Chang'e 4

Last updated

Chang'e 4
Mission typeLander, lunar rover
Operator CNSA
COSPAR ID 2018-103A
SATCAT no. 43845 Blue pencil.svg
Mission durationLander: 12 months (planned)
Current: 108 days
Rover: 3 months (planned) [1]
Current: 108 days
Spacecraft properties
Launch massLander: 1,200 kg [2]
Rover: 140 kg [2]
Landing massTotal: ~1,200 kg; rover: 140 kg
DimensionsRover: 1.5 × 1.0 × 1.0 m [3]
Start of mission
Launch dateQueqiao relay satellite: 20 May 2018
Lander and rover: 7 December 2018, 18:23 UTC [4]
Rocket Long March 3B [5] [6]
Launch site Xichang Satellite Launch Center
Moon rover
Landing dateLander and rover: 3 January 2019, 2:26 UTC [7]
Landing site Von Kármán crater [8] in the South Pole-Aitken Basin [9]
  Chang'e 3
Chang'e 5  
 

Chang'e 4 ( /ɑːŋˈə/ ; Chinese :嫦娥四号; pinyin :Cháng'é Sìhào; literally: ' Chang'e No. 4') is a Chinese lunar exploration mission that achieved the first soft landing on the far side of the Moon, on 3 January 2019. [10] [11] A communication relay satellite, Queqiao, was first launched to a halo orbit near the Earth-Moon L2 point in May 2018. The robotic lander and Yutu 2 (Chinese: 玉兔二号; literally :"Jade Rabbit No. 2") rover [12] were launched on 7 December 2018 and entered orbit around the Moon on 12 December 2018.

Simplified Chinese characters standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Change Chinese mythical figure

Chang'e or Chang-o, originally known as Heng'e, is the Chinese goddess of the Moon. She is the subject of several legends in Chinese mythology, most of which incorporate several of the following elements: Houyi the archer, a benevolent or malevolent emperor, an elixir of life, and the Moon. She is married to the archer Houyi. In modern times, Chang'e has been the namesake of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.

Contents

The mission is the follow-up to Chang'e 3, the first Chinese landing on the Moon. The spacecraft was originally built as a backup for Chang'e 3 and became available after Chang'e 3 landed successfully in 2013. The configuration of Chang'e 4 was adjusted to meet new scientific objectives. Like its predecessors, the mission is named after Chang'e, the Chinese Moon goddess.

Change 3 lunar exploration mission operated by the China National Space Administration

Chang'e 3 is an unmanned lunar exploration mission operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA), incorporating a robotic lander and China's first lunar rover. It was launched in December 2013 as part of the second phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. The mission's chief commander was Ma Xingrui.

The far side of the Moon is sometimes called the "dark side" of the Moon, as most of it is not visible from Earth due to tidal locking Back side of the Moon AS16-3021.jpg
The far side of the Moon is sometimes called the "dark side" of the Moon, as most of it is not visible from Earth due to tidal locking

Overview

The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program is designed to be conducted in three phases of incremental technological advancement: the first is to reach lunar orbit, a task completed by Chang'e 1 in 2007 and Chang'e 2 in 2010; the second is to land and rove on the Moon, as Chang'e 3 did in 2013 and Chang'e 4 did in January 2019; the third is to collect lunar samples from the near-side and send them to Earth, a task for the future Chang'e 5 and Chang'e 6 missions. The program aims to facilitate a crewed lunar landing in the 2030s and possibly build an outpost near the south pole. [13] [14] [15] The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program has started to incorporate private investment from individuals and enterprises for the first time, a move aimed at accelerating aerospace innovation, cutting production costs, and promoting militarycivilian relationships. [16]

Chinese Lunar Exploration Program Chinese lunar space program

The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, also known as the Chang'e Project after the Chinese moon goddess Chang'e, is an ongoing series of robotic Moon missions by the China National Space Administration (CNSA). The program incorporates lunar orbiters, landers, rovers and sample return spacecraft, launched using Long March rockets. Launches and flights are monitored by a Telemetry, Tracking, and Command (TT&C) system, which uses 50-metre (160-foot) radio antennas in Beijing and 40-metre (130-foot) antennas in Kunming, Shanghai, and Ürümqi to form a 3,000-kilometre (1,900-mile) VLBI antenna. A proprietary ground application system is responsible for downlink data reception.

Change 1 Chinese Moon orbiter

Chang'e 1 was an unmanned Chinese lunar-orbiting spacecraft, part of the first phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. The spacecraft was named after the Chinese Moon goddess, Chang'e.

Chang'e 2 is a Chinese unmanned lunar probe that was launched on 1 October 2010. It was a follow-up to the Chang'e 1 lunar probe, which was launched in 2007. Chang'e 2 was part of the first phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, and conducted research from a 100-km-high lunar orbit in preparation for the December 2013 soft landing by the Chang'e 3 lander and rover. Chang'e 2 was similar in design to Chang'e 1, although it featured some technical improvements, including a more advanced onboard camera. Like its predecessor, the probe was named after Chang'e, an ancient Chinese moon goddess.

The Chang'e 4 mission was first scheduled for launch in 2015 as part of the second phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. [17] [18] But the adjusted objectives and design of the mission imposed delays, and finally launched on 7 December 2018, 18:23 UTC. [4] [19] The spacecraft entered lunar orbit on 12 December 2018, 08:45 UTC. [20] The orbit's perilune was lowered to 15 km (9.3 mi) on 30 December 2018, 00:55 UTC. [21] Landing took place on 3 January 2019 at 02:26 UTC, [11] shortly after lunar sunrise over the crater Von Kármán. [22]

Von Kármán (lunar crater) lunar crater

Von Kármán is a large lunar impact crater that is located in the southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. The crater is about 180 km in diameter and it is located within an even larger impact crater known as the South Pole–Aitken basin of roughly 2,500 km (1,600 mi) in diameter and 13 km (8.1 mi) deep. Von Kármán is the site of the first soft-landing on the lunar far side by the Chinese Chang'e 4 spacecraft on 3 January 2019.

This mission will attempt to determine the age and composition of an unexplored region of the Moon, as well as develop technologies required for the later stages of the program. [23]

Objectives

An ancient collision event on the Moon left behind a very large crater, called the Aitken Basin, that is now about 13 km (8.1 mi) deep, and it is thought that the massive impactor likely exposed the deep lunar crust, and probably the mantle materials. If Chang'e 4 can find and study some of this material, it would get an unprecedented view into the Moon's internal structure and origins. [1] The specific scientific objectives are: [24]

Crust (geology) The outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite. It is usually distinguished from the underlying mantle by its chemical makeup; however, in the case of icy satellites, it may be distinguished based on its phase.

A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body bounded below by a core and above by a crust. Mantles are made of rock or ices, and are generally the largest and most massive layer of the planetary body. Mantles are characteristic of planetary bodies that have undergone differentiation by density. All terrestrial planets, a number of asteroids, and some planetary moons have mantles.

Components

Queqiao relay satellite

Communication with Chang'e-4 20180912 6258TPS-TPR-2018Q3-18-09-04-p14legacy.png
Communication with Chang'e-4
Lagrangian points in a two-body system. A satellite in a halo orbit around L2, which is behind the Moon, will have a view of both the Earth and the far side of the Moon Lagrangianpointsanimated.gif
Lagrangian points in a two-body system. A satellite in a halo orbit around L2, which is behind the Moon, will have a view of both the Earth and the far side of the Moon

Direct communication with Earth is impossible on the far side of the Moon, since transmissions are blocked by the Moon. Communications must go through a communications relay satellite, which is placed at a location that has a clear view of both the landing site and the Earth. On 20 May 2018, the China National Space Administration (CNSA) launched the Queqiao (Chinese :鹊桥; pinyin :Quèqiáo; literally: 'Magpie Bridge') relay satellite to a halo orbit around the Earth–Moon L2 point. [25] [26] [27] The relay satellite is based on the Chang'e 2 design, [28] has a mass of 425 kg (937 lb), and it uses a 4.2 m (14 ft) antenna to receive X band signals from the lander and rover, and relay them to Earth control on the S band. [29]

The spacecraft took 24 days to reach L2, using a lunar swing-by to save fuel. [30] On 14 June 2018, Queqiao finished its final adjustment burn and entered the L2 halo mission orbit, which is about 65,000 kilometres (40,000 mi) from the Moon. This is the first lunar relay satellite at this location. [30]

The name Queqiao ("Magpie Bridge") is inspired and came from the Chinese tale The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl . [25]

Longjiang microsatellites

As part of the Chang'e 4 mission, two microsatellites (45 kg or 99 lb each) named Longjiang-1 and Longjiang-2 (Chinese :龙江; pinyin :Lóng Jiāng; literally: 'Dragon River' [31] ; also known as Discovering the Sky at Longest Wavelengths Pathfinder or DSLWP [32] ), were launched along with Queqiao in May 2018. Longjiang-1 failed to enter lunar orbit, [30] but Longjiang-2 succeeded and is currently operational in lunar orbit. These microsatellites were tasked to observe the sky at very low frequencies (1–30 MegaHertz), corresponding to wavelengths of 300 to 10 metres (984 to 33 ft), with the aim of studying energetic phenomena from celestial sources. [27] [33] [34] Due to the Earth's ionosphere, no observations in this frequency range have been done in Earth orbit, [34] offering potential breakthrough science. [23]

Chang'e lander and Yutu-2 rover

As is the case with many of China's space missions, the details of the spacecraft and the mission have been limited. [35] What is known is that much of the Chang'e 4 lander and rover design is modeled after Chang'e-3 and its Yutu rover. [35] In fact, Chang'e 4 was built as a backup to Chang'e 3, [36] and based on the experience and results from that mission, Chang'e 4 was adapted to the specifics of the new mission. [37] The lander and rover were launched on 7 December 2018, 18:23 UTC, six months after the launch of the Queqiao relay satellite. [4]

The total landing mass is 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). [2] Both the stationary lander and Yutu-2 rover are equipped with a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) in order to heat their subsystems during the long lunar nights, [38] while electrical power is generated by solar panels. After landing, the lander extended a ramp to deploy the Yutu-2 rover (literally: "Jade Rabbit") to the lunar surface. [30] The rover measures 1.5 × 1.0 × 1.0 m (4.9 × 3.3 × 3.3 ft) and has a mass of 140 kg (310 lb). [2] [3] Yutu-2 rover was fabricated at Dongguan, Guangdong province; it is solar-powered, RHU-heated, [38] and it is propelled by six wheels. The rover's nominal operating time is three months, [1] but after the experience with Yutu rover in 2013, the rover design was improved and Chinese engineers are hopeful it will operate for "a few years." [39]

A few days after landing, Yutu-2 went into hibernation for its first lunar night and it resumed activities on January 29, 2019 with all instruments operating nominally. During its first full lunar day, the rover travelled 120 m (390 ft), and on 11 February 2019 it powered down for its second lunar night. The Yutu-2 rover and lander will resume operations on February 28 and March 1, respectively. [40] [41]

Wide images

The first panorama from the far side of the moon.jpg
The first panorama from the far side of the Moon

Science payloads

View of landing site, marked by two small arrows, taken by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter on 30 January 2019 LRO Chang'e 4, first look.png
View of landing site, marked by two small arrows, taken by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter on 30 January 2019

The communications relay satellite, orbiting microsatellite, lander and rover each carry scientific payloads. The relay satellite is performing radio astronomy, [43] whereas the lander and Yutu-2 rover will study the geophysics of the landing zone. [13] [8] [44] The science payloads are, in part, supplied by international partners in Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, and Saudi Arabia. [45]

Relay satellite

The primary function of the Queqiao relay satellite that is deployed in a halo orbit around the Earth–Moon L2 point is to provide continuous relay communications between Earth and the lander on the far side of the Moon. [27] [43]

Additionally, this satellite hosts the Netherlands-China Low-Frequency Explorer (NCLE), an instrument performing astrophysical studies in the unexplored radio regime of 80 kilohertz to 80 megahertz. [46] [47] It was developed by the Radboud University in Netherlands and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The NCLE on the orbiter and the LFS on the lander will work in synergy performing low-frequency (0.1 MHz–80 MHz) radio astronomical observations. [33]

Lunar lander

Chang'e 4 - Lander (left arrow) and Rover (right arrow) on the Moon surface (8 February 2019). NASA-Chang'e4-Lander&Rover-OnMoonSurface-20190208.jpg
Chang'e 4 – Lander (left arrow) and Rover (right arrow) on the Moon surface (8 February 2019).

The lander and rover carry scientific payloads to study the geophysics of the landing zone, with a modest chemical analysis capability. [13] [8] [44] [33] The lander is equipped with the following payloads:

Result: Within a few hours after landing on 3 January 2019, the biosphere's temperature was adjusted to 24°C and the seeds were watered. On January 15, 2019, it was reported that cottonseed, rapeseed and potato seeds had sprouted, but images of only cottonseed were released. [52] However, on January 16, it was reported that the experiment was terminated due to an external temperature drop to −52 °C (−62 °F) as the lunar night set in, and a failure to warm the biosphere close to 24°C. [60] The experiment was terminated after nine days instead of the planned 100 days, but valuable information was obtained. [60] [61]

Lunar rover

Landing site

The landing site is within a crater called Von Kármán [8] (180 km or 110 mi diameter) in the South Pole-Aitken Basin on the far side of the Moon that was still unexplored by landers. [9] [62] The site has symbolic as well as scientific value. Theodore von Kármán was the PhD advisor of Qian Xuesen, the founder of the Chinese space program. [63]

The landing craft touched down at 02:26 UTC on 3 January 2019, becoming the first spacecraft to land on the far side of the Moon. [64] Yutu-2 rover was deployed about 12 hours after the landing. [65]

Cooperation with other countries

Chang'e 4 marks the first major US-China collaboration in space exploration since 2011 Congressional ban. Scientists from both countries had regular contact prior to the landing. [66] This included talks about observing plumes and particles lofted from the lunar surface by the probe's rocket exhaust during the landing to compare the results with theoretical predictions, but NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was not in the right position for this during the landing. [67] The US also informed Chinese scientists about its satellites in orbit around the moon, while China shared with the US scientists the longitude, latitude, and timing of Chang'e 4's landing. [68]

China has agreed to a request from NASA to use the Chang'e 4 probe and Queqiao relay satellite in future US moon missions. [69]

See also

Related Research Articles

Spacecraft manned vehicle or unmanned machine designed to fly in outer space

A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, Earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo. All spacecraft except single-stage-to-orbit vehicles cannot get into space on their own, and require a launch vehicle.

Lander (spacecraft) spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body

A lander is a spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body. By contrast with an impact probe, which makes a hard landing and is damaged or destroyed so ceases to function after reaching the surface, a lander makes a soft landing after which the probe remains functional.

Moon landing Arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon

A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon. This includes both manned and unmanned (robotic) missions. The first human-made object to reach the surface of the Moon was the Soviet Union's Luna 2 mission, on 13 September 1959.

Exploration of the Moon various missions to the Moon

The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959. Prior to that the only available means of exploration had been observation from Earth. The invention of the optical telescope brought about the first leap in the quality of lunar observations. Galileo Galilei is generally credited as the first person to use a telescope for astronomical purposes; having made his own telescope in 1609, the mountains and craters on the lunar surface were among his first observations using it.

Lissajous orbit quasi-periodic orbital trajectory

In orbital mechanics, a Lissajous orbit, named after Jules Antoine Lissajous, is a quasi-periodic orbital trajectory that an object can follow around a Lagrangian point of a three-body system without requiring any propulsion. Lyapunov orbits around a Lagrangian point are curved paths that lie entirely in the plane of the two primary bodies. In contrast, Lissajous orbits include components in this plane and perpendicular to it, and follow a Lissajous curve. Halo orbits also include components perpendicular to the plane, but they are periodic, while Lissajous orbits are not.

Rover (space exploration) space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body

A rover is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body. Some rovers have been designed to transport members of a human spaceflight crew; others have been partially or fully autonomous robots. Rovers usually arrive at the planetary surface on a lander-style spacecraft. Rovers are created to land on another planet, besides Earth, to find out information and to take samples. They can collect dust, rocks, and even take pictures. They are very useful for exploring the universe.

Halo orbit periodic, three-dimensional orbit near the L1, L2 or L3 Lagrange points in the three-body problem of orbital mechanics

A halo orbit is a periodic, three-dimensional orbit near the L1, L2 or L3 Lagrange point in the three-body problem of orbital mechanics. Although the Lagrange point is just a point in empty space, its peculiar characteristic is that it can be orbited. Halo orbits can be thought of as resulting from an interaction between the gravitational pull of the two planetary bodies and the Coriolis and centrifugal accelerations on a spacecraft. Halo orbits exist in any three-body system, e.g. the Sun–Earth–Orbiting Satellite system and the Earth–Moon–Orbiting Satellite system. Continuous "families" of both Northern and Southern halo orbits exist at each Lagrange point. Because halo orbits tend to be unstable, stationkeeping is required to keep a satellite on the orbit.

SELENE-2

SELENE-2, or the Selenological and Engineering Explorer 2, is a cancelled Japanese robotic mission to the Moon that would have included an orbiter, a lander and a rover. It was intended as a successor to the 2007 SELENE (Kaguya) lunar orbiter.

Several Asian countries have space programs and are actively competing to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space, a situation sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in the popular media as a reference to the earlier Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Like the previous space race, issues involved in the current push to space include national security, which has spurred many countries to send artificial satellites as well as humans into Earth orbit and beyond. A number of Asian countries are seen as contenders in the ongoing race to be the pre-eminent power in space.

Chandrayaan-2 is India's second lunar exploration mission after Chandrayaan-1. Developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), the mission is planned to be launched to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III. It includes a lunar orbiter, lander and rover, all developed by India.

Lunar rover space exploration vehicle (rover) designed to move across the surface of the Moon

A lunar rover or Moon rover is a space exploration vehicle (rover) designed to move across the surface of the Moon. The Lunar Roving Vehicle was designed to be driven by members of human spaceflight crews from the U.S. Apollo program. Other rovers have been partially or fully autonomous robots, such as Soviet Lunokhods and the Chinese Yutus. Three countries have had rovers on the Moon: the Soviet Union, the United States and China. Japan and India currently have planned missions.

2018 in spaceflight spaceflight-related events during the year of 2018

This article lists achieved spaceflight events in 2018. For the first time since 1990, more than 100 orbital launches were performed globally.

Change 5 Chinese Moon lander

Chang'e 5 is a robotic Chinese lunar exploration mission consisting of a lander and a sample-return vehicle. It is currently under development and it is scheduled for a launch in December 2019, after being postponed due to the failure of the Long March 5 launch vehicle in 2017. Chang'e 5 will be China's first sample return mission, aiming to return at least 2 kilograms of lunar soil and rock samples back to the Earth. Like its predecessors, the spacecraft is named after the Chinese moon goddess, Chang'e. This will be the first lunar sample-return mission since Luna 24 in 1976.

The (Japanese) Lunar Exploration Program (月探査計画), is a program of robotic and human missions to the Moon undertaken by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and its division, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). It is also one of the three major enterprises of the JAXA Space Exploration Center (JSPEC). The main goal of the program is "to elucidate the origin and evolution of the Moon and utilize the Moon in the future".

<i>Yutu</i> (rover) Chinese lunar rover

Yutu was a robotic lunar rover that formed part of the Chinese Chang'e 3 mission to the Moon. It was launched at 17:30 UTC on 1 December 2013, and reached the Moon's surface on 14 December 2013. The mission marks the first soft landing on the Moon since 1976 and the first rover to operate there since the Soviet Lunokhod 2 ceased operations on 11 May 1973.

Chang'e 6 is a planned robotic Chinese lunar exploration mission expected to be launched in 2023 or 2024 and perform China's second sample return mission. Like its predecessors, the spacecraft is named after the Chinese moon goddess Chang'e.

References

  1. 1 2 3 China says it will launch 2 robots to the far side of the moon in December on an unprecedented lunar exploration mission Archived 9 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Dave Mosher, Business Insider. 16 August 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Chang'e 3, 4 (CE 3, 4) Archived 20 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Gunter Dirk Krebs, Gunter's Space Page.
  3. 1 2 This is the rover China will send to the 'dark side' of the Moon Archived 31 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Steven Jiang, CNN News. 16 August 2018.
  4. 1 2 3 "探月工程嫦娥四号探测器成功发射 开启人类首次月球背面软着陆探测之旅". China National Space Administration (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  5. Chang'e-4: Far side of the Moon lander and rover mission to launch in December Archived 13 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Global Times, 18 June 2018.
  6. Launch Schedule 2018 Archived 16 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine . SpaceflightNow, 18 September 2018.
  7. Barbosa, Rui (3 January 2019). "China lands Chang'e-4 mission on the far side of the Moon". Nasaspacefight. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  8. 1 2 3 4 China's Journey to the Lunar Far Side: A Missed Opportunity? Paul D. Spudis, Air & Space Smithsonian. 14 June 2017.
  9. 1 2 Ye, Peijian; Sun, Zezhou; Zhang, He; Li, Fei (2017). "An overview of the mission and technical characteristics of Change'4 Lunar Probe". Science China Technological Sciences. 60 (5): 658. doi:10.1007/s11431-016-9034-6.
  10. Lyons, Kate. "Chang'e 4 landing: China probe makes historic touchdown on far side of the moon". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  11. 1 2 "China successfully lands Chang'e-4 on far side of Moon". Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  12. This map shows exactly where China landed its Chang'e-4 spacecraft on the far side of the moon Archived 4 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine . Dave Mosherand and Shayanne Gal, Business Insider. 3 January 2019.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 China Prepares for Breakthrough Chang'e 4 Moon Landing in 2018 Archived 11 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Sputnik News, 31 December 2017.
  14. China lays out its ambitions to colonize the moon and build a "lunar palace" Archived 29 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Echo Huang, Quartz. 26 April 2018.
  15. China's moon mission to boldly go a step further Archived 31 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine . Stuart Clark, The Guardian 31 December 2017.
  16. "China Outlines New Rockets, Space Station and Moon Plans". Space. 17 March 2015. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
  17. "Ouyang Ziyuan portrayed Chang E project follow-up blueprint". Science Times. 9 December 2011. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  18. Witze, Alexandra (19 March 2013). "China's Moon rover awake but immobile". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14906. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  19. China launches historic mission to land on far side of the moon Archived 7 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine Stephen Clark, Spaceflight Now. 7 December 2018.
  20. "China's Chang'e-4 probe decelerates near moon". Xinhua. 12 December 2018. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  21. "China's Chang'e-4 probe changes orbit to prepare for moon-landing". XinhuaNet. 30 December 2018. Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  22. Jones, Andrew (31 December 2018). "How the Chang'e-4 spacecraft will land on the far side of the Moon". GBTIMES. Archived from the original on 2 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  23. 1 2 China's Moon Missions Are Anything But Pointless. Paul D. Spudis, Air & Space Smithsonian. 3 January 2017.
  24. To the Far Side of the Moon: China's Lunar Science Goals Archived 10 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Leonard David, Space. 9 June 2016.
  25. 1 2 Wall, Mike (18 May 2018). "China Launching Relay Satellite Toward Moon's Far Side Sunday". Space.com. Archived from the original on 18 May 2018.
  26. Emily Lakdawalla (14 January 2016). "Updates on China's lunar missions". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  27. 1 2 3 Jones, Andrew (24 April 2018). "Chang'e-4 lunar far side satellite named 'magpie bridge' from folklore tale of lovers crossing the Milky Way". GBTimes. Archived from the original on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  28. Future Chinese Lunar Missions: Chang'e 4 - Farside Lander and Rover. David R. Williams, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 7 December 2018.
  29. Chang'e 4 relay satellite, Queqiao: A bridge between Earth and the mysterious lunar farside Archived 21 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Xu, Luyan, The Planetary Society. 19 May 2018. Retrieved on 20 May 2018
  30. 1 2 3 4 Xu, Luyuan (15 June 2018). "How China's lunar relay satellite arrived in its final orbit". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018.
  31. Radio Experiment Launches With China's Moon Orbiter. David Dickinson, Sky & Telescope. 21 May 2018.
  32. China Moon Mission: Lunar Microsatellite Problem?. Leonard David, Inside Outer Space. 27 May 2018.
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The scientific objectives and payloads of Chang'E−4 mission. (PDF) Yingzhuo Jia, Yongliao Zou, Jinsong Ping, Changbin Xue, Jun Yan, Yuanming Ning. Planetary and Space Science. 21 February 2018. doi : 10.1016/j.pss.2018.02.011
  34. 1 2 Chang'e-4 lunar far side mission to carry microsatellites for pioneering astronomy Archived 9 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Andrew Jones, GB Times. March 2018.
  35. 1 2 This weekend, China embarks on a historic mission to land on the far side of the Moon Archived 7 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Loren Grush, The Verge. 6 December 2018.
  36. A Chang'e-4 mission concept and vision of future Chinese lunar exploration activities. Qiong Wang, Jizhong Liu. Acta Astronautica. Vol: 127, October-November 2016, pp: 678-683. doi : 10.1016/j.actaastro.2016.06.024
  37. Pioneering Chang’e-4 lunar far side landing mission to launch in December. Andrew Jones, Space News. 15 August 2018.
  38. 1 2 China Shoots for the Moon's Far Side. (PDF) IEEE.org. 2018.
  39. China's Chang'e 4 spacecraft to try historic landing on far side of Moon 'between January 1 and 3' Archived 2 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine . South China Morning Post. 31 December 2018.
  40. Chang’e-4 powers down for second lunar night. Andrew Jones, SpaceNews. 11 February 2019.
  41. Chang’e-4 powers down for second lunar night. Vadim Ioan Caraiman, Great Lakes Ledger. 11 February 2019.
  42. Robinson, Mark (6 February 2019). "First Look: Chang'e 4". Arizona State University. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  43. 1 2 Chang'e 4 Relay Archived 1 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Gunter Dirk Krebs, Gunter's Space Page.
  44. 1 2 Plans for China's farside Chang'e 4 lander science mission taking shape Archived 23 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine . Emily Lakdawalla, The Planetary Society, 22 June 2016.
  45. Andrew Jones (11 January 2018). "Testing on China's Chang'e-4 lunar far side lander and rover steps up in preparation for launch". GBTimes. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  46. 1 2 David, Leonard. "Comsat Launch Bolsters China's Dreams for Landing on the Moon's Far Side". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018.
  47. "Netherlands-China Low-Frequency Explorer (NCLE)". ASTRON. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  48. NASA (8 February 2019). "Chang'e 4 Rover comes into view". EurekAlert! . Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  49. 1 2 Andrew Jones (16 May 2016). "Sweden joins China's historic mission to land on the far side of the Moon in 2018". GBTimes. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  50. The Lunar Lander Neutron & Dosimetry (LND) Experiment on Chang'E4 Archived 3 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine . (PDF) Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, S. Zhang, C. E. Hellweg, Jia Yu, etal. Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik. Germany.
  51. Geological Characteristics of Chang'e-4 Landing Site Archived 31 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine . (PDF) Jun Huang, Zhiyong Xiao, Jessica Flahaut, Mélissa Martinot, Xiao Xiao. 49th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 2018 (LPI Contrib. No. 2083).
  52. 1 2 3 Zheng, William (15 January 2019). "Chinese lunar lander's cotton seeds spring to life on far side of the moon". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  53. Moon sees first cotton-seed sprout. Xinhua News. 15 January 2019.
  54. Change-4 Probe lands on the moon with “mysterious passenger” of CQU
  55. China Is About to Land Living Eggs on the Far Side of the Moon Archived 2 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine . Yasmin Tayag, Inverse. 2 January 2019.
  56. Rincon, Paul (2 January 2019). "Chang'e-4: China mission primed for landing on Moon's far side". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  57. Space 2018: China mission will create miniature ecosystem on Moon Archived 4 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Karen Graham, Digital Journal. 6 January 2018.
  58. Forget the stratospheric chicken sandwich, China is sending potato seeds and silkworms to the Moon Archived 11 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Andrew Jones, GB Times. 14 June 2017.
  59. China Focus: Flowers on the Moon? China's Chang'e-4 to launch lunar spring Archived 27 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine . Xinhua (in English). 4 April 2018.
  60. 1 2 Lunar nighttime brings end to Chang'e-4 biosphere experiment and cotton sprouts. Andrew Jones, GB Times. 16 January 2019.
  61. China's first plant to grow on the moon is already dead. Yong Xiong and Ben Westcott, CNN News. 17 January 2019.
  62. "China Plans First Ever Landing on the Lunar Far Side". Space Daily. 22 May 2015. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  63. "Hsue-Shen Tsien". Mathematics Genealogy Project. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  64. "Chang'e 4: China probe lands on far side of the moon". The Guardian . 3 January 2019. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  65. Chang'e-4: Chinese rover now exploring Moon Archived 4 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine . Paul Rincon, BBC News. 4 January 2019.
  66. "Chang'e-4 spacecraft enter lunar nighttime, China planning future missions, cooperation". Space News. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  67. "Farside Politics: The West Eyes Moon Cooperation with China". Scientific American. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  68. "Space a new realm for Sino-US cooperation". China Daily. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  69. Needham, Kirsty (19 January 2019). "Red moon rising: China's mission to the far side". The Sydney Morning Herald.