Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc

Last updated
Charles Eugène
Prince of Lambesc
Duke of Elbeuf
Prince de Lambesc.jpg
Born(1751-09-25)25 September 1751
Palace of Versailles, France
Died2 November 1825(1825-11-02) (aged 74)
Vienna, Austria
Full name
Charles Eugène de Lorraine
House House of Lorraine
Father Louis de Lorraine
MotherLouise de Rohan

Charles Eugène of Lorraine (25 September 1751 – 2 November 1825) was the head of and last male member of the House of Guise, the cadet branch of the House of Lorraine which dominated France during the Wars of Religion, remained prominent as princes étrangers at court throughout the ancien régime , and participated in the émigré efforts to restore the Bourbons to the throne. He was an officer in the French and Habsburg militaries during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.

Contents

Biography

His wife Anna Cetner (Zetzner) by Pietro Labruzzi. Anne Duchess of Elbeuf Nee Cetner (1764-1814).PNG
His wife Anna Cetner (Zetzner) by Pietro Labruzzi.

Born on 25 September 1751 in Versailles, France, to Louis, Prince of Brionne and Princess Louise of Rohan. Charles Eugène was a peer of France and Prince of Lorraine, styled as the Prince of Lambesc. One of four children, he had a younger brother and two younger sisters. Through his sister, Joséphine of Lorraine, he was an uncle of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignan and great uncle of the future King Charles Albert of Sardinia.[ citation needed ]

First marriage

He married twice; firstly to rich Polish noblewoman, Anna Cetner (Zetzner) (1764–1814), whom he wed on 20 May 1803. She was daughter of Ignacy Cetner, Wojewoda Belski (1728-1800) and Countess Ludowika Potocka (1744-1800). The couple had no issue.

Second marriage

After the death of his first wife, he married again to Viktoria Folliot de Crenneville (1766–1845) on 23 Jan 1816, former governess of Marie Louise, Empress of the French. She was daughter of French nobleman François Méderic Folliot de Crenneville and Anne Pierrette Charlotte du Poutet. At the time of her marriage to Prince Charles Eugène Viktoria was already twice widowed: Baroness du Poutet and Countess von Colloredo-Wallsee. Again, the couple had no children and they divorced in 1817.[ citation needed ]

Military career

Charles Eugène
Allegiance Royal Standard of the King of France.svg Kingdom of France
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg  Habsburg Monarchy
Service/branch Colonel-Proprietor – 5th Chevauxleger Regiment: 20 February 1804 – 10 June 1819
Rank• Grand Equerry for Louis XVI, 1775–1791
• General of Cavalry
• Colonel and Proprietor 21st/7th Cuirassier Regiment 22 June 1794 – 21 November 1825
• Captain of the First Arcièren Life Guard: 31 December 1806 – 21 November 1825
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars
AwardsOrder of the Holy Spirit 1776
• Commanders Cross, Order of Saint Louis <1791
• Commander's Cross, Military Order of Maria Theresa
Order of the Golden Fleece 1808

French military service

The eldest of House of Lothringen-Lambesc served as the King of France's grand equerry. [1] Charles Eugène became Colonel and Proprietor (Chief) of the Royal Allemand-Dragoons in 1778 and was promoted to Marshal of the Camp in the French Army on 9 March 1788. He received the Commanders Cross of the Order of Saint Louis.[ citation needed ]

Charles Eugene leading the Allemand Dragoons against the mob, 12 July 1789, Musee de la Revolution francaise. Lambesc entrant aux Tuileries.jpg
Charles Eugène leading the Allemand Dragoons against the mob, 12 July 1789, Musée de la Révolution française.

In the early days of the French Revolution, Charles Eugène's Allemand Dragoons were an important element in the protection of the Louis' Court. On 12 July 1789, Charles Eugène rode at the head of his dragoons across the Place of Louis XV into the Tuileries Gardens, against a mob that had gathered there and forced the group out of the garden.[ citation needed ]

In the course of the attack, many were injured, and Charles Eugène was held popularly responsible, although no charges were filed. [2]

He defended the royal palace in the riot at the Tuileries Gardens in July 1789. Initially he served in the French army, but at the outset of France's wars with Austria, he picked up the Bourbon cause in Germany.

When hostilities between France and the Habsburgs reached a crisis point in 1791, he left his Allemand Dragoons and followed the Bourbon cause with his younger brother, Joseph, Prince of Vaudémont. [3]

Habsburg military service

On 18 June 1791, the prince was appointed major general in the Austrian army. In October 1791, he was given command of a brigade composed of the Freikorps (volunteers) "Degelmann" and 37th Dragoon Regiment in Flanders. [4]

On 1 February 1793, his regiment, the 37th Dragoons, was taken into Habsburg service and in 1798, it was united with the 10th Cuirassier Regiment. At the Battle of Tournai on 22 May 1794, he charged the French infantry on the heights of Templeuve with four squadrons (approximately 1,000 men) of the 18th Chevauxleger Regiment "Karaiczay", cutting down 500 men and taking three guns. On 22 June 1794, he was appointed Colonel and Proprietor of the 21st of Cuirassier Regiment in recognition of his actions. In the Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794, he charged with four squadrons of 5th Carabiners Albert to rescue part of Campaign Marshal Prince von Kaunitz's infantry, which had been surrounded by three French cavalry regiments. [3] This unlikely charge against another cavalry force more than five times its size took the French by surprise; the French cavalry scattered, giving Kaunitz to organize an orderly withdrawal of his own force from the field. [5]

On 4 March 1796, Charles Eugène was promoted to Lieutenant Field Marshal . In 1796 he served in Germany under Field Marshal Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser in the Army of the Upper Rhine; on 11 May of that year, he was awarded the Commander's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa Order. He fought with distinction at the Battle of Amberg on 24 August and in the Battle of Würzburg on 2 September, commanding a brigade of cavalry. [5]

In the War of the Second Coalition, the Prince fought in Swabia at the Battle of Engen. After this campaign, the prince was posted to the Habsburg province Galicia, where he was governor general. On 3 December 1806, he was promoted to General of Cavalry and a few weeks later, captain of the First Arcièren Life Guard in Vienna; he was also awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1808. [5]

Bourbon restoration

Upon the Bourbon restoration in 1815, his dynastic dignities were restored to him, but due to widespread unpopularity in France, he never returned to exercise his privileges. He died in Vienna in 1825.[ citation needed ] After the restoration of Louis XVIII, he was created again Peer of France, and his dignities further enhanced by the title Duke of Elbeuf . [3] Louis XVIII furthermore appointed him as a Marshal of France. Because of the popular hostility against him in France, relating to the incident in the Tuileries in July 1789, he never exercised these privileges and he died at the age of 74 in Vienna on 21 November 1825. As he had no children, and with his death, and his brother's, the male line of old Lothringen lines of Erbouf, Harecourt, and Armagnac ended. [5]

Ancestry

Sources

Notes and citations

  1. Antony Spawforth, Versailles: a biography of a palace. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2008, ISBN   978-0-312-35785-6 p. 157.
  2. (in German) Jens Ebert. "Lothringen". Die Österreichischen Generäle 1792–1815. Napoleon Online.DE. Accessed 23 January 2010.
  3. 1 2 3 (in German) Ebert. "Lothringen".
  4. Digby Smith, Lothringen-Lambesc. Leopold Kudrna and Digby Smith (compilers). A biographical dictionary of all Austrian Generals in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815. The Napoleon Series, Robert Burnham, editor in chief. April 2008 version. Accessed 23 January 2010.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Smith, Lothringen-Lambesc. Accessed 23 January 2010.

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser austrian marshall

Dagobert Sigismund, Count von Wurmser was an Austrian field marshal during the French Revolutionary Wars. Although he fought in the Seven Years' War, the War of the Bavarian Succession, and mounted several successful campaigns in the Rhineland in the initial years of the French Revolutionary Wars, he is probably most remembered for his unsuccessful operations against Napoleon Bonaparte during the 1796 campaign in Italy.

Battle of Raab battle

The Battle of Raab or Battle of Győr was fought on 14 June 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars, between Franco-Italian forces and Habsburg forces. The battle was fought near Győr (Raab), Kingdom of Hungary, and ended in a Franco-Italian victory. The victory prevented Archduke John of Austria from bringing any significant force to the Battle of Wagram, while Prince Eugène de Beauharnais's force was able to link up with Emperor Napoleon at Vienna in time to fight at Wagram. Napoleon referred to the battle as "a granddaughter of Marengo and Friedland", as it fell on the anniversary of those two battles.

Johann von Klenau Austrian General of Cavalry in Napoleonic Wars

Johann von Klenau, also called Johann Graf von Klenau, Freiherr von Janowitz, was a field marshal in the Habsburg army. Klenau, the son of a Bohemian noble, joined the Habsburg military as a teenager and fought in the War of Bavarian Succession against Prussia, Austria's wars with the Ottoman Empire, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars, in which he commanded a corps in several important battles.

Franjo Jelačić Austrian general

Baron Franjo Jelačić Bužimski was a Croatian nobleman, a member of the House of Jelačić. He began his service in the Habsburg army as a Grenz infantry officer and fought against the Ottoman Turks. During the French Revolutionary Wars he received promotion to the rank of general officer and won an outstanding victory at Feldkirch. His later career proved that his martial abilities were limited. He twice led independent division-sized forces in the Napoleonic Wars, with unhappy results. He was Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian infantry regiment from 1802 until his death.

Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Habsburg military commander, French Revolutionary Wars

Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg was an Austrian military commander. He achieved the rank of Field Marshal and died at the Battle of Stockach.

Order of battle at the Battle of Stockach (1799)

On 25 March 1799, French and Habsburg armies fought for control of the geographically strategic Hegau in present-day Baden-Württemberg. The battle has been called by various names: First Battle of Stockach, the Battle by Stockach, and, in French chronicles, the Battle of Liptingen.

Maximilian, Count of Merveldt austrian diplomat and general

Maximilian, Count von Merveldt, among the most famous of an illustrious old Westphalian family, entered Habsburg military service, rose to the rank of General of Cavalry, served as Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's ambassador to Russia, and became special envoy extraordinaire to the Court of St. James's. He fought with distinction in the wars between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars.

A Proprietor, or Inhaber, was a term used in the Habsburg military to denote special honors extended to a noble or aristocrat. The Habsburg army was organized on principles developed for the feudal armies in which regiments were raised by a wealthy noble, called the Inhaber (proprietor) who also acted as honorary colonel. Originally, he raised the regiment, funded its needs, and received a portion of its revenue, which might be plunder or loot. He also shared in its shame or its honors. The Prussian and Imperial Russian military adopted a similar system.

Johann Sigismund Graf von Riesch joined the army of Habsburg Austria as a cavalry officer and, during his career, fought against the Kingdom of Prussia, Ottoman Turkey, Revolutionary France, and Napoleon's French Empire. He became a general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and held important commands during the War of the Second Coalition. He displayed a talent for leading cavalry formations, but proved less capable when given corps-sized commands. During the 1805 Ulm Campaign in the Napoleonic Wars, the French badly defeated his corps and forced it to surrender soon afterward. From 1806 to his death in 1821, he was the Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian cavalry regiment.

Joseph, Count Kinsky, also known as Joseph, Count Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau, was a field marshal in imperial service of the House of Habsburg. He was born in Prague, Bohemia, on 22 February 1731 and died in Vienna, Austria, on 7 February 1804. He was one of four members of the House of Kinsky to enter imperial Habsburg service in the eighteenth century, including a younger and older brother, his uncle and his nephew; his father was a diplomat for the House of Habsburg, and other relatives include diplomats and imperial officials of the Habsburg empire.

Friedrich Karl Wilhelm, Fürst (prince) zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen was a general in the military service of the House of Habsburg during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was born in Ingelfingen, in southwest Germany, on 16 February 1752.

Louis Charles Folliot de Crenneville Austrian general

Louis Charles Folliot de Crenneville joined the French royal navy in the 1770s. During the French Revolution he abandoned the First French Republic and became an Émigré. Soon afterward, he tendered his services to Habsburg Austria. He earned promotion to general officer during the Napoleonic Wars and fought in all the major campaigns against his former country. He led a division during the War of the Sixth Coalition and remained in Austrian service until his death.

Joseph-Armand Ritter von Nordmann, was a French officer in the French Royal Army. He transferred his allegiance to Habsburg Austria during the French Revolution, like other French émigrés. In Austrian service he fought capably against his former country during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

The Battle of Günzburg on 9 October 1805 saw General of Division Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher's French division attempt to seize a crossing over the Danube River at Günzburg in the face of a Habsburg Austrian army led by Feldmarschall-Leutnant Karl Mack von Lieberich. Malher's division managed to capture a bridge and hold it against Austrian counterattacks. The battle occurred during the War of the Third Coalition, part of the larger Napoleonic Wars.

Marc Antoine de Beaumont French general

Marc Antoine Bonnin de la Bonninière de Beaumont a French nobleman, became a page to the king and joined the army of the Old Regime. He stayed in the army during the French Revolution and narrowly escaped being executed. During the French Revolutionary Wars he fought in the 1796 Italian campaign under Napoleon Bonaparte, leading the cavalry at Lodi and Castiglione. In 1799 he was wounded in Italy but fought there again in late 1800.

Anne-François-Charles Trelliard French general of division

Anne-François-Charles Trelliard or Treillard or Treilhard, born 7 February 1764 – died 14 May 1832, joined the cavalry of the French Royal Army as a cadet gentleman in 1780. During the French Revolutionary Wars he fought in Germany and Holland, eventually rising in rank to become a general officer in 1799. He led a corps cavalry brigade at Austerlitz in the 1805 campaign. In the 1806-1807 campaign he fought at Saalfeld, Jena, and Pultusk.

Antoine Maurin French general

Antoine Maurin commanded a French cavalry division in 1814 during the Napoleonic Wars and in 1815 led his troops against the Prussians at Ligny where he was wounded. His army service began in 1792 during the French Revolution when he enlisted in a cavalry regiment as a trooper. He spent his entire military career as a cavalryman. During the French Revolutionary Wars he advanced through the ranks and became commander of a light cavalry regiment in 1802. While only a colonel, he commanded a brigade at Caldiero in October 1805. He fought in the Friedland campaign in 1807 and attained the rank of general officer that year. As a cavalry brigadier, he participated in the 1807 Invasion of Portugal but was captured in 1808 and held until 1812. He led a brigade in 1813 and a division 1814 during the War of the Sixth Coalition. After fighting for Napoleon during the Hundred Days, he retired in 1823. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 40.

Régiment Royal-Allemand

The Régiment Royal-Allemand cavalerie was a regiment in the French Royal army, composed of German-speakers. In 1791 it became the "15e régiment de cavalerie", and in 1792 it was disbanded.

The Battle of Handschuhsheim or Battle of Heidelberg saw an 8,000-man force from Habsburg Austria under Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich face 12,000 men from the Republican French army led by Georges Joseph Dufour. Thanks to a devastating cavalry charge, the Austrians routed the French with disproportionate losses. The fight occurred during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. Handschuhsheim is now a district of Heidelberg, but it was a village north of the city in 1795.

Vinko Knežević Austrian general

Vinko Knežević or Vincent Knesevich de Szent-Helena was a Croatian nobleman and general in the Habsburg Monarchy imperial army service. He fought in many battles during the Austro-Turkish War and the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1799 he led a hussar regiment at Cassano, the Trebbia and Novi. He commanded an infantry brigade at Marengo the following year and led Austrian Empire troops in the Tyrol in 1805 and at Graz in 1809. He served in various assignments on the Military Border from 1809 to 1812. From 1802 he lived on his estate Sveta Jelena in former Zala County, modern-day Međimurje County in northern Croatia. By the end of Napoleonic Wars he retired from military service as a General der Kavallerie in 1815. He became Proprietor of a dragoon regiment in 1809 and held that office until his death in 1832.