Chapultepec Castle

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Chapultepec Castle
Castillo de Chapultepec
Castillo de Chapultepec (Museo Nacional de Historia).JPG
View of Chapultepec Castle from the Northeast
Location map Mexico City.png
Red pog.svg
Location in Mexico City
General information
Architectural style Neo-romanticism, Neoclassical, Neo-Gothic
Location Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City, Mexico
Coordinates 19°25′14″N99°10′54″W / 19.42056°N 99.18167°W / 19.42056; -99.18167
Elevation2,325 metres (7,628 ft) above sea level
Current tenants Museo Nacional de Historia
Construction startedc. 1785
Completed1864
Height220 feet (67 m)
Design and construction
ArchitectEleuterio Méndez, Ramón Cruz Arango ity, Julius Hofmann, Carl Gangolf Kayser, Carlos Schaffer
Other designers Maximilian I of Mexico

Chapultepec Castle (Spanish : Castillo de Chapultepec) is located on top of Chapultepec Hill in Mexico City's Chapultepec park. The name Chapultepec is the Nahuatl word chapoltepēc which means "at the grasshopper's hill". The castle has such unparalleled views and terraces that historian James F. Elton wrote that they can't "be surpassed in beauty in any part of the world". [1] [2] It is located at the entrance to Chapultepec Park at a height of 1,203 meters above sea level. The site of the hill was a sacred place for Aztecs, and the buildings atop it have served several purposes during its history, including that of Military Academy, Imperial residence, Presidential residence, observatory, and since the 1940s, the National Museum of History. [3] Chapultepec, along with Iturbide Palace, are the only royal palaces in North America.

Contents

It was built during the Viceroyalty as summer house for the highest colonial administrator, the viceroy. It was given various uses, from the gunpowder warehouse to the military academy in 1841. It became the official residence of Emperor Maximilian I and his consort Empress Carlota during the Second Mexican Empire (186467). In 1882, President Manuel González declared it the official residence of the President. With few exceptions, all succeeding presidents lived there until 1939, when President Lázaro Cárdenas turned it into a museum.

Colonial period

Chapultepec Castle ca. 1880. Castillo de chapultepec 1880-1897.jpg
Chapultepec Castle ca. 1880.

In 1785 Viceroy Bernardo de Gálvez ordered the construction of a stately home for himself at the highest point of Chapultepec Hill. Francisco Bambitelli, Lieutenant Colonel of the Spanish Army and engineer, drew up the blueprint and began the construction on August 16 of the same year. After Bambitelli's departure to Havana, Captain Manuel Agustín Mascaró took over the leadership of the project and during his tenure the works proceeded at a rapid pace. Mascaró was accused of building a fortress with the intent of rebelling against the Spanish Crown from there. Bernardo, the viceroy, died suddenly on November 8, 1786, fueling speculation that he was poisoned. No evidence has yet been found which supports this claim.

Lacking a head engineer, the Spanish Crown ordered that the building be auctioned at a price equivalent to one-fifth of the quantity thus far spent on its construction. After finding no buyers Viceroy Juan Vicente de Güemes Pacheco de Padilla y Horcasitas intended the building to house the General Archive of the Kingdom of the New Spain; that idea was not to come to fruition either despite already having the blueprints adapted for this purpose. German scientist Alexander von Humboldt visited the site in 1803 and condemned the Royal Treasury's sale of the palace’s windows to raise funds for the Crown. The building was finally bought in 1806 by the municipal government of Mexico City.

Independence

Castle entrance. Castillo de Chapultepec 001.jpg
Castle entrance.
View from the road to Chapultepec middle of the forest of the same name. Castillo desde abajo.JPG
View from the road to Chapultepec middle of the forest of the same name.

Chapultepec Castle was abandoned during the Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821) and for many years later, until 1833. In that year the building was decreed to become the location of the Military College (Military Academy) for cadet training; as a sequence of several structural modifications had to be done, including the addition of the watchtower known as Caballero Alto ("Tall Knight").

On September 13, 1847, the Niños Héroes ("Boy Heroes") died defending the castle while it was taken by United States forces during the Battle of Chapultepec of the Mexican–American War. They are honored with a large mural on the ceiling above the main entrance to the castle. [4]

The United States Marine Corps honors its role in the Battle of Chapultepec and the subsequent occupation of Mexico City through the first line of the "Marines' Hymn," From the Halls of Montezuma. [5] Marine Corps tradition maintains that the red stripe worn on the trousers of officers and noncommissioned officers, and commonly known as the blood stripe commemorates the high number of Marine NCOs and officers killed storming the castle of Chapultepec in September 1847. As noted, the usage "Halls of Montezuma" is factually wrong - as the building was erected by the Spanish rulers of Mexico, more than two centuries after the Aztec Emperor Montezuma was overthrown.

Several new rooms were built on the second floor of the palace during the tenure of President Miguel Miramón, who was also an alumnus of the Military Academy.

Second Mexican Empire

Maximilian I of Mexico by Winterhalter, 1864. This portrait hangs in the castle today X-Large Portrait of Maximiliano.jpg
Maximilian I of Mexico by Winterhalter, 1864. This portrait hangs in the castle today
Carlota of Mexico in Chapultepec Castle Charlotte, Empress of Mexico.jpg
Carlota of Mexico in Chapultepec Castle

When Mexican conservatives invited Maximilian von Hapsburg to establish the Second Mexican Empire, the castle, now known as Castillo de Miravalle, became the residence of the emperor and his consort in 1864. The Emperor hired several European and Mexican architects to renovate the building for the royal couple, among them Julius Hofmann, Carl Gangolf Kayser, Carlos Schaffer, Eleuterio Méndez and Ramón Cruz Arango, [6] The architects designed several projects, which followed a neoclassical style and made the palace more habitable as a royal residence. European architects Kayser and Hofmann worked on several other revival castles, including Neuschwanstein Castle [7] – built by Maximilian's Wittelsbach cousin Ludwig II of Bavaria twenty years after Chapultepec's renovation.

Botanist Wilhelm Knechtel was in charge of creating the roof garden on the building. Additionally, the Emperor brought from Europe countless pieces of furniture, objets d'art and other fine household items that are exhibited to this day.

At this time, the castle was on the outskirts of Mexico City. Maximilian ordered the construction of a straight boulevard (modeled after the great boulevards of Europe, such as Vienna's Ringstrasse and the Champs-Élysées in Paris), to connect the Imperial residence with the city center, and named it Paseo de la Emperatriz ("Promenade of the Empress"). Following the reestablishment of the Republic in 1867 by President Benito Juárez and the end of the civil war to oust the French invaders and defeat their Mexican conservative allies, the boulevard was renamed Paseo de la Reforma, after the Liberal reform.

Modern era to present

Escalier entree chateau Chapultepec.jpg
Inside the Chapultepec Castle

The castle fell into disuse after the fall of the Second Mexican Empire in 1867. In 1876, a decree established it as an Astronomical, Meteorological and Magnetic Observatory on the site, which was opened in 1878 during the presidency of Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. However, the observatory was only functional for five years until they decided to move it to the former residence of the Archbishop in Tacubaya. The reason was to allow the return of the Colegio Militar to the premises as well as transforming the building into the presidential residence.

Garden view Cour observatoire chateau Chapultepec.jpg
Garden view

The palace underwent several structural changes from 1882 and during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz (1876-1880; 1884-1911). When Díaz was overthrown at the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution it remained the presidential residence. Presidents Francisco I. Madero (1911-13), Venustiano Carranza (1915-20), Álvaro Obregón (1920-24), Plutarco Elías Calles (1924-28), Emilio Portes Gil, Pascual Ortiz Rubio and Abelardo Rodríguez. It was used for a time as an official guest house or residence for foreign dignitaries.

Finally on February 3, 1939, President Lázaro Cárdenas decreed a law establishing Chapultepec Castle as the National Museum of History, with the collections of the former National Museum of Archaeology, History and Ethnography, (now the National Museum of Cultures). The museum was opened on September 27, 1944 during the presidency of Manuel Avila Camacho. President Cárdenas moved the official Mexican presidential residence to Los Pinos, and never lived in Chapultepec Castle.

See also

Related Research Articles

Palace grand residence, especially a royal residence or the home of a head of state

A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop. The word is derived from the Latin name palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which housed the Imperial residences. Most European languages have a version of the term, and many use it for a wider range of buildings than English. In many parts of Europe, the equivalent term is also applied to large private houses in cities, especially of the aristocracy; often the term for a large country house is different. Many historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, museums, hotels, or office buildings. The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions, such as a movie palace.

Maximilian I of Mexico Emperor of Mexico

Maximilian I was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire. He was a younger brother of the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I. After a distinguished career in the Austrian Navy as its commander, he accepted an offer by Napoleon III of France to rule Mexico, conditional on a national plebiscite in his favour. France, together with Spain and the United Kingdom, invaded the Mexican Republic in the winter of 1861, ostensibly to collect debts; the Spanish and British both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with Mexico's republican government, while France sought to conquer the country. Seeking to legitimize French rule, Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish a new pro-French Mexican monarchy. With the support of the French army and a group of Conservative Party monarchists hostile to the Liberal Party administration of the new Mexican president, Benito Juárez, Maximilian was offered the position of Emperor of Mexico, which he accepted on 10 April 1864.

Chapultepec Urban park and hill in Mexico city

Chapultepec, more commonly called the "Bosque de Chapultepec" in Mexico City, is one of the largest city parks in the Western Hemisphere, measuring in total just over 686 hectares. Centered on a rock formation called Chapultepec Hill, one of the park's main functions is an ecological space in Greater Mexico City. It is considered the first and most important of Mexico City's "lungs", with trees that replenish oxygen to the Valley of Mexico. The park area has been inhabited and considered a landmark since the Pre-Columbian era, when it became a retreat for Aztec rulers. In the colonial period, Chapultepec Castle was built here, eventually becoming the official residence of Mexican heads of state. It would remain so until 1940, when it was moved to another part of the park called Los Pinos.

Battle of Chapultepec battle of the Mexican–American War

The Battle of Chapultepec on 13 September 1847 was an assault by invading American forces on a small contingent of Mexican forces holding the strategically located Chapultepec Castle just outside Mexico City. The building, sitting atop a 200-foot (60 m) hill, was an important position for the defense of the city. For the campaign to take Mexico City, of which the Battle of Chapultepec is a part, General Winfield Scott's U.S. Army totaled 7,200 men. General Antonio López de Santa Anna deployed Mexican forces to several sites to defend the capital, so that just 880 troops, including military cadets of the Military Academy defended the position at Chapultepec against 2,000 U.S. forces. The Mexican forces' loss opened the way to take the center of Mexico City. In Mexican history, the battle is cast as the story of the brave deaths of six cadets, the Niños Héroes, who leaped to their deaths rather than be taken captive, with one wrapping himself in the Mexican flag. For the U.S. there are many depictions of the battle from their point of view. Although it lasted only about 60–90 minutes, the battle has great importance in the histories of both countries.

Paseo de la Reforma Mexico City avenue

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Los Pinos Cultural Complex

Los Pinos was the official residence and office of the President of Mexico from 1934 to 2018. Located in the Bosque de Chapultepec in central Mexico City, it became the presidential seat in 1934, when Gen. Lázaro Cárdenas became the first president to live there. The term Los Pinos became a metonym for the Presidency of Mexico.

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<i>Niños Héroes</i> Six Mexican teenage military cadets who died defending Mexico City in the Battle of Chapultepec

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<i>Museo Nacional de Historia</i> Historical museum in Mexico City

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References

  1. Elton, James Frederick (26 July 1867). "With the French in Mexico". hdl:2027/gri.ark:/13960/t79s61v86.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. O’Connor, William (28 May 2018). "Chapultepec, the Mexican Castle That Drove a Belgian Princess to Madness and an Austrian Archduke to the Firing Squad". Thedailybeast.com. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  3. "Historia de Chapultepec". Museo Nacional de Historia. Archived from the original on 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2009-11-22.
  4. "Mural of Cadet Jumping - Mexico501". Mexico501.com.
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-08. Retrieved 2014-10-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-11-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. Hendel, archINFORM – Sascha. "Julius Hofmann". Eng.archinform.net.
  8. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-06-18. Retrieved 2009-11-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2009-11-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Coordinates: 19°25′14″N99°10′54″W / 19.42056°N 99.18167°W / 19.42056; -99.18167