Charles Eugene, Prince of Lambesc

Last updated
Charles Eugène
Prince of Lambesc
Duke of Elbeuf
Prince de Lambesc.jpg
Born(1751-09-25)25 September 1751 [1]
Palace of Versailles, France
Died 2 November 1825(1825-11-02) (aged 74)
Vienna, Austria
Full name
Charles Eugène de Lorraine
House House of Lorraine
Father Louis de Lorraine
Mother Louise de Rohan

Charles Eugène of Lorraine (25 September 1751 – 2 November 1825) was the head of and last male member of the House of Guise, the cadet branch of the House of Lorraine which dominated France during the Wars of Religion, remained prominent as princes étrangers at court throughout the ancien régime , and participated in the émigré efforts to restore the Bourbons to the throne. He was an officer in the French and Habsburg militaries during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.

House of Guise noble family

The House of Guise was a French noble family, partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion.

In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets). In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets—realm, titles, fiefs, property and income—have historically been passed from a father to his firstborn son in what is known as primogeniture; younger sons—cadets—inherited less wealth and authority to pass to future generations of descendants.

House of Lorraine Royal house of Europe

The House of Lorraine originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir. By the marriage of Francis of Lorraine to Maria Theresa in 1736, and with the success in the ensuing War of the Austrian Succession, the House of Lorraine was joined to the House of Habsburg, and was now known as Habsburg-Lorraine. Francis, his sons Joseph II and Leopold II, and grandson Francis II were the last four Holy Roman Emperors from 1745 to the dissolution of the empire in 1806. Habsburg-Lorraine inherited the Habsburg Empire, ruling the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1918.

Contents

Biography

His wife Anna Cetner (Zetzner) by Pietro Labruzzi Anne Duchess of Elbeuf Nee Cetner (1764-1814).PNG
His wife Anna Cetner (Zetzner) by Pietro Labruzzi

Born on 25 September 1751 in Versailles, France, Charles Eugène was a peer of France and Prince of Lorraine. Styled as the Prince of Lambesc. One of four children, he had a younger brother and two younger sisters. Through his sister, Joséphine of Lorraine, he was an uncle of Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignan and great uncle of the future King Charles Albert of Sardinia.[ citation needed ]

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Peerage of France title of honor within the French nobility

The Peerage of France was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers. It was abolished in 1789 during the French Revolution, but it reappeared in 1814 at the time of the Bourbon Restoration which followed the fall of the First French Empire, when the Chamber of Peers was given a constitutional function somewhat along British lines, which lasted until the Revolution of 1848. On 10 October 1831, by a vote of 324 against 26 of the Chamber of Deputies, hereditary peerages were abolished, but peerages for the life of the holder continued to exist until the chamber and rank were definitively abolished in 1848.

Princess Joséphine of Lorraine consort princess of Carignan

Joséphine de Lorraine was a princess of the House of Lorraine and by marriage the Princess of Carignan. She was the paternal grandmother of King Charles Albert of Sardinia, from whom the modern royal house of Italy descends.

He married twice; firstly to Anna Cetner (Zetzner) (1764–1814), whom he wed 20 May 1803. The couple had no issue. He married again to Viktoria Folliot de Crenneville (1766–1845); again the couple had no children.[ citation needed ]

He defended the royal palace in the riot at the Tuileries Gardens in July 1789. Initially he served in the French army, but at the outset of France's wars with Austria, he picked up the Bourbon cause in Germany. His regiment was taken into service in the Habsburg army in 1793, and he served with distinction in several of the wars of the First and Second Coalitions.[ citation needed ]

War of the First Coalition 1790s war to contain Revolutionary France

The War of the First Coalition is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic. Despite the collective strength of these nations compared with France, they were not really allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.

War of the Second Coalition attempt to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France

The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden. Their goal was to contain the expansion of the French Republic and to restore the monarchy in France. They failed to overthrow the revolutionary regime and French territorial gains since 1793 were confirmed. In the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, France held all of its previous gains and obtained new lands in Tuscany, Italy, while Austria was granted Venetia and the Dalmatian coast. Britain and France signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing an interval of peace in Europe that lasted for 14 months. By May 1803 Britain and France were again at war and in 1805 Britain assembled the Third Coalition to resume the war against France.

Upon the Bourbon restoration in 1815, his dynastic dignities were restored to him, but due to widespread unpopularity in France, he never returned to exercise his privileges. He died in Vienna in 1825.[ citation needed ]

Military career

Charles Eugène
Allegiance Royal Standard of the King of France.svg House of Bourbon
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg  Habsburg Monarchy
Service/branch Colonel-Proprietor – 5th Chevauxleger Regiment: 20 February 1804 – 10 June 1819
Rank

• Grand Equerry for Louis XVI, 1775–1791
• General of Cavalry

• Colonel and Proprietor 21st/7th Cuirassier Regiment 22 June 1794 – 21 November 1825
• Captain of the First Arcièren Life Guard: 31 December 1806 – 21 November 1825
Battles/wars French Revolutionary Wars
AwardsOrder of the Holy Spirit 1776
• Commanders Cross, Order of Saint Louis <1791
• Commander's Cross, Military Order of Maria Theresa
Order of the Golden Fleece 1808

French military service

The eldest of House of Lothringen-Lambesc served as the King of France's grand equerry. [2] Charles Eugène became Colonel and Proprietor (Chief) of the Royal Allemand-Dragoons in 1778 and was promoted to Marshal of the Camp in the French Army on 9 March 1788. He received the Commanders Cross of the Order of Saint Louis.[ citation needed ]

Order of Saint Louis French military order

The Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis is a dynastic order of chivalry founded 5 April 1693 by King Louis XIV, named after Saint Louis. It was intended as a reward for exceptional officers, notable as the first decoration that could be granted to non-nobles. By the authorities of the French Republic, it is considered a predecessor of the Legion of Honour, with which it shares the red ribbon.

Charles Eugene leading the Allemand Dragoons against the mob, 12 July 1789 Lambesc entrant aux Tuileries.jpg
Charles Eugène leading the Allemand Dragoons against the mob, 12 July 1789

In the early days of the French Revolution, Charles Eugène's Allemand Dragoons were an important element in the protection of the Louis' Court. On 12 July 1789, Charles Eugène rode at the head of his dragoons across the Place of Louis XV into the Tuileries Gardens, against a mob that had gathered there and forced the group out of the garden.[ citation needed ]

In the course of the attack, many were injured, and Charles Eugène was held popularly responsible, although no charges were filed. [3]

When hostilities between France and the Habsburgs reached a crisis point in 1791, he left his Allemand Dragoons and followed the Bourbon cause with his younger brother, Joseph, Prince of Vaudémont. [4]

Habsburg military service

On 18 June 1791, the prince was appointed major general in the Austrian army. In October 1791, he was given command of a brigade composed of the Freikorps (volunteers) "Degelmann" and 37th Dragoon Regiment in Flanders. [5]

On 1 February 1793, his regiment, the 37th Dragoons, was taken into Habsburg service and in 1798, it was united with the 10th Cuirassier Regiment. At the Battle of Tournai on 22 May 1794, he charged the French infantry on the heights of Templeuve with four squadrons (approximately 1,000 men) of the 18th Chevauxleger Regiment "Karaiczay", cutting down 500 men and taking three guns. On 22 June 1794, he was appointed Colonel and Proprietor of the 21st of Cuirassier Regiment in recognition of his actions. In the Battle of Fleurus, on 26 June 1794, he charged with four squadrons of 5th Carabiners Albert to rescue part of Campaign Marshal Count von Kaunitz's infantry, which had been surrounded by three French cavalry regiments. [4] This unlikely charge against another cavalry force more than five times its size took the French by surprise; the French cavalry scattered, giving Kaunitz to organize an orderly withdrawal of his own force from the field. [6]

On 4 March 1796, Charles Eugène was promoted to Lieutenant Field Marshal . In 1796 he served in Germany under Field Marshal Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser in the Army of the Upper Rhine; on 11 May of that year, he was awarded the Commander's Cross of the Military Order of Maria Theresa Order. He fought with distinction at the Battle of Amberg on 24 August and in the Battle of Würzburg on 2 September, commanding a brigade of cavalry. [6]

In the War of the Second Coalition, the Prince fought in Swabia at the Battle of Engen. After this campaign, the prince was posted to the Habsburg province Galicia, where he was governor general. On 3 December 1806, he was promoted to General of Cavalry and a few weeks later, captain of the First Arcièren Life Guard in Vienna; he was also awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1808. [6]

After the restoration of Louis XVIII, he was created again Peer of France, and his dignities further enhanced by the title Duke of Elbeuf . [4] Louis XVIII furthermore appointed him as a Marshal of France. Because of the popular hostility against him in France, relating to the incident in the Tuileries in July 1789, he never exercised these privileges and he died at the age of 74 in Vienna on 21 November 1825. He had briefly been married to the widow of Count von Colloreedo, but they were divorced after a few months. He had no children, and with his death, and his brother's, the male line of old Lothringen lines of Erbouf, Harecourt, and Armagnac ended. [6]

Ancestry

Sources

Notes and citations

  1. van de Pas, Leo. "Charles de Lorraine, Prince of Lambesc". Genealogics .org. Retrieved 2010-03-21.
  2. Antony Spawforth, Versailles: a biography of a palace. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2008, ISBN   978-0-312-35785-6 p. 157.
  3. (in German) Jens Ebert. "Lothringen". Die Österreichischen Generäle 1792–1815. Napoleon Online.DE. Accessed 23 January 2010.
  4. 1 2 3 (in German) Ebert. "Lothringen".
  5. Digby Smith, Lothringen-Lambesc. Leopold Kudrna and Digby Smith (compilers). A biographical dictionary of all Austrian Generals in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, 1792–1815. The Napoleon Series, Robert Burnham, editor in chief. April 2008 version. Accessed 23 January 2010.
  6. 1 2 3 4 Smith, Lothringen-Lambesc. Accessed 23 January 2010.

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser austrian marshall

Dagobert Sigismund, Count von Wurmser was an Austrian field marshal during the French Revolutionary Wars. Although he fought in the Seven Years' War, the War of the Bavarian Succession, and mounted several successful campaigns in the Rhineland in the initial years of the French Revolutionary Wars, he is probably most remembered for his unsuccessful operations against Napoleon Bonaparte during the 1796 campaign in Italy.

Battle of Dürenstein engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of the Third Coalition

The Battle of Dürenstein, on 11 November 1805, was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of the Third Coalition. Dürenstein is located in the Wachau valley, on the river Danube, 73 kilometers (45 mi) upstream from Vienna, Austria. The river makes a crescent-shaped curve between Dürnstein and nearby Krems an der Donau, and the battle was fought in the flood plain between the river and the mountains.

Battle of Würzburg battle

The Battle of Würzburg was fought on 3 September 1796 between an army of Habsburg Austria led by Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen and an army of the First French Republic led by Jean-Baptiste Jourdan. The French attacked the archduke's forces, but they were resisted until the arrival of reinforcements decided the engagement in favor of the Austrians. The French retreated west toward the Rhine River. The action occurred during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. Würzburg is 95 kilometres (59 mi) southeast of Frankfurt.

Order of battle at the Battle of Stockach (1799)

On 25 March 1799, French and Austrian armies fought for control of the geographically strategic Hegau in present-day Baden-Württemberg. The battle has been called by various names: First Battle of Stockach, the Battle by Stockach, and, in French chronicles, the Battle of Liptingen.

Maximilian, Count of Merveldt austrian diplomat and general

Maximilian, Count von Merveldt, among the most famous of an illustrious old Westphalian family, entered Austrian military service, rose to the rank of General of Cavalry, served as Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor's ambassador to Russia, and became special envoy extraordinaire to the Court of St. James's. He fought with distinction in the wars between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars.

Johann Heinrich von Schmitt Austrian army commander

Johann Heinrich von Schmitt was an officer in the Army of the Holy Roman Empire. He was arguably one of the most successful chiefs of staff; he rose to the rank of Feldmarshalleutnant during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.

Johann Sigismund Graf von Riesch joined the army of Habsburg Austria as a cavalry officer and, during his career, fought against the Kingdom of Prussia, Ottoman Turkey, Revolutionary France, and Napoleon's French Empire. He became a general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and held important commands during the War of the Second Coalition. He displayed a talent for leading cavalry formations, but proved less capable when given corps-sized commands. During the 1805 Ulm Campaign in the Napoleonic Wars, the French badly defeated his corps and forced it to surrender soon afterward. From 1806 to his death in 1821, he was the Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian cavalry regiment.

Joseph, Count Kinsky, also known as Joseph, Count Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau, was a field marshal in imperial service of the House of Habsburg. He was born in Prague, Bohemia, on 22 February 1731 and died in Vienna, Austria, on 7 February 1804. He was one of four members of the House of Kinsky to enter imperial Habsburg service in the eighteenth century, including a younger and older brother, his uncle and his nephew; his father was a diplomat for the House of Habsburg, and other relatives include diplomats and imperial officials of the Habsburg empire.

Friedrich Karl Wilhelm, Fürst (prince) zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen was a general in the military service of the House of Habsburg during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was born in Ingelfingen, in southwest Germany, on 16 February 1752.

Louis Klein French general

Dominique Louis Antoine Klein served in the French military during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars as a general of cavalry.

French Royal Army (1652–1830)

The French Royal Army served the Bourbon kings beginning with Louis XIV and ending with Charles X with an interlude from 1792 until 1814, during the French Revolution and the reign of the Emperor Napoleon I. After a second, brief interlude when Napoleon returned from exile in 1815, the Royal Army was reinstated. Its service to the direct Bourbon line was finished when Charles X was overthrown in 1830 by the July Revolution.

Franz Freiherr von Werneck, born 13 October 1748 – died 17 January 1806, enlisted in the army of Habsburg Austria and fought in the Austro-Turkish War, the French Revolutionary Wars, and the Napoleonic Wars. He enjoyed a distinguished career until 1797, when he lost a battle and was dismissed as punishment. He was only reinstated in 1805. In that year he surrendered his command and was later brought up on charges. He died while awaiting a court-martial.

Siege of Belgrade (1789)

In the Siege of Belgrade a Habsburg Austrian army led by Feldmarschall Ernst Gideon von Laudon besieged an Ottoman Turkish force under Osman Pasha in the fortress of Belgrade. After a three-week leaguer, the Austrians forced the surrender of the fortress. During the campaign which was part of the Austro-Turkish War, the Austrian army was greatly hampered by illness. Austria held the city until 1791 when it handed Belgrade back to the Ottomans according to the terms of the peace treaty. Several Austrian soldiers who distinguished themselves during the siege later held important commands in the subsequent French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. Belgrade is the capital of modern Serbia.

Joseph-Armand Ritter von Nordmann, was a French officer in the French Royal Army. He transferred his allegiance to Habsburg Austria during the French Revolution, like other French émigrés. In Austrian service he fought capably against his former country during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Marc Antoine de Beaumont French general

Marc Antoine Bonnin de la Bonninière de Beaumont a French nobleman, became a page to the king and joined the army of the Old Regime. He stayed in the army during the French Revolution and narrowly escaped being executed. During the French Revolutionary Wars he fought in the 1796 Italian campaign under Napoleon Bonaparte, leading the cavalry at Lodi and Castiglione. In 1799 he was wounded in Italy but fought there again in late 1800.

Peter von Vécsey Austrian-Hungarian general

Peter, Freiherr von Vécsey or Peter Vécsey de Hernádvécse et Hajnácskeő was an Imperial Austrian military commander of Hungarian descent who took part in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. As a Freiherr (Baron), he was a member of the Austrian landless nobility. He make his mark while leading cavalry units and advanced in rank to become a general officer in 1808. He led an independent brigade during part of the 1809 campaign, and was mortally wounded while leading his troops in battle.

Anne-François-Charles Trelliard French general of division

Anne-François-Charles Trelliard or Treillard or Treilhard, born 7 February 1764 – died 14 May 1832, joined the cavalry of the French Royal Army as a cadet gentleman in 1780. During the French Revolutionary Wars he fought in Germany and Holland, eventually rising in rank to become a general officer in 1799. He led a corps cavalry brigade at Austerlitz in the 1805 campaign. In the 1806-1807 campaign he fought at Saalfeld, Jena, and Pultusk.

Régiment Royal-Allemand

The Régiment Royal-Allemand cavalerie was a regiment in the French Royal army, composed of German-speakers. In 1791 it became the "15e régiment de cavalerie", and in 1792 it was disbanded.

Vinko Knežević Austrian general

Vinko Knežević or Vincent Knesevich de Szent-Helena was a Croatian nobleman and general in the Habsburg Monarchy imperial army service. He fought in many battles during the Austro-Turkish War and the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1799 he led a hussar regiment at Cassano, the Trebbia and Novi. He commanded an infantry brigade at Marengo the following year and led Austrian Empire troops in the Tyrol in 1805 and at Graz in 1809. He served in various assignments on the Military Border from 1809 to 1812. From 1802 he lived on his estate Sveta Jelena in former Zala County, modern-day Međimurje County in northern Croatia. By the end of Napoleonic Wars he retired from military service as a General der Kavallerie in 1815. He became Proprietor of a dragoon regiment in 1809 and held that office until his death in 1832.

Duke Ferdinand Frederick Augustus of Württemberg German military leader

Duke Ferdinand Frederick Augustus of Württemberg was the fifth son of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg and a Habsburg Austrian general during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. As a high-ranking nobleman, he started his military career as an Oberstleutnant in 1781. Promoted to General-major in 1788, he fought at Belgrade during the Austro-Turkish War. During the War of the First Coalition he led his troops at Neerwinden and was in command of the successful Siege of Condé in 1793.