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Chaparral, Santa Ynez Mountains, near Santa Barbara, California Chaparral1.jpg
Chaparral, Santa Ynez Mountains, near Santa Barbara, California

Chaparral ( /ˌʃæpəˈræl/ ) is a shrubland or heathland plant community found primarily in the US state of California and in the northern portion of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico. It is shaped by a Mediterranean climate (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers) and wildfire, featuring summer-drought-tolerant plants with hard sclerophyllous evergreen leaves, as contrasted with the associated soft-leaved, drought-deciduous, scrub community of coastal sage scrub, found below the chaparral biome. Chaparral covers 5% of the state of California and associated Mediterranean shrubland an additional 3.5%. [1] The name comes from the Spanish word chaparro, for evergreen oak shrubland.

Shrubland plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs

Shrubland, scrubland, scrub, brush, or bush is a plant community characterised by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes. Shrubland may either occur naturally or be the result of human activity. It may be the mature vegetation type in a particular region and remain stable over time, or a transitional community that occurs temporarily as the result of a disturbance, such as fire. A stable state may be maintained by regular natural disturbance such as fire or browsing. Shrubland may be unsuitable for human habitation because of the danger of fire. The term was coined in 1903.

Heath shrubland habitat

A heath is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation. Moorland is generally related to high-ground heaths with—especially in Great Britain—a cooler and damper climate.

Plant community collection or association of plant species within a designated geographical unit

A plant community is a collection or association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishable from neighboring patches of different vegetation types. The components of each plant community are influenced by soil type, topography, climate and human disturbance. In many cases there are several soil types within a given phytocoenosis.



In its natural state, chaparral is characterized by infrequent fires, with intervals ranging between 30-50+ years. The fires are high intensity and stand-replacing. Recent human activity has increased fire frequency. The shoots of the Chaparral plants do not have thick bark, therefore, they are not very resistant; however, the vegetative recovery is resilient (with long fire-free periods) because its regeneration is rapid from dormant seed banks and root-crowns.

There are two kinds of Chaparral plant species:

Because sprouters can respond with more rapid growth than seeders, they tend to dominate the early years after a fire. If fires become frequent (<10 years), seeders cannot reach reproductive size before the next fire. System shifts to sprouter-domnance. If fire become even more frequent (< 5 years), sprouters exhaust their below- ground reserves. Then there will be a conversion to non-chaparral (grassland)

Mature chaparral (stands that have survived for greater intervals between fires) is characterized by nearly impenetrable, dense thickets (except the more open chaparral of the desert). These plants are highly flammable during the late summer and autumn months when conditions are characteristically hot and dry. They grow as woody shrubs with thick, leathery, and often small leaves, contain green leaves all year (are evergreen), and are typically drought resistant (with some exceptions [2] ). After the first rains following a fire, the landscape is dominated by small flowering herbaceous plants, known as fire followers, which die back with the summer dry period.

Similar plant communities are found in the four other Mediterranean climate regions around the world, including the Mediterranean Basin (where it is known as maquis), central Chile (where it is called matorral), the South African Cape Region (known there as fynbos), and in Western and Southern Australia (as kwongan). According to the California Academy of Sciences, Mediterranean shrubland contains more than 20 percent of the world's plant diversity. [1] The word chaparral is a loan word from Spanish chaparro, meaning both "small" and "dwarf" evergreen oak (typically holm oak and kermes oak species), which itself comes from a Basque word, txapar, that has the same meaning.

Mediterranean Basin Region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

Maquis shrubland vegetation zone

Maquis (French) or macchia is a shrubland biome in the Mediterranean region, typically consisting of densely growing evergreen shrubs.

Chile Republic in South America

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

Conservation International and other conservation organizations consider chaparral to be a biodiversity hotspot [3] – a biological community with a large number of different species – that is under threat by human activity.

Conservation International nonprofit environmental organization

Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. Its goal is to protect nature as a source of food, fresh water, livelihoods and a stable climate.

A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with humans.

California chaparral

California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion

Southern coastal scrub in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area First Mile CA 23.JPG
Southern coastal scrub in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area

The California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, has three sub-ecoregions with ecosystemplant community subdivisions:

California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion in California, USA, and Baja California, Mexico

The California chaparral and woodlands is a terrestrial ecoregion of lower northern, central, and southern California and northwestern Baja California (Mexico), located on the west coast of North America. It is an ecoregion of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Biome, and part of the Nearctic ecozone.

Ecoregion Ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion

An ecoregion is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem. Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species. The biodiversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation.

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub is a biome defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. The biome is generally characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform. Summers are typically hot in low-lying inland locations but can be cool near colder seas. Winters are typically mild to cool in low-lying locations but can be cold in inland and higher locations. All these ecoregions are highly distinctive, collectively harboring 10% of the Earth's plant species.

California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion ecoregion in California and Mexico

The California coastal sage and chaparral, a sub-ecoregion of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, is found in southwestern California and northwestern Baja California in Mexico.

Southern California Place in California, United States

Southern California is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's southernmost counties, and is the second most populous urban agglomeration in the United States. The region contains ten counties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Ventura, and Kern counties.

Baja California Federal entity in Mexico

Baja California, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California, is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 70,113 km2 (27,071 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel, plus oceanic Guadalupe Island. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. state of Arizona, and the Gulf of California, and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.

Chaparral and woodlands biota

For the numerous individual plant and animal species found within the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, see:

Some of the indicator plants of the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion include:

California cismontane and transmontane chaparral subdivisions

Another phytogeography system uses two California chaparral and woodlands subdivisions: the cismontane chaparral and the transmontane (desert) chaparral.

California cismontane chaparral

Cismontane chaparral ("this side of the mountain") refers to the chaparral ecosystem in the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome in California, growing on the western (and coastal) sides of large mountain range systems, such as the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada in the San Joaquin Valley foothills, western slopes of the Peninsular Ranges and California Coast Ranges, and south-southwest slopes of the Transverse Ranges in the Central Coast and Southern California regions.

Cismontane chaparral plant species

In Central and Southern California chaparral forms a dominant habitat. Members of the chaparral biota native to California, all of which tend to regrow quickly after fires, include:

Cismontane chaparral bird species

The complex ecology of chaparral habitats supports a very large number of animal species. The following is a short list of birds which are an integral part of the cismontane chaparral ecosystems.

Species essential to the health of the ecosystem include:
Very common inhabitant species include:

California transmontane (desert) chaparral

Transmontane chaparral or desert chaparraltransmontane ("the other side of the mountain") chaparral—refers to the desert shrubland habitat and chaparral plant community growing in the rainshadow of these ranges. Transmontane chaparral features xeric desert climate, not Mediterranean climate habitats, and is also referred to as desert chaparral. [4] [5] Desert chaparral is a regional ecosystem subset of the deserts and xeric shrublands biome, with some plant species from the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion. Unlike cismontane chaparral, which forms dense, impenetrable stands of plants, desert chaparral is open, with only about 50 percent of the ground covered. [6] Individual shrubs can reach up to 10 feet (3.0 m) in height.

View from the Laguna Mountains, chaparral in the foreground Inspiration Point Laguna Mountains.JPG
View from the Laguna Mountains, chaparral in the foreground

Transmontane chaparral or desert chaparral is found on the eastern slopes of major mountain range systems on the western sides of the deserts of California. The mountain systems include the southeastern Transverse Ranges (the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains) in the Mojave Desert north and northeast of the Los Angeles basin and Inland Empire; and the northern Peninsular Ranges (San Jacinto, Santa Rosa, and Laguna Mountains), which separate the Colorado Desert (western Sonoran Desert) from lower coastal Southern California. [6] It is distinguished from the cismontane chaparral found on the coastal side of the mountains, which experiences higher winter rainfall. Naturally, desert chaparral experiences less winter rainfall than cismontane chaparral. Plants in this community are characterized by small, hard (sclerophyllic) evergreen (non-deciduous) leaves. Desert chaparral grows above California's desert cactus scrub plant community and below the pinyon-juniper woodland. It is further distinguished from the deciduous sub-alpine scrub above the pinyon-juniper woodlands on the same side of the Peninsular ranges.

Transmontane chaparral distribution

Transmontane (desert) chaparral typically grows on the lower (3,500–4,500 feet (1,100–1,400 m) elevation) northern slopes of the southern Transverse Ranges (running east to west in San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties) and on the lower (2,500–3,500 feet (760–1,070 m)) eastern slopes of the Peninsular Ranges (running south to north from lower Baja California to Riverside and Orange counties and the Transverse Ranges). [7] It can also be found in higher-elevation sky islands in the interior of the deserts, such as in the upper New York Mountains within the Mojave National Preserve in the Mojave Desert.[ citation needed ]

The California transmontane (desert) chaparral is found in the rain shadow deserts of the following:

Transmontane chaparral plants
Transmontane chaparral animals

There is overlap of animals with those of the adjacent desert and pinyon-juniper communities. [8]


Chaparral is a coastal biome with hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. The Chaparral area receives about 38–100 cm (15–39 in) of precipitation a year. This makes the chaparral most vulnerable to fire in the late summer and fall.

The chaparral ecosystem as a whole is adapted to be able to recover from infrequent wildfires (fires occurring a minimum of 15 years apart); indeed, chaparral regions are known culturally and historically for their impressive fires. (This does create a conflict with human development adjacent to and expanding into chaparral systems.) Additionally, Native Americans burned chaparral to promote grasslands for textiles and food. [9] Before a major fire, typical chaparral plant communities are dominated by manzanita, chamise (also called greasewood; Adenostoma fasciculatum ) and Ceanothus species, toyon (which can sometimes be interspersed with scrub oaks), and other drought-resistant shrubs with hard (sclerophyllous) leaves; these plants resprout (see resprouter) from underground burls after a fire.[ citation needed ] The shoots of these plants are, however, not resistant to chaparral crown-fire regimes as the bark is simply not thick enough. Plants that are long-lived in the seed bank or serotenous with induced germination after fire include chamise, Ceanothus, and fiddleneck. Some chaparral plant communities may grow so dense and tall that it becomes difficult for large animals and humans to penetrate, but may be teeming with smaller fauna in the understory. Many chaparral plant species require some fire cue (heat, smoke, or charred wood, and chemical changes in the soil following fires) for germination. Others, such as annual and herbaceous species like Phacelia require fires to allow sunlight to reach them, and are known as fire followers [10] . During the time shortly after a fire, chaparral communities may contain soft-leaved herbaceuous annual plants that dominate the community for the first few years – until the burl resprouts and seedlings of chaparral perennials create an overstory, blocking the sunlight from other plants in the community. When the overstory regrows, seeds of annuals and smaller plants may lie dormant until the next fire creates the conditions required for germination. Mid-sized plants such as Ceonothus fix nitrogen, while others cannot, which, together with the need for exposure to the sun, creates a symbiotic relationship of the entire community with infrequent fires.[ citation needed ]

Because of the hot, dry conditions that exist in the California summer and fall, chaparral is one of the most fire-prone plant communities in North America. Some fires are caused by lightning, but these are usually during periods of high humidity and low winds and are easily controlled. Nearly all of the very large wildfires are caused by human activity during periods of very hot, dry easterly Santa Ana winds. These man-made fires are commonly caused by power line failures, vehicle fires and collisions, sparks from machinery, arson, or campfires. In natural Chaparral communities without human interference, the fires are ignition-prone as there are plenty of ground fuels and the temperatures are fire-permitting during the dry season.

Though adapted to infrequent fires, chaparral plant communities can be exterminated by frequent fires. A moderate frequency of fire (less than ten years) will result in the loss of seeder plants such as Manzanita spp. This moderate frequency disallows seeder plants to reach their reproductive size before the next fire and the community shifts to a sprouter-dominance. High frequency fires (less than five years) can cause the additional loss of sprouters by exhausting their reserves below-ground. Today, frequent accidental ignitions can convert chaparral from a native shrubland to non-native annual grassland and drastically reduce species diversity, especially under drought brought about by climate change. [11] [12]

Wildfire debate

There are two assumptions relating to California chaparral fire regimes that appear to have caused considerable debate, and sometimes confusion and controversy, within the fields of wildfire ecology and land management.

  1. That older stands of chaparral become "senescent" or "decadent", thus implying that fire is necessary for the plants to remain healthy, [13]
  2. That wildfire suppression policies have allowed dead chaparral to accumulate unnaturally, creating ample fuel for large fires. [14]

The perspective that older chaparral is unhealthy or unproductive may have originated during the 1940s when studies were conducted measuring the amount of forage available to deer populations in chaparral stands.[ citation needed ] However, according to recent studies, California chaparral is extraordinarily resilient to very long periods without fire [15] and continues to maintain productive growth throughout pre-fire conditions. [16] [17] Seeds of many chaparral plants actually require 30 years or more worth of accumulated leaf litter before they will successfully germinate (e.g., scrub oak, Quercus berberidifolia ; toyon, Heteromeles arbutifolia ; and holly-leafed cherry, Prunus ilicifolia ). When intervals between fires drop below 10 to 15 years, many chaparral species are eliminated and the system is typically replaced by non-native, invasive, weedy grassland. [18] [19] [20]

The idea that older chaparral is responsible for causing large fires was originally proposed in the 1980s by comparing wildfires in Baja California and southern California .[ citation needed ] It was suggested that fire suppression activities in southern California allowed more fuel to accumulate, which in turn led to larger fires [ citation needed ] (in Baja, fires often burn without active suppression efforts [ citation needed ]). This is similar to the argument that fire suppression in western United States has allowed ponderosa pine forests to become "overstocked". [ citation needed ] In the past, surface fires burned through these forests at intervals of anywhere between 4 and 36 years, clearing out the understory and creating a more ecologically balanced system. [ citation needed ] However, chaparral has a crown-fire regime, meaning that fires consume the entire system whenever they burn, with a historical frequency of 30 to 50 years. [ citation needed ] In one study, a detailed analysis of historical fire data concluded that fire suppression activities have been ineffective at excluding fire from southern California chaparral, unlike in ponderosa pine forests. [15] In addition, the number of fires is increasing in step with population growth. Chaparral stand age does not have a significant correlation to its tendency to burn. [21] Low humidity, low fuel moisture, and high winds appear to be the primary factors in determining when and where a chaparral fire occurs and how large it becomes.[ citation needed ] Fires can be beneficial to plant communities by clearing away canopies of litter, inducing serotenous germination, and sanitizing the soils from pathogens.

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Pseudotsuga macrocarpa</i> species of plant

Pseudotsuga macrocarpa, commonly called the bigcone spruce or bigcone Douglas-fir, is an evergreen conifer native to the mountains of southern California, It is notable for having the largest cones in the genus Pseudotsuga, hence the name.

Ecology of California Environments and natural history of California

The ecology of California can be understood by dividing the state into a number of ecoregions, which contain distinct ecological communities of plants and animals in a contiguous region. The ecoregions of California can be grouped into four major groups: desert ecoregions, Mediterranean ecoregions, forested mountains, and coastal forests.

Northern California coastal forests (WWF ecoregion)

The Northern California coastal forests are a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion of coastal Northern California, USA.

<i>Adenostoma fasciculatum</i> species of plant

Adenostoma fasciculatum, the chamise or greasewood, is a flowering plant native to Oregon, Nevada, California, and northern Baja California. This shrub is one of the most widespread plants of the chaparral biome.

<i>Frangula californica</i> species of plant

Frangula californica is a species of flowering plant in the buckthorn family native to western North America. It is commonly known as California coffeeberry and California buckthorn.

It is located near the city of Yucaipa, in the Inland Empire region. It is surrounded by the San Bernardino National Forest on the eastern and northern sides.

California Floristic Province

The California Floristic Province (CFP) is a floristic province with a Mediterranean-type climate located on the Pacific Coast of North America with a distinctive flora similar to other regions with a winter rainfall and summer drought climate like the Mediterranean Basin. This biodiversity hotspot is known for being the home of the Sierran giant sequoia tree and its close relative the coast redwood. In 1996, the Province was designated as a biodiversity hotspot allowing it to join ranks among 33 other areas in the world with a large number of endemic species. To be named a biodiversity hotspot, an area has to contain species and plant life that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. The California Floristic Province is home to over 3,000 species of vascular plants, 60% of which are endemic to the province.

<i>Adenostoma sparsifolium</i> species of plant

Adenostoma sparsifolium, commonly known as redshanks or less commonly, ribbonwood or ribbon bush, is a multi-trunked tree or shrub native to dry slopes or chaparral of Southern California and northern Baja California.

<i>Quercus dumosa</i> species of plant

Quercus dumosa is a species of plant in the Fagaceae family, belonging to the white oak section of the oak genus (Quercus). This tree goes by the common names coastal sage scrub oak and Nuttall's scrub oak.

<i>Ceanothus ophiochilus</i> species of plant

Ceanothus ophiochilus is a rare species of flowering shrub known by the common name Vail Lake ceanothus, native to Southern California. It was not described until 1991.

<i>Xylococcus bicolor</i> species of plant

Xylococcus is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the heath family which contains the single species Xylococcus bicolor, the mission manzanita.

<i>Arctostaphylos rainbowensis</i> species of plant

Arctostaphylos rainbowensis is a species of manzanita known by the common name Rainbow manzanita. It is endemic to California, where it is known only from northern San Diego and southern Riverside Counties in the Peninsular Ranges.

California montane chaparral and woodlands

The California montane chaparral and woodlands is an ecoregion defined by the World Wildlife Fund, spanning 7,900 square miles (20,000 km2) of mountains in the Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, and Coast Ranges of southern and central California. The ecoregion is part of the larger California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, and belongs to the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome.

California interior chaparral and woodlands

The California interior chaparral and woodlands ecoregion covers 24,900 square miles (64,000 km2) in an elliptical ring around the California Central Valley. It occurs on hills and mountains ranging from 300 feet (91 m) to 3,000 feet (910 m). It is part of the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome, with cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Many plant and animal species in this ecoregion are adapted to periodic fire.

<i>Thermopsis macrophylla</i> species of plant

Thermopsis macrophylla is a species of flowering plant in the legume family known by the common names Santa Inez goldenbanner and Santa Ynez false-lupine.

<i>Garrya wrightii</i> species of plant

Garrya wrightii is a species of flowering plant in the family Garryaceae known by the common names Wright's silktassel, quinine-bush, coffee berry, bearberry, feverbush, and grayleaf dogwood.

California Coast Ranges (reserve) Biosphere reserve in United States of America,  designated in 1983 and withdrawn in 2017

The California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve was a UNESCO Biosphere reserve located along the California Coast Ranges of northern California and the San Francisco Bay area until June 2017. This biosphere reserve includes a highly diverse complex of evergreen sclerophyllous woodland, coastal, estuary and marine ecosystems.


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