Charles Correa

Last updated

Charles Correa
Charles Correa.jpg
Correa in 2011
Born(1930-09-01)1 September 1930
Died16 June 2015(2015-06-16) (aged 84)
Mumbai, India
NationalityIndian
Alma mater University of Mumbai
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
University of Michigan
OccupationArchitect
Urban planner
Buildings Jawahar Kala Kendra, National Crafts Museum, Bharat Bhavan

Charles Mark Correa (1 September 1930 – 16 June 2015) was an Indian architect and urban planner. Credited with the creation of modern architecture in post-Independent India, he was celebrated for his sensitivity to the needs of the urban poor and for his use of traditional methods and materials. [1]

Contents

Biography

Charles Correa, a Roman Catholic of Goan descent, was born on 1 September 1930 in Secunderabad. [2] [3] He began his higher studies at St. Xavier's College, Mumbai. He went on to study at the University of Michigan (1949–53) where Buckminster Fuller was a teacher, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1953–55) where he obtained his master's degree. [4] [5]

In 1958, Charles Correa established his own professional practice in Mumbai. His first significant project was the Mahatma Gandhi Sangrahalaya (Mahatma Gandhi Memorial) at Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad (1958–1963), followed by the Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly in Bhopal (1967). In 1961-1966, he designed his first high-rise building, the Sonmarg apartments in Mumbai. On the National Crafts Museum in New Delhi (1975–1990), he introduced "the rooms open to the sky", his systematic use of courtyards. In the Jawahar Kala Kendra (Jawahar Arts Centre) in Jaipur (1986–1992), he makes a structural hommage to Jai Singh II. Later, he invited the British artist Howard Hodgkin for the outside design of the British Council in Delhi (1987–1992). [5]

From 1970–75, Charles Correa was Chief Architect for New Bombay (Navi Mumbai), where he was strongly involved in extensive urban planning of the new city. [6] [5] In 1984, Charles Correa founded the Urban Design Research Institute in Bombay, [5] dedicated to the protection of the built environment and improvement of urban communities. During the final four decades of his life, Correa has done pioneering work in urban issues and low-cost shelter in the Third World. In 1985, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi appointed him Chairman of the National Commission on Urbanization.

From 2005 until his 2008 resignation Correa was the Chairman of the Delhi Urban Arts Commission.

Later, Charles Correa designed the new Ismaili Centre in Toronto, Canada, [7] which shared the site with the Aga Khan Museum designed by Fumihiko Maki, [8] and the Champalimaud Foundation Centre in Lisbon, inaugurated by the Portuguese President Aníbal Cavaco Silva on 5 October 2010. [9]

He died on 16 June 2015 in Mumbai following a brief illness. [10]

Work

Style

Charles Correa designed almost 100 buildings in India, from low-income housing to luxury condos. He rejected the glass-and-steel approach of some post-modernist buildings, and focused on designs deeply rooted in local cultures, all the while providing modern structural solutions under his creative designs. His style was also focused on reintroducing outdoor spaces and terraces. [11] [12]

His work is the physical manifestation of the idea of Indian nationhood, modernity and progress. His vision sits at the nexus defining the contemporary Indian sensibility and it articulates a new Indian identity with a language that has a global resonance. He is someone who has that rare capacity to give physical form to something as intangible as ‘culture’ or ‘society’ – and his work is therefore critical: aesthetically; sociologically; and culturally.

British architect David Adjaye in 2013. [11]

In 2013, the Royal Institute of British Architects held a retrospective exhibition, "Charles Correa – India's Greatest Architect", about the influences of his work on modern urban Indian architecture. [6] [13]

Projects

PhotoDateNameLocationNotes
Gandhi Ashram 1227.JPG 1958–1963Mahatma Gandhi Sangrahalaya
Mahatma Gandhi Memorial
Sabarmati Ashram, Ahmedabad
1961-1962Tube HouseAhmedabaddemolished [5]
1961-1966Sonmarg apartmentsMumbai
Madhyapradesh Legislative Assembly.jpg 1967 Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly Bhopal
A view of Kala Academy, Goa, the main venue for the inaugural ceremony of the 35th International Film Festival of India-2004, (to be held from 29th November to 9th December, 2004).jpg 1970 Kala Academy [14]
shilp sNgrhaaly kaa prveNsh dvaar.jpg 1975–1990 National Crafts Museum New Delhi
R&D facility of Mahindra & Mahindra LtdMahindra Research Valley, Chennai
1980-1997Vidhan Bhavan
Bharat Bhavan Bhopal inside-1.JPG 1982 Bharat Bhavan Bhopal
Jawahar Kala Kendra, Jaipur, Rajasthan.jpg 1986–1992 Jawahar Kala Kendra
Jawahar Arts Centre
Jaipur
The Jeevan Bharati building at Connaught Place, New Delhi.jpg 1986Jeevan Bharati
Life Insurance Corporation of India
On the 2018 World Monuments Watch list of "50 Cultural Sites at Risk from Human and Natural Threats" [15]
British Council Delhi Headquarters, launch of Mix The City, 6 April 2017.jpg 1987–1992 British Council Delhi
Buckyball, JNCASR, Bangalore, India.JPG 1989 Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Bangalore
Parumala Church.jpg 2000 St. Peter and St. Paul's Church, Parumala Parumala, Thiruvalla
McGovern Institute for Brain Research 2018.jpg 2000–2005 McGovern Institute for Brain Research MIT, Boston, US
2004City centre Salt Lake City, Kolkata
Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown (6).jpg 2007–2010 Champalimaud Centre for The Unknown Lisbon, Portugal
Ismaili Centre, Toronto - Prayer hall.jpg Ismaili Centre Toronto, Canada

Awards

Publications

Personal life

Charles Correa married Monika (née Sequeira), an artist, in 1961. Together they lived in one of the flats of the Sonmarg apartments in Mumbai. They had two children. [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

Bharat Ratna Award

The Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the Republic of India. Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is conferred in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order, without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The award was originally limited to achievements in the arts, literature, science, and public services, but the government expanded the criteria to include "any field of human endeavour" in December 2011. The recommendations for the Bharat Ratna are made by the Prime Minister to the President, with a maximum of three nominees being awarded per year. The recipients receive a Sanad (certificate) signed by the President and a peepal leaf-shaped medallion. There is no monetary grant associated with the award. Bharat Ratna recipients rank seventh in the Indian order of precedence.

Anil Kakodkar Indian nuclear physicist

Anil Kakodkar is an Indian nuclear physicist and mechanical engineer. He was the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India and the Secretary to the Government of India, he was the Director of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay from 1996–2000. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian honour, on 26 January 2009.

B. V. Doshi Indian architect

Balkrishna Vithaldas Doshi, OAL, is an Indian architect. He is considered to be an important figure of Indian architecture and noted for his contributions to the evolution of architectural discourse in India. Having worked under Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn, he is a pioneer of modernist and brutalist architecture in India.

Soli Sorabjee Indian jurist

Soli Jehangir Sorabjee, AM was an Indian jurist who served as Attorney-General for India from 1989 to 1990, and again from 1998 to 2004. In 2002, he received the Padma Vibhushan for his defence of the freedom of expression and the protection of human rights.

ArchNet

Archnet is a collaborative digital humanities project focused on Islamic architecture and the built environment of Muslim societies more generally. Conceptualized in 1998 and originally developed at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning in co-operation with the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, it has been maintained by the Aga Khan Documentation Center at MIT and the Aga Khan Trust for Culture since 2011.

Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya

The Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya is a museum and public service institution dedicated to preserve the work and memory and commemorate the life of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. It is located at Gandhi's Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad, India on the banks of River Sabarmati. It houses tens of thousands of letters to and by Gandhi, as well as photographs and books.

Bal Ram Nanda was a writer from New Delhi, India. He was the preeminent Indian biographer of Mahatma Gandhi.

Lakshmi Chand Jain

Lakshmi Chand Jain (1925–2010) was a political activist and writer. Later, he served at various times as a member of the Planning Commission, as Indian High commissioner to South Africa, as a member of the World Commission on Dams (WCD) and as secretary of the Indian Cooperative Union and the All-India Handicrafts Board. His position as the ambassador was terminated as the Vajpayee Government felt that he had not defended India's position on Nuclear tests effectively in South Africa. He eventually joined Indian National Congress. He was posthumously awarded Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award, by the UPA government. However his family declined to accept the award, saying that Jain was against accepting State Honours.

Lambert Mascarenhas Indian journalist

Lambert Mascarenhas was an Indian journalist, independence activist and writer from Goa. His family hailed from the Goan Catholic community, a Christian community in Goa.

Mohan Dharia

Mohan Dharia was a Union minister, a lawyer and social worker. During his last days he stayed in Pune. Dharia was an environmentalist and ran a non-government organisation Vanrai. He was elected to the Lok Sabha twice from Pune Lok Sabha constituency, first in 1971 as an Indian National Congress (INC) member and became a Minister of State, and later in 1977 as a Bharatiya Lok Dal member, and joined the Morarji Desai Ministry as Union Minister of Commerce. Prior to it, he remained member of the Rajya Sabha twice from INC, first 1964-1970 and then 1970- 1971

Jawahar Kala Kendra

Jawahar Kala Kendra (JKK) is a multi arts centre located in Jaipur in India. It was built by Rajasthan government with the purpose of preserving Rajasthani arts and crafts. The centre has been made in eight blocks housing museums, one amphi theatre and the other closed auditorium, library, arts display rooms, cafeteria, small hostel and art-studio. It also houses two permanent art galleries and three other galleries. and host its own theatre festival each year.

Raj Rewal is a leading Indian architect. A distinguished doyen of architecture from India, Raj Rewal has set global precedents with his urban narratives of design that have been integrally and richly steeped in their contextual inferences. The concerted juxtaposition of traditional concepts and contemporary syntax is reflective of his fascination for weaving expressions of heritage and history into a modern vocabulary, often revealing layer upon layer of intuitive interpretation and deep meaning. Effortlessly threading together episodes of design, he merges scale with surroundings and geometry with rhythm, binding space with structure and nuance, modulating form and light and coursing the exterior through the interior to create a series of interconnected experiences that are as distinct as they are together. Across a repertoire of residential, housing, public and institutional buildings, his work is characterised by concern for climatic sensitivity, humane architecture and the promotion of craftsmanship and new technologies.

Ismaili Centre, Toronto

The Ismaili Centre, Toronto is a mosque and community centre in Toronto, Ontario, CA Canada, the sixth such Ismaili Centre in the world. Situated in a park that it shares with the Aga Khan Museum adjacent to the Don Valley Parkway in North York, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, the Centre represents the permanent presence of the Ismaili Muslim community in Toronto, Ontario and Canada.

Raghunath Mohapatra Indian architect and scultpor

Raghunath Mohapatra was an architect, sculptor, and a Nominated Member of Rajya Sabha. He was awarded Padma Shri in 1975 and Padma Bhushan in 2001. He was awarded Padma Vibhushan in 2013 on occasion of 64th Republic Day of India. He died in Bhubaneshwar in May 2021 of coronavirus infection during the 2020-21 pandemic.

Revathi Kamath

Revathi S. Kamath (1955-2020) was an Indian architect and planner based in Delhi. She is a pioneer of mud architecture in India. On the other hand, she is also credited with building the tallest stainless steel structure in India.

Bimal Patel (architect) Indian architect and urban planner

Bimal Hasmukh Patel is an architect from Gujarat, India, with over 35 years of professional, research and teaching experience in architecture, urban design and urban planning. He is President of CEPT University in Ahmedabad and leads HCP Design Planning and Management Private Limited, an architecture, planning and project management firm. He also founded Environmental Planning Collaborative, a not-for-profit, planning research and advocacy organization.

Laxman Pai Indian artist and painter

Laxman Pai was an Indian artist and painter. He was a principal of the Goa College of Art, a post he held from 1977 to 1987. Pai was a recipient of several awards including India's third highest civilian honour of Padma Bhushan, awarded by the Government of India.

Pravina Mehta

Pravina Mehta of Mumbai was a leading Indian architect, planner and also a political activist. During the Indian independence movement, she was inspired by Sarojini Naidu, a freedom fighter and participated in the street protests against the British Raj before she started her study of architecture at the Sir J. J. College of Architecture. She was involved in the conceptualization and proposal of the New Bombay plan in 1964 in collaboration with Charles Correa and Shirish Patel, which involved extension of the island city located to the east on the mainland. This plan was published in MARG, a Bombay journal of art and architecture. She, along with Minnette De Silva and Yasmeen Lari, was also actively involved in upliftment of people living in slums and in the rehabilitation of earthquake-affected people by developing low-cost housing, combined with environmental aspects and urban planning.

Samira Rathod is an Indian architect, furniture designer, writer, and teacher based in Mumbai. She is a Principal of Samira Rathod Design Associates.

British Council, India

The headquarters of the British Council in India are in New Delhi in a 1992 building designed by Indian architect Charles Correa. The front of the building includes a mural by British artist Howard Hodgkin.

References

  1. An Architecture of Independence: The Making of Modern South Asia Archived 3 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine University of Pennsylvania.
  2. "Charles Correa". Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  3. Kazi Khaleed Ashraf, James Belluardo (1998), An Architecture of Independence: The Making of Modern South Asia, Architectural League of New York, p. 33, ISBN   09663-8560-8
  4. "Charles Correa | Indian architect". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rykwert, Joseph (19 June 2015). "Charles Correa obituary" via www.theguardian.com.
  6. 1 2 "Master class with Charles Correa". Mumbai Mirror. 9 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  7. "About the Ismaili Centre, Toronto". the.Ismaili. 6 September 2014.
  8. "Correa, Maki Tapped to Design Aga Khan Center". Architectural Record, The McGraw-Hill Companies. 6 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  9. David MacManus, The Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon, E-architect.co.uk 5 October 2010
  10. "Architect Charles Correa dies at 84 | India News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  11. 1 2 3 Charlotte Luxford, 'India’s Greatest Architect' Charles Correa, Theculturetrip.com, 17 August 2018
  12. "Charles Correa – India's greatest architect?". BBC News. 14 May 2013. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  13. "Charles Correa & Out of India Season". RIBA. 2013. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2013.
  14. Eric Baldwin, New Petition Aims to Save Charles Correa's Kala Academy from Demolition, Archdaily.com, 7 August 2019
  15. Patrick Lynch, 2018 World Monuments Watch Lists 50 Cultural Sites at Risk from Human and Natural Threats, Archdaily.com, 23 October 2017
  16. "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2009)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013.
  17. "List of medal winners 1848–2008 (PDF)" (PDF). RIBA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  18. "Archnet". Archnet. Archived from the original on 8 February 2006.
  19. "Reply to a parliamentary question" (PDF) (in German). p. 1714. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  20. 1 2 "CharlesCorrea, Gomant Vibhushan". The Times of India . 19 December 2011. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012.

Further reading