Charles Cox (brewer)

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Sir Charles Cox (16601729) was an English brewer and Whig Member of Parliament for Southwark from 1695 to 1712. For many years afterwards the MP for Southwark would generally be a brewer.

Brewing production of beer

Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast. It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer, or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, and archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies.

Southwark (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom

Southwark was a constituency centred on the Southwark district of South London. It returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the English Parliament from 1295 to 1707, to the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, and to the UK Parliament until its first abolition for the 1885 general election. A seat of the same name, covering a smaller area than the last form of the earlier seat in the west of the original and beyond its boundaries to the southwest, was created in 1950 and abolished in 1974.

In 1709 he began to offer German Protestant refugees from the Palatinate ("Palatines") living space in his warehouses. Soon there were nearly fourteen hundred, and the residents of Southwark gave a petition to Parliament to have them removed. [1]

Palatinate (region) geographic region

The Palatinate, historically also Rhenish Palatinate, is a region in southwestern Germany. It occupies roughly the southernmost quarter of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz), covering an area of 5,451 square kilometres (2,105 sq mi) with about 1.4 million inhabitants. Its residents are known as Palatines.

When the Duke of Marlborough returned to the United Kingdom shortly after the death of Queen Anne in 1714, Sir Charles led the procession into London on 16 August [ O.S. 5 August] 1714, earning him a place in a satire by Ned Ward. [2] Not long afterwards a fire in his warehouses lost him thousands of pounds. [3] He was appointed High Sheriff of Surrey for 1717–18. [4] He was ruined in the South Sea Bubble of 1720.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough English soldier and statesman

General John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1st Prince of Mindelheim, 1st Count of Nellenburg, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs. From a gentry family, he served first as a page at the court of the House of Stuart under James, Duke of York, through the 1670s and early 1680s, earning military and political advancement through his courage and diplomatic skill.

Anne, Queen of Great Britain Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (1702–07); queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1707–14)

Anne was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death in 1714.

Old Style and New Style dates 16th-century changes in calendar conventions

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar. Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.

In 1734 the case of Lady Cox was heard and it was put on record that he had been a bigamist. [5]

Bigamy illegal second or further marriage

In cultures that practice marital monogamy, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still legally married to another. Bigamy is a crime in most Western countries, and when it occurs in this context often neither the first nor second spouse is aware of the other. In countries that have bigamy laws, consent from a prior spouse makes no difference to the legality of the second marriage, which is usually considered void.

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Edmund Halsey, of St. Saviour’s, Southwark, Surrey and Stoke Poges, Buckinghamshire, was a British brewer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1712 and 1729. He enjoyed a rags-to-riches career, from working as a ‘miller’s boy’ at St. Albans to becoming the owner of one of the largest breweries in the London area.

References

  1. Thomas Allen, Nathaniel Whittock. History of the County of Surrey. Hinton, 1831. Page 137.
  2. Howard William Troyer. Ned Ward of Grub Street: a study of sub-literary London in the eighteenth century. Routledge, 1968. Page 104.
  3. Petition by Sir Charles Cox to Parliament
  4. "COX, Charles (d. 1729), of Hay's Wharf, Mill Lane, St. Olave's, Southwark, Surr". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  5. Reports of cases argued and determined in the High Court of Chancery: and of some special cases adjudged in the Court of King's Bench [1695-1735], Volume 3. Edited by W. P. Williams et al. J. Butterworth and Son, 1826. Page 339.
Parliament of England
Preceded by
John Arnold
Anthony Bowyer
Member of Parliament for Southwark
16951707
With: Anthony Bowyer
John Cholmley
Succeeded by
Parliament of Great Britain
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Parliament of England
Member of Parliament for Southwark
17071712
With: John Cholmley
Edmund Halsey
Sir George Matthews
Succeeded by
John Lade
Fisher Tench