Charles Douglas, 3rd Duke of Queensberry

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3rd Duke of Queensberry by Thomas Hudson, after 1750 Lord Queensbury.jpg
3rd Duke of Queensberry by Thomas Hudson, after 1750
Queensberry House Queensberry House, Canongate Edinburgh.jpg
Queensberry House

Charles Douglas, 3rd Duke of Queensberry, 2nd Duke of Dover, PC (24 November 1698 22 October 1778 [1] ) was a Scottish nobleman, extensive landowner, Privy Counsellor and Vice Admiral of Scotland.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Contents

Life

He was born in Queensberry House in Edinburgh on 24 November 1698. [2]

Queensberry House

Queensberry House is a building of 17th-century origin which is now a Category A listed building. It stands on the south side of the Canongate, Edinburgh, Scotland, incorporated into the Scottish Parliament complex on its north-west corner. It contains the office of the Presiding Officer, two Deputy Presiding Officers, the Parliament's Chief Executive, and other staff.

Edinburgh Capital city in Scotland

Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.

The younger son of James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry, 1st Duke of Dover, and Mary Boyle, daughter of Charles Boyle, 3rd Viscount Dungarvan, [3] on 17 June 1706 while still a child he was created in his own right Lord Douglas of Lockerbie, Dalveen and Thornhill, Viscount of Tiberris and Earl of Solway. In 1711 he succeeded his father as Duke of Queensberry and inherited Queensberry House, thanks to a grant of novodamus which excluded his mentally ill older brother James Douglas from the succession to the Dukedom, but left James the Marquessate of the same name. [4] Upon his brother's death in 1715 he succeeded him as the 4th Marquess of Queensberry.

James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry 17th/18th-century Scottish duke and politician

James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry and 1st Duke of Dover was a Scottish nobleman.

Charles Boyle, Viscount Dungarvan, 3rd Baron Clifford, FRS, was an English peer and politician. He was a member of a famous Anglo-Irish aristocratic family.

A charter of novodamus, in Scottish feudal land law, is a fresh grant of lands to the grantee. It is usually granted to make some change in the incidents of tenure of land already granted, or to resolve doubts about the grant or its terms.

In 1728 Queensberry took up the cause of John Gay, who was friendly with his wife, [5] when a licence for his opera Polly was refused. He quarrelled with George II and resigned his appointments in the same year.

John Gay English poet and playwright

John Gay was an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club. He is best remembered for The Beggar's Opera (1728), a ballad opera. The characters, including Captain Macheath and Polly Peachum, became household names.

Polly is a ballad opera with text by John Gay and music by Johann Christoph Pepusch. It is a sequel to Gay's The Beggar's Opera. Due to censorship, the opera was not performed in Gay's lifetime. It had its world premiere on 19 June 1777 at the Haymarket Theatre in London. A revised and edited version of the score by Clifford Bax and Frederic Austin premiered on 30 December 1922 at the Kingsway Theatre in London.

He was a founding governor of London's Foundling Hospital, created in 1739. He was appointed Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland in 1761 and was Lord Justice General from 1763 until his death in 1778. As there were no heirs, his English titles, including the dukedom of Dover, became extinct, but the Queensberry title passed to his cousin, William Douglas. [5]

Foundling Hospital hospital

The Foundling Hospital in London, England, was founded in 1739 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. It was a children's home established for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children." The word "hospital" was used in a more general sense than it is today, simply indicating the institution's "hospitality" to those less fortunate. Nevertheless, one of the top priorities of the committee at the Foundling Hospital was children's health, as they combated smallpox, fevers, consumption, dysentery and even infections from everyday activities like teething that drove up mortality rates and risked epidemics. With their energies focused on maintaining a disinfected environment, providing simple clothing and fare, the committee paid less attention to and spent less on developing children's education. As a result, financial problems would hound the institution for years to come, despite the growing "fashionableness" of charities like the hospital.

William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry 18th/19th-century Scottish nobleman and gambler

William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry KT was a Scottish nobleman. He was popularly known as Old Q, and was famous for being a great gambler.

Family

On 10 March 1720 he married Lady Catherine Hyde, a daughter of Henry Hyde, 4th Earl of Clarendon. They had two sons, who both predeceased him. [3]

Catherine Hyde, afterwards Duchess of Queensberry, was an English socialite in London and a patron of the dramatist John Gay.

Henry Hyde, 4th Earl of Clarendon and 2nd Earl of Rochester, PC was an English nobleman and politician. He was styled Lord Hyde from 1682 to 1711.

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William Douglas, 1st Earl of Queensberry was a Scottish noble.

James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Queensberry was a Scottish noble, politician and Covenanter.

References

  1. Sancho, Ignatius; Jekyll, Joseph (1782). Letters of the Late Ignatius Sancho, an African ...: To which are Prefixed, Memoirs of His Life ... J. Nichols.
  2. Cassell's Old and New Edinburgh vol. III p.37
  3. 1 2 "Charles Douglas, 3rd Duke of Queensberry". The Peerage. 15 May 2010.
  4. The genealogy of the existing British peerage: with sketches of the family, Edmund Lodge
  5. 1 2 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Queensberry, Earls, Marquesses and Dukes of"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 731.
Political offices
Preceded by
Earl of Rothes
Vice Admiral of Scotland
1722–1729
Succeeded by
Earl of Stair
Preceded by
Earl of Islay
Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland
1761–1763
Succeeded by
Duke of Atholl
Legal offices
Preceded by
Marquess of Tweeddale
Lord Justice General
1763–1778
Succeeded by
Earl of Mansfield
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham
Senior Privy Counsellor
1769–1778
Succeeded by
The Earl of Sandwich
Peerage of Scotland
New title Lord Douglas of Lockerbie, Dalveen and Thornhill
1706–1778
Extinct
Viscount of Tiberris
1706–1778
Earl of Solway
1706–1778
Preceded by
James Douglas, 2nd Duke of Queensberry
Duke of Dover
1711–1778
Duke of Queensberry
1711–1778
Succeeded by
William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry
Preceded by
James Douglas, 3rd Marquess of Queensberry
Marquess of Queensberry
1715–1778