented, which could have resulted in longer service time than planned. [ citation needed ]Two aft wheels of the rover have the ISRO logo and the State Emblem of India embossed on them to leave behind patterned tracks on the lunar surface, which is used to measure the exact distance travelled, also called visual odometry.
ISRO selected eight scientific instruments for the orbiter, four for the lander,and two for the rover. While it was initially reported that NASA and ESA would participate in the mission by providing some scientific instruments for the orbiter, ISRO in 2010 had clarified that due to weight restrictions it will not be carrying foreign payloads on this mission. However, in an update just a month before launch, an agreement between NASA and ISRO was signed to include a small laser retroreflector from NASA to the lander's payload to measure the distance between the satellites above and the microreflector on the lunar surface.
Payloads on the orbiter are:
The payloads on the Vikram lander are:
Pragyan rover carries two instruments to determine the abundance of elements near the landing site:
|Geocentric phase||22 July 2019 09:13:12 UTC||Launch||Burn time: 16 min 14 sec||45,475 km (28,257 mi)||169.7 km (105.4 mi)|
|24 July 2019 09:22 UTC||1st orbit-raising maneuver||Burn time: 48 sec||45,163 km (28,063 mi)||230 km (140 mi)|
|25 July 2019 19:38 UTC||2nd orbit-raising maneuver||Burn time: 883 sec||54,829 km (34,069 mi)||251 km (156 mi)|
|29 July 2019 09:42 UTC||3rd orbit-raising maneuver||Burn time: 989 sec||71,792 km (44,609 mi)||276 km (171.5 mi)|
|2 August 2019 09:57 UTC||4th orbit-raising maneuver||Burn time: 646 sec||89,472 km (55,595 mi)||277 km (172 mi)|
|6 August 2019 09:34 UTC||5th orbit-raising maneuver||Burn time: 1041 sec||142,975 km (88,841 mi)||276 km (171 mi)|
|13 August 2019 20:51 UTC||Trans-lunar injection||Burn time: 1203 sec|
|Selenocentric phase||20 August 2019 03:32 UTC||Lunar orbit insertion|
1st lunar bound maneuver
|Burn time: 1738 sec||18,072 km (11,229 mi)||114 km (71 mi)|
|21 August 2019 07:20 UTC||2nd lunar bound maneuver||Burn time: 1228 sec||4,412 km (2,741 mi)||118 km (73 mi)|
|28 August 2019 03:34 UTC||3rd lunar bound maneuver||Burn time: 1190 sec||1,412 km (877 mi)||179 km (111 mi)|
|30 August 2019 12:48 UTC||4th lunar bound maneuver||Burn time: 1155 sec||164 km (102 mi)||124 km (77 mi)|
|1 September 2019 12:51 UTC||5th lunar bound maneuver||Burn time: 52 sec||127 km (79 mi)||119 km (74 mi)|
|Vikram lunar landing||2 September 2019 7:45 UTC||Vikram separation||127 km (79 mi)||119 km (74 mi)|
|3 September 2019 3:20 UTC||1st deorbit burn||Burn time: 4 sec||128 km (80 mi)||104 km (65 mi)|
|3 September 2019 22:12 UTC||2nd deorbit burn||Burn time: 9 sec||101 km (63 mi)||35 km (22 mi)|
|6 September 2019 20:08 UTC||Powered descent||Burn time: 15 min||Landing (planned)||Landing (planned)|
|6 September 2019 20:23 UTC||Vikram landing||Trajectory deviation started at 2.1 km altitude, telemetry was lost seconds before touchdown.|
|7 September 2019 00:00 UTC-01:00 UTC (planned)||Pragyan rover deployment|
Chandrayaan-2 launch was initially scheduled for 14 July 2019, 21:21 UTC (15 July 2019 at 02:51 IST local time).However, the launch was aborted 56 minutes and 24 seconds before launch due to a technical glitch, so it was rescheduled to 22 July 2019. Unconfirmed reports later cited a leak in the nipple joint of a helium gas bottle as the cause of cancellation.
Finally Chandrayaan-2 was launched on-board the GSLV MK III M1 launch vehicle on 22 July 2019 at 09:13 UTC (14:43 IST) with better-than-expected apogee as a result of the cryogenic upper stage being burned to depletion, which later eliminated the need for one of the apogee-raising burns during the geocentric phase of mission. kg fuel onboard the spacecraft.This also resulted in the saving of around 40
Immediately after launch, multiple observations of a slow-moving bright object over Australia were made, which could be related to upper stage venting of residual LOX/LH2 propellant after the main burn.
After being placed into a 45,475 × 169 km parking orbit by the launch vehicle, the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft stack gradually raised its orbit using on-board propulsion over 22 days. In this phase, one perigee-raising and five apogee-raising burns were performed to reach a highly eccentric orbit of 142,975 × 276 km followed by trans-lunar injection on 13 August 2019. Such long Earth-bound phase with multiple orbit-raising manoeuvres exploiting the Oberth effect was required because of the limited lifting capacity of the launch vehicle and thrust of the spacecraft's on-board propulsion system. A similar strategy was used for Chandrayaan-1 and the Mars Orbiter Mission during their Earth-bound phase trajectory. On 3 August 2019, the first set of Earth images were captured by the LI4 camera on the Vikram lander, showing North American landmass.
After 29 days from its launch, the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft stack entered lunar orbit on 20 August 2019 after performing a lunar orbit insertion burn for 28 minutes 57 seconds. The three-spacecraft stack was placed into an elliptical orbit that passes over the polar regions of the Moon, with 18,072 km (11,229 mi) aposelene and 114 km (71 mi) periselene. By 1 September 2019 this elliptical orbit was made nearly circular with 127 km (79 mi) aposelene and 119 km (74 mi) periselene after four orbit-lowering maneuvers followed by separation of Vikram lander from the orbiter on 7:45 UTC, 2 September 2019.
|Prime landing site|
|Alternate landing site|
Two landing sites were selected, each with a landing ellipse of 32 × 11 km. The prime landing site (PLS54) is at 70.90267 S 22.78110 E (~350 km north of the South Pole-Aitken Basin rim ), and the alternate landing site (ALS01) is at 67.874064 S 18.46947 W. The prime site is on a high plain between the craters Manzinus C and Simpelius N, on the near side of the Moon.
Vikram began its descent at 20:08:03 UTC, 6 September 2019 and was scheduled to land on the Moon at around 20:23 UTC. The descent and soft-landing were to be done by the on-board computers on Vikram, with mission control unable to make corrections.
The initial descent was considered within mission parameters, passing critical braking procedures as expected, but the lander's trajectory began to deviate at about 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi; 6,900 ft) above the surface. The final telemetry readings during ISRO's live-stream show that Vikram's final vertical velocity was 58 m/s (210 km/h) at 330 meters above the surface which, according to the MIT Technology Review, is "quite fast for a lunar landing." Initial reports suggesting a crash were confirmed by ISRO chairman K. Sivan, stating that the lander location was found and that "it must have been a hard landing".
Radio transmissions from the lander were tracked during descent by analysts using a 25-meter radio telescope owned by the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy. Analysis of the doppler data suggests that the loss of signal coincided with the lander impacting the lunar surface at a velocity of nearly 50 metres (160 ft) per second (as opposed to an ideal 2 metres (6.6 ft) per second touchdown velocity).
The powered descent was also observed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter using its Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument to study changes in the lunar exosphere due to exhaust gases from the lander's engines.
The mission's orbiter used thermal imaging to locate the lander.Unconfirmed reports, citing an ISRO official, stated that the lander was intact, but there has been no official announcement by ISRO on the lander's physical condition. ISRO's Chairman, K. Sivan, tasked senior scientist P. S. Goel to head the Failure Analysis Committee to look into the causes of the failure. As of 8 September 2019, ongoing efforts are being made by ISRO in hopes to restore communications with Vikram, while NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is scheduled to fly over and acquire optical images for ISRO on 17 September 2019.
The orbiter part of the mission, with eight scientific instruments, remains operational, and will continue its seven-year mission to study the Moon.
Key scientists and engineers involved in the development of Chandrayaan-2 include:
A lander is a spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. By contrast with an impact probe, which makes a hard landing and is damaged or destroyed so ceases to function after reaching the surface, a lander makes a soft landing after which the probe remains functional.
Chandrayaan-1 was the first Indian lunar probe under Chandrayaan program. It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation in October 2008, and operated until August 2009. The mission included a lunar orbiter and an impactor. India launched the spacecraft using a PSLV-XL rocket, serial number C11, on 22 October 2008 at 00:52 UTC from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh about 80 km (50 mi) north of Chennai. The mission was a major boost to India's space program, as India researched and developed its own technology in order to explore the Moon. The vehicle was inserted into lunar orbit on 8 November 2008.
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon. This includes both manned and robotic missions. The first human-made object to touch the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 2, on 13 September 1959.
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The Indian Human Spaceflight Programme (HSP) was created in 2007 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to develop the technology needed to launch crewed orbital spacecraft into low Earth orbit. The first crewed flight is planned with a spacecraft called Gaganyaan for December 2021 on a GSLV Mk-III rocket.
Several Asian countries have space programs and are actively competing to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space, a situation sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in the popular media as a reference to the earlier Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Like the previous space race, issues involved in the current push to space include national security, which has spurred many countries to send artificial satellites as well as humans into Earth orbit and beyond. A number of Asian countries are seen as contenders in the ongoing race to be the pre-eminent power in space.
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The Chandrayaan programme, also known as the Indian Lunar Exploration Programme is an ongoing series of outer space missions by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The programme incorporates a lunar orbiter, impactor, and future lunar lander and rover spacecraft. The name of the programme is from Sanskrit candrayāna.
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Chandrayaan-2 would be a lone mission by India without Russian tie-up.
Making a throttleable engine of 3 kilonewtons or 4 kilonewtons is a totally new development for us. But we wanted to make use of available technologies. We have a LAM [liquid apogee motor] with a 400 newton thruster, and we have been using it on our satellites. We enhanced it to 800 newtons. It was not a major, new design change.
As solar energy powers the system, a place with good visibility and area of communication was needed. Also, the place where the landing takes place should not have many boulders and craters. The slope for landing should be less than 12 degrees. The South pole has a near-flat surface, with good visibility and sunlight available from the convenience point of view,
Chandrayaan 2's Rover is a 6-wheeled robotic vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to 'wisdom' in Sanskrit.
Lander (Vikram) is undergoing final integration tests. Rover (Pragyan) has completed all tests and waiting for the Vikram readiness to undergo further tests.
Mobility of the Rover in the unknown lunar terrain is accomplished by a Rocker bogie suspension system driven by six wheels. Brushless DC motors are used to drive the wheels to move along the desired path and steering is accomplished by differential speed of the wheels. The wheels are designed after extensive modelling of the wheel-soil interaction, considering the lunar soil properties, sinkage and slippage results from a single wheel test bed. The Rover mobility has been tested in the Lunar test facility wherein the soil simulant, terrain and the gravity of moon are simulated. The limitations w.r.t slope, obstacles, pits in view of slippage/sinkage have been experimentally verified with the analysis results.
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