Portrait by Johann Ludwig Kisling, 1803
|Grand Duke of Baden|
|Reign||25 July 1806 – 10 June 1811|
|Elector of Baden|
|Reign||27 April 1803 – 6 August 1806|
|Margrave of Baden (unified)|
|Reign||21 October 1771 – 27 April 1803|
|Predecessor||Augustus George, Margrave of Baden-Baden|
|Margrave of Baden-Durlach|
|Reign||12 May 1738 – 21 October 1771|
|Predecessor||Charles III William|
|Born||22 November 1728|
|Died||10 June 1811 82)(aged|
|Spouse|| Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt |
Louise Caroline, Baroness Geyer of Geyersberg
|Issue|| Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden |
Louis I, Grand Duke of Baden
Princess Louise Auguste
Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden
Prince Frederick Alexander
|Father||Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Baden-Durlach|
|Mother||Princess Amalia of Nassau-Dietz|
Charles Frederick (22 November 1728 – 10 June 1811) was Margrave, Elector and later Grand Duke of Baden (initially only Margrave of Baden-Durlach) from 1738 until his death.
Born at Karlsruhe, he was the son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Baden-Durlach and Amalia of Nassau-Dietz (13 October 1710 – 17 September 1777), the daughter of Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz.
He succeeded his grandfather as Margrave of Baden-Durlach in 1738 and ruled personally from 1746 until 1771, when he inherited Baden-Baden from the Bernhard Line. Upon inheriting the latter margraviate, the original land of Baden was reunited. He was regarded as a good example of an enlightened despot, supporting schools, universities, jurisprudence, civil service, economy, culture, and urban development. He outlawed torture in 1767, and serfdom in 1783. He was elected a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society in 1747.
In 1803, Charles Frederick became Elector of Baden, and in 1806 the first Grand Duke of Baden. Through the politics of minister Sigismund Freiherr von Reitzenstein, Baden acquired the Bishopric of Constance, and the territories of the Bishopric of Basel, the Bishopric of Strassburg, and the Bishopric of Speyer that lay on the right bank of the Rhine, in addition to Breisgau and Ortenau.
In 1806, Baden joined the Confederation of the Rhine.
Together with his architect, Friedrich Weinbrenner, Charles Frederick was responsible for the construction of the handsome suite of classical buildings that distinguish Karlsruhe. He died there in 1811, and was one of the few German rulers to die during the Napoleonic era.
Charles Frederick married Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt on 28 January 1751. She was the daughter of Louis VIII of Hesse-Darmstadt, was born on 11 July 1723 and died on 8 April 1783.
Charles Frederick and Caroline Louise had the following children:
Charles Frederick married Louise Caroline, Baroness Geyer of Geyersberg as his second wife on 24 November 1787. She was the daughter of Lt. Col. Louis Henry Philipp, Baron Geyer of Geyersberg and his wife Maximiliana Christiane, Countess of Sponeck. She was born on 26 May 1768 and died on 23 July 1820. This was a morganatic marriage, and the children born of it were not eligible to succeed. Louise was created Baroness of Hochberg at the time of her marriage and Countess of Hochberg in 1796; both titles were also borne by her children.
They had the following children:
By 1817, the descendants of Charles Frederick by his first wife were dying out. To prevent Baden from being inherited by the next heir (his brother-in-law King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria), the reigning Grand Duke, Charles (grandson of the first Grand Duke), changed the succession law to give the Hochberg family full dynastic rights in Baden. They thus became Princes and Princesses of Baden with the style Grand Ducal Highness , like their elder half-siblings. Their succession rights were reinforced when Baden was granted a constitution in 1818, and recognised by Bavaria and the Great Powers in the Treaty of Frankfurt, 1819. Leopold's descendants ruled the Grand Duchy of Baden until 1918. The current pretenders to the throne of Baden are descendants of Leopold.
Leopold, the eldest son from the second marriage, succeeded as Grand Duke in 1830.
|Ancestors of Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden|
Leopold succeeded in 1830 as the Grand Duke of Baden, reigning until his death in 1852.
Charles became ruler of the Grand Duchy of Baden as its grand duke on 11 June 1811 and reigned until his death in 1818. He was born in Karlsruhe.
Ludwig I succeeded as Grand Duke of Baden on 8 December 1818. He was the uncle of his predecessor Karl Ludwig Friedrich, and his death marked the end of the Zähringen line of the House of Baden. He was succeeded by his half brother, Leopold.
Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden was heir apparent of the Margraviate of Baden.
Princess Amalia of Nassau-Dietz was the wife of Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Baden-Durlach, and mother of Charles Frederick, the first Grand Duke of Baden.
Duchess Elisabeth Alexandrine Constance of Württemberg was a daughter of Duke Louis of Württemberg and Princess Henriette of Nassau-Weilburg.
Augustus George, Margrave of Baden-Baden was the ruling Margrave of Baden-Baden from 1761 till his death in 1771. He succeeded his brother Louis George and was the brother of the Duchess of Orléans. He was the son-in-law of Duke Léopold Philippe d'Arenberg.
Caroline Louise of Hesse-Darmstadt, was a consort of Baden, a dilettante artist, scientist, collector and salonist.
William Louis of Baden-Durlach was the brother of the first Grand Duke of Baden, Charles Fredrick. In 1753 he became governor of the province of Gelderland based in Arnhem. In 1766 he was appointed by the Netherlands States-General to lieutenant general. After 1769 William Louis was also active as an industrialist.
Christopher of Baden-Durlach was Prince and (titular) Margrave of Baden-Durlach.
Louise Caroline von Hochberg, born Geyer von Geyersberg, from 1787 Baroness von Hochberg, from 1796 Countess of Hochberg was the morganatic second wife of the Margrave and later Grand Duke Charles Frederick of Baden. Her descendants eventually ascended the grand ducal throne and reigned until 1918.
Countess Johanna Magdalene of Hanau-Lichtenberg was a daughter of Johann Reinhard II of Hanau-Lichtenberg (1628–1666) and the Countess Palatine Anna Magdalena of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler (1640–1693).
Friedrich August, Duke of Nassau, Prince of Nassau-Usingen was the last Prince of Nassau-Usingen and, jointly with his cousin, Friedrich Wilhelm of Nassau-Weilburg, first Duke of Nassau. He died without surviving male issue and was succeeded by his cousin's son, Wilhelm.
Count John of Nassau-Idstein was Count of Nassau and Protestant Regent of Idstein.
Princess Leopoldine of Baden was a Princess of Baden by birth and Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg by marriage.
The Grand Duchy of Baden was a state in the southwest German Empire on the east bank of the Rhine. It existed between 1806 and 1918.
The royal descendants of John William Friso, Prince of Orange currently occupy all the hereditary European royal thrones, with Friso and his wife, Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel, being the most recent common ancestors of all the European monarchs. Due to the intermarriage of the European royal houses, many monarchs are descended from Friso in more than one way. Through history, Friso has also been the ancestor of many monarchs whose thrones no longer exist.
Princess Marie of Baden was the third daughter and seventh child of Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden (1790–1852) and his wife Princess Sophie of Sweden (1801–65). She was Princess of Leiningen through her marriage with Ernst Leopold, 4th Prince of Leiningen.
Princess Sophie of Baden, was a Princess of Baden by birth and the Princess consort of Lippe by marriage.
Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of BadenBorn: 22 November 1728 Died: 10 June 1811
| Margrave of Baden-Durlach |
|Reunification of Baden|
Augustus George Simpert
| Margrave of Baden-Baden |
as Margrave of Baden-Durlach
| Margrave of Baden |
|Elevated to electorate|
| Elector of Baden |
|Dissolution of the|
Holy Roman Empire
Grand Duchy of Baden established
| Grand Duke of Baden |