Chaoyang, Liaoning

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Chaoyang

朝阳市
Chaoyang Ancient Street.jpg
An ancient street in Chaoyang.
Location of Chaoyang Prefecture within Liaoning (China).png
Location of Chaoyang City jurisdiction in Liaoning
China Liaoning location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Chaoyang
Location of the city centre in Liaoning
Coordinates(Chaoyang People's Park): 41°34′16″N120°27′11″E / 41.571°N 120.453°E / 41.571; 120.453 Coordinates: 41°34′16″N120°27′11″E / 41.571°N 120.453°E / 41.571; 120.453
Country People's Republic of China
Province Liaoning
Municipal seatShuangta District
Districts and Counties
List
  • Shuangta District
  • Longcheng District
  • Beipiao City
  • Lingyuan City
  • Chaoyang County
  • Jianping County
  • Harqin Left Mongol Autonomous County
Government
   CPC ChiefChen Tiexin
  MayorZhang Tiemin
Area
[1]
   Prefecture-level city 19,698 km2 (7,605 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2017) [2]
570.00 km2 (220.08 sq mi)
   Districts [2] 1,170.5 km2 (451.9 sq mi)
Elevation
170 m (560 ft)
Population
 (2010) [3]
   Prefecture-level city 3,044,641
  Density150/km2 (400/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2017) [2]
537,800
  Districts [2]
639,000
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
122000
Area code(s) 0421
ISO 3166 code CN-LN-13
Licence plate prefixes 辽N
Administrative division code 211300
Website zgcy.gov.cn
Chaoyang, Liaoning
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 朝陽
Simplified Chinese 朝阳
Mongolian name
Mongolian script ᠴᠤᠤᠶᠠᠩ

Chaoyang (simplified Chinese :朝阳; traditional Chinese :朝陽; pinyin :Cháoyáng) is a prefecture-level city in western Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.

Contents

With a vast land area of almost 20,000 square kilometres (7,700 sq mi), it is by area the largest prefecture-level city in Liaoning, and borders on Hebei province and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the west.

The area under Chaoyang's jurisdictional control is split up into two counties (Jianping, Chaoyang), two urban districts (Longcheng, Shuangta), two county-level cities (Beipiao, Lingyuan), and the Harqin Left Wing Mongolian Autonomous County. The total regional population is 3 million, while the urban centre where the government office is located has a population of 430,000 and forms the core of Chaoyang.

Known as China's 'fossil city', many important paleontological discoveries have been made in Chaoyang, and the Harqin region is the oldest currently known prehistoric site in northern China. Two of the most remarkable Early Cretaceous birds known to date were recovered in the vicinity of the Jiufotang Formation rocks and named Longipteryx chaoyangensis and Sapeornis chaoyangensis in reference to the city.

Name

The name "Chaoyang" originates from a poem found in one of the oldest collections of Chinese poetry, the Shijing. "A wutong tree grew on a mountain. A fenghuang bird perched at the top and sang towards the morning sun" (Chaoyang's name means "morning sun" in Chinese). The eastern part of Chaoyang is home to a mountain that has been called Fenghuang Mountain since ancient times. In 1778, this mountain was connected with the poem from the Shijing and Chaoyang was given its current name.

History

Chaoyang has a long and rich history. The discovery of the over five-thousand-year-old Niuheliang Hongshan Cultural Ruins in the region has drawn attention to Chaoyang as one of the birthplaces of ancient Chinese culture. [4] The area first appears in Chinese historical records as “Liucheng County” in the Early Han period of the 3rd century B.C. In 342 AD, King of the Former Yan, Murong Huang, made Chaoyang his capital under the name Longcheng, and the city remained the capital through the Later Yan and Northern Yan periods. [5] Since this time, Chaoyang has functioned as a center of Buddhism in Northeast China, with the construction of Longxiang temple in 345 AD forming the beginning of Buddhist culture in the Northeast.

The Mongols seized Chaoyang and surrounding regions. It is very difficult to locate nomadic people, but when they submitted to the Manchu Qing Dynasty, Chaoyang was controlled by Chinggisid princes and descendants of Jelme. Their territories became Tümed Right Wing Banner, Kharachin Left Wing Banner, Kharachin Right Wing Banner, and Kharachin Middle Banner, all of which were under Josutu League. [6]

Although the Qin Dynasty officially prohibited the Chinese from immigrating to Mongol lands, the southernmost league of Mongolia was flooded by Chinese peasants.[ citation needed ] As a result, several Chinese prefectures were created within the Mongol lands, and the Chinese came under the jurisdiction of the neighboring Chengde-fu.

In 1891, a Chinese secret society named Jindandao raised a rebellion, massacring tens of thousands of Mongols and forcing survivors to flee northward. [7]

Under Manchukuo, the eastern part of Chaoyang, including the city of Chaoyang, belonged to Kin-chow Province while the western part constituted Jehol Province. [6] The People's Republic of China incorporated Chaoyang into Liaoning Province in 1955 although ethnic Mongols wished to join Inner Mongolia. [7] It was declared a prefecture level city in 1984. [8]

Geography and climate

Chaoyang has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate/semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification: Dwa/BSk), with cold but very dry winters, and hot, humid summers; spring and autumn are relatively brief. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −9.2 °C (15.4 °F) in January to 25.0 °C (77.0 °F) in July, for an annual average of 9.52 °C (49.1 °F). A majority of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August alone. Due to the aridity, diurnal temperature variation is large, especially during spring and autumn, and averages 12.9 °C (23.2 °F) annually. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 50% in July to 71% in January, the city averages 2,748 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Chaoyang City (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−1.8
(28.8)
2.6
(36.7)
9.7
(49.5)
19.2
(66.6)
25.5
(77.9)
29.1
(84.4)
30.4
(86.7)
29.7
(85.5)
25.4
(77.7)
18.0
(64.4)
7.5
(45.5)
0.2
(32.4)
16.3
(61.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−9.2
(15.4)
−4.9
(23.2)
2.6
(36.7)
12.2
(54.0)
18.8
(65.8)
22.9
(73.2)
25.0
(77.0)
23.8
(74.8)
18.2
(64.8)
10.5
(50.9)
0.8
(33.4)
−6.5
(20.3)
9.5
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F)−15.4
(4.3)
−11.4
(11.5)
−4.2
(24.4)
5.2
(41.4)
12.0
(53.6)
17.0
(62.6)
20.2
(68.4)
18.5
(65.3)
11.7
(53.1)
4.0
(39.2)
−5.0
(23.0)
−12.2
(10.0)
3.4
(38.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)1.6
(0.06)
2.0
(0.08)
7.6
(0.30)
23.5
(0.93)
40.9
(1.61)
91.6
(3.61)
132.0
(5.20)
97.8
(3.85)
41.5
(1.63)
20.5
(0.81)
6.9
(0.27)
2.2
(0.09)
468.1
(18.44)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.41.52.74.97.110.712.19.76.84.12.31.364.6
Average relative humidity (%)43383638456073736353484651
Mean monthly sunshine hours 206.3207.9243.3249.0263.7243.4227.0235.5245.4235.6199.2191.42,747.7
Percent possible sunshine 71706663595450556669676762
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 19712000) [9] [10]

Administrative divisions

The prefecture is divided into 7 administrative areas. There are 2 districts, 2 subordinate cities and 3 counties of which one county is an Autonomous County for the Mongolian minority.

Map
Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2003 est.)
Area (km2)Density
(/km2)
Shuangta District 双塔区Shuāngtǎ Qū310,0002111,469
Longcheng District 龙城区Lóngchéng Qū170,000346491
Beipiao City 北票市Běipiào Shì620,0004,583135
Lingyuan 凌源市Língyuán Shì650,0003,297197
Chaoyang County 朝阳县Cháoyáng Xiàn620,0004,216147
Jianping County 建平县Jiànpíng Xiàn580,0004,838120
Harqin Zuoyi Mongol
Autonomous County
喀喇沁左翼
蒙古族自治县
Kālāqìn Zuǒyì
Měnggǔzú Zìzhìxiàn
420,0002,240188

Economy

Agriculture forms the backbone of Chaoyang's economy. In addition to wheat, corn, beans, and potatoes, Chaoyang is also an important region for the growing of cotton and fruit. The city has also begun to venture into the production of shaji (sea-buckthorn berries), which have become popular in China because of their dual use as food and as medicine. Chaoyang is home to the largest man-made thicket of shaji.

Chaoyang has more than 1,600 industrial enterprises, manufacturing a wide range of products including steel, machinery, textiles, diesel engines, automobiles, and paper. [11] Lingyuan Iron and Steel Works and the Liaoning Tyre Factory are two of the largest such enterprises.

The city is served by Chaoyang Airport.

Fossils

Liaoning, and in particular Chaoyang, has become the focus of great interest in the world of palaeontology. During the 1990s, many new, unique and fascinating fossils were discovered in this region. Some of the finds have completely revolutionised our ideas of dinosaurs and shed new light on the origin of birds. Chaoyang's fossils are in the Jiufotang Formation. These fossils include: Liaoxipterus , a genus of ctenochasmatid pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous; Microraptor , a feathered dinosaur; and several early birds such as Longipteryx , Sapeornis , Yanornis and Jeholornis , an early bird. Insects have also been found such as Dictyoptera, a fossilised cockroach and Hymenoptera, a fossil bee, which also date to the Lower Cretaceous period. A local trade in rare fossils has developed in the wake of the finds, with an estimated sixty vendors gathering in one area, called Ancient Street. [12]

Friendship cities

Related Research Articles

A banner is an administrative division of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China, corresponding to the county level.

<i>Yanornis</i> Extinct genus of birds

Yanornis is an extinct genus of fish-eating Early Cretaceous birds. Two species have been described, both from Liaoning province, China: Yanornis martini, based on several fossils found in the 120-million-year-old Jiufotang Formation at Chaoyang, and Yanornis guozhangi, from the 124-million-year-old Yixian Formation.

Omnivoropteryx is a genus of primitive flying avialan from the early Cretaceous Upper Jiufotang Formation of China. The authors who described Omnivoropteryx, Stephen Czerkas and Qiang Ji, stated that their specimen closely resembles Sapeornis, but the pubis was longer and, since no skull was known for Sapeornis, they did not consider the two names synonyms. The later discovery of Sapeornis skulls shows that they were indeed similar to Omnivoropteryx. This may make Omnivoropteryx a junior synonym of Sapeornis, and the name may be abandoned.

<i>Longipteryx</i> Genus of birds

Longipteryx is a genus of prehistoric bird which lived during the Early Cretaceous. It contains a single species, Longipteryx chaoyangensis. Its remains have been recovered from the Jiufotang Formation at Chaoyang in Liaoning Province, China. Apart from the holotype IVPP V 12325 - a fine and nearly complete skeleton — another entire skeleton and some isolated bones are known to date.

<i>Sapeornis</i> Extinct genus of birds

Sapeornis is a type of avialan which lived during the early Cretaceous period. The genus Sapeornis contains only one species, Sapeornis chaoyangensis.

Longchengpterus, sometimes misspelled as "Lonchengopterus", is a genus of istiodactylid pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Barremian-Aptian-age Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Chaoyang, Liaoning, China. Its fossil remains dated back about 120 million years ago.

<i>Longchengornis</i> Extinct genus of birds

Longchengornis is a genus of enantiornithean birds which lived during the early Cretaceous Period, about 120 mya, and is known from a fossil found in the Jiufotang Formation in Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It contains the single species L. sanyanensis, though some researchers believe this to be a synonym of the similar species Cathayornis yandica.

Vanchinbalyn Injinash

Vanchinbalyn Injinash (1837-1892) was a Mongolian poet, novelist and historian from a Mongol area in modern-day Liaoning, China.

Kharchin Mongols

The Kharchin is a subgroup of the Mongols residing mainly in North-western Liaoning and Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. There are Khalkha-Kharchin Mongols in Dorno-Gobi Province and in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Jiufotang Formation

The Jiufotang Formation is an Early Cretaceous geological formation in Chaoyang, Liaoning which has yielded fossils of feathered dinosaurs, primitive birds, pterosaurs, and other organisms. It is a member of the Jehol group. The exact age of the Jiufotang has been debated for years, with estimates ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. He et al. (2004) used argon - isotope radiometry to confirm biostratigraphic age estimates. They confirmed an Early Cretaceous, Aptian age for the Jiufotang Formation, 120.3 +/-0.7 million years ago. Fossils of Microraptor and Jeholornis are from the Jiufotang.

<i>Shanweiniao</i> Extinct genus of birds

Shanweiniao is a genus of long-snouted enantiornithean birds from Early Cretaceous China. One species is known, Shanweiniao cooperorum. There is one known fossil, a slab and counterslab. The fossil is in the collection of the Dalian Natural History Museum, and has accession number DNHM D1878/1 and DNHM1878/2. It was collected from the Lower Cretaceous Dawangzhengzi Beds, middle Yixian Formation, from Lingyuan in the Liaoning Province, China.

Liaoxisaurus is a genus of simodeosaurid choristodere, a type of crocodile-like aquatic reptile. It is known from a partial specimen found in Aptian-age Lower Cretaceous rocks of the Jiufotang Formation, Chaoyang, Liaoning, China. Liaoxisaurus was named in 2005 by Gao Chunling, Lü Junchang, and colleagues. The type species is L. chaoyangensis.

Harqin Zuoyi Mongol Autonomous County Autonomous county in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Harqin Zuoyi Mongol Autonomous County, commonly abbreviated as Kazuo County (喀左县), is a Mongolian autonomous county in the west of Liaoning province, China. It is under the administration of Chaoyang City, 77 km (48 mi) to the northeast, and has a population of 420,000 residing in an area of 2,240 km2 (860 sq mi). Formerly known as Harqin Left Banner.

Hongshanornithidae is an extinct group of early ornithuromorph birds from the early Cretaceous period of China. It includes the genera Hongshanornis and Tianyuornis from the Yixian Formation of Inner Mongolia, Longicrusavis from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, Parahongshanornis from the Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province, and Archaeornithura, the oldest known member, from the Huajiying Formation of Hebei Province.

Huoshanornis is a genus of enantiornithine birds which existed in what is now Jiufotang Formation of Western Liaoning Province, China during the early Cretaceous period. Its fossil remains were found at Chaoyang City. It was first named by Xia Wang, Zihui Zhang, Chunling Gao, Lianhai Hou, Qingjin Meng and Jinyuan Liu in 2010 and the type species is Huoshanornis huji.

Longipterygidae Extinct family of birds

Longipterygidae is a family of early enantiornithean birds from the early Cretaceous Period of China. All known specimens come from the Jiufotang Formation and Yixian Formation, dating to the early Aptian age, 125-120 million years ago.

Camptodontornis is an extinct genus of enantiornithine bird which existed in what is now Chaoyang in Liaoning Province, China during the early Cretaceous period. It is known from a well-preserved skeleton including a skull found in the Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province. Its original generic name was "Camptodontus" ; it was named by Li Li, En-pu Gong, Li-dong Zhang, Ya-jun Yang and Lian-hai Hou in 2010. However, the name had previously been used for a genus of beetle. The type species is "Camptodontus" yangi. Demirjian (2019) coined a replacement generic name Camptodontornis. The status of C. yangi as a distinct species is disputed, with Wang et al. (2015) considering it to be a probable synonym of Longipteryx chaoyangensis.

The Josutu League was the southernmost league of Inner Mongolia during Qing rule. It occupied land that forms part of the modern-day Chinese provinces of Liaoning, Hebei, and Chifeng in China's Inner Mongolia.

The Jindandao incident refers to a rebellion by a Han Chinese secret society called Jindandao (金丹道), who rose in revolt in Inner Mongolia in November 1891 and massacred 150,000–500,000 Mongols before being suppressed by government troops in late December. The revolt devastated Mongol communities in the southeastern borderland and forced many Mongols to take refuge in northern banners. This massacre was later dubbed an incident by Chinese officials.

Parahongshanornis is an extinct genus of early bird from the lower Cretaceous of what is now Liaoning Province, north-eastern China.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 4 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 50. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  3. "Chaoyang i Liaoning". NAtional Bureau of Statistics China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-22. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  4. "History and Culture". Chaoyang Government. Archived from the original on 2009-08-16. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
  5. "History and Culture". Chaoyang Government. Archived from the original on 2009-08-16. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
  6. 1 2 Yamazaki Sōyo (山崎惣與) (1941). 滿洲國地名大辭典. p. 556.
  7. 1 2 Borjigin Burensain (2007). 近現代内モンゴル東部の変容[Social and Cultural Change in Eastern Inner Mongolia in the Modern Period]. ハラチン・トメド移民と近現代モンゴル社会[Mongolian immigrants from the Qaračin and Tumed areas within modern Mongolian society]. p. 318345.
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  9. 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration . Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  10. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  11. "Chaoyang". Teach in China. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-15.
  12. Jerry Guo, "Fossils Fuel a Chinese Boom", Time, August 27, 2007