Charles Fried

Last updated
Charles Fried
Charles Fried at Harvard.jpg
Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
In office
September 1995 June 1999
Appointed by William Weld
Preceded by Joseph Nolan
Succeeded by Judith Cowin
38th Solicitor General of the United States
In office
June 1, 1985 January 20, 1989
Acting: June 1, 1985 – October 23, 1985
President Ronald Reagan
Preceded by Rex E. Lee
Succeeded by Ken Starr
Personal details
Born (1935-04-15) April 15, 1935 (age 84)
Prague, Czechoslovakia
(now Czech Republic)
Political party Republican
Spouse(s)Anne Summerscale
Children2
Education Princeton University (BA)
University of Oxford (BA)
Columbia University (LLB)

Charles Fried (born April 15, 1935) [1] is an American jurist and lawyer. He served as United States Solicitor General under President Ronald Reagan from 1985 to 1989. He is a professor at Harvard Law School and has been a visiting professor at Columbia Law School. He also serves on the board [2] of the nonpartisan group, the Campaign Legal Center.

Ronald Reagan 40th president of the United States

Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician and film actor who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975.

Harvard Law School law school in Cambridge

Harvard Law School is one of the professional graduate schools of Harvard University located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world. It is ranked first in the world by the QS World University Rankings and the ARWU Shanghai Ranking.

Columbia Law School law school

Columbia Law School is a professional graduate school of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League. It has always been ranked in the top five law schools in the United States by U.S. News and World Report. Columbia is especially well known for its strength in corporate law and its placement power in the nation's elite law firms.

Contents

Fried is the author of nine books and over 30 journal articles, and his work has appeared in over a dozen collections.

Early life and education

Fried was born in 1935 in Prague, Czechoslovakia, where his father was an important industrialist and Czech patriot. The Frieds left Czechoslovakia in 1939 to escape the anticipated Nazi Germany's persecution of Jews, lived in England for almost two years and came to the United States in 1941 via Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He and his parents became United States citizens in 1948, after the communist takeover of Czechoslovakia. After graduating from the Lawrenceville School in 1952, he attended Princeton University where he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1956. Fried then attended the University of Oxford, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degree in Jurisprudence, in 1958 and 1960, respectively, and was awarded the Ordronnaux Prize in Law (1958). In 1960, Fried received his Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree from Columbia Law School, where he was a Stone Scholar. Subsequently, he served as law clerk to Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan II.

Nazi Germany The German state from 1933 to 1945, under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler

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The Holocaust Genocide of the European Jews by Nazi Germany and other groups

The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews. Between 1941 and 1945 across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population. The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through labour in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.

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The Lawrenceville School is a coeducational, independent college preparatory boarding school for students in ninth through twelfth grades as well as a post-graduate year. The school is located on 700 acres (280 ha) in the historic Lawrenceville section of Lawrence, in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States.

Fried is admitted to the bars of the United States Supreme Court, United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and numerous U.S. courts of appeals. He argued 25 cases in front of the Supreme Court while in the Solicitor General's office. [3] He has served as counsel to a number of major law firms and clients, and in that capacity argued several major cases, perhaps the most important being Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, both in the Supreme Court and in the Ninth Circuit on remand.

United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D.C. The court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges. The Federal Circuit is particularly known for its decisions on patent law, as it is the only appellate-level court with the jurisdiction to hear patent case appeals.

Massachusetts State of the United States of America

Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.

Fried's government service includes a year as Special Assistant to the Attorney General of the United States (1984–85) and a consulting relationship to that office (1983), as well as advisory roles with the Department of Transportation (1981–83) and President Ronald Reagan (1982). In October 1985, Reagan appointed Fried as Solicitor General of the United States. Fried had previously served as Deputy Solicitor General and Acting Solicitor General. As Solicitor General, he represented the Reagan Administration before the Supreme Court in 25 cases. In 1989, when Reagan left office, Fried returned to Harvard Law School.

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Solicitor General of the United States

The Solicitor General of the United States is the fourth-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice. The current Solicitor General, Noel Francisco, took office on September 19, 2017.

From September 1995 until June 1999, Fried served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, while teaching constitutional law at Harvard Law School as a Distinguished Lecturer. Prior to joining the court, Fried held the chair of Carter Professor of General Jurisprudence at Harvard Law School. On July 1, 1999, he returned to Harvard Law School as a full-time member of the faculty and Beneficial Professor of Law. He has served on the Harvard Law School faculty since 1961, teaching courses on appellate advocacy, commercial law, constitutional law, contracts, criminal law, federal courts, labor law, torts, legal philosophy, and medical ethics.

Fried speaking at Harvard Law School in 2009. Charles Fried at HLS.jpg
Fried speaking at Harvard Law School in 2009.

Fried has published extensively. He is the author of nine books and over 30 journal articles, and his work has appeared in over a dozen collections. Unusually for a law professor without a graduate degree in philosophy, he has published significant work in moral and political theory only indirectly related to the law; Right and Wrong, for instance is an impressive general statement of a Kantian position in ethics with affinities with the work of Thomas Nagel, John Rawls, and Robert Nozick. On September 27, 2010, he and Gregory Fried discussed their book Because It Is Wrong: Torture, Privacy, and Presidential Power in the Age of Terror at the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. To see the discussion, click the link below. [4] Fried has been Orgain Lecturer at the University of Texas (1982), Tanner Lecturer on Human Values at Stanford University (1981), and Harris Lecturer on Medical Ethics at the Harvard Medical School (1974–75). He was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1971–72. Fried is a member of the National Academy of Sciences's Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Law Institute.

American Academy of Arts and Sciences United States honorary society and center for independent policy research

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, and advancing the common good.

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Stanford University Private research university in Stanford, California

Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, selectivity, wealth, proximity to Silicon Valley, and ranking as one of the world's top universities. Often ranking first among all universities both domestically and internationally has led Stanford to be known as America's "dream college".

Politics and affiliations

In September 2005, Fried testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee in support of the nomination of John Roberts to become Chief Justice of the United States. After the nomination of Samuel Alito to the U.S. Supreme Court, Fried praised Alito as an outstanding judge but dismissed claims that Alito is radical, saying, "He is conservative, yes, but he is not radically conservative like Scalia." [5] Fried testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee and wrote a New York Times op-ed in support of Alito, who had served under him in the Solicitor General's office. [6]

On October 24, 2008, despite his previous support for the presidential aspirations of Senator John McCain, Fried announced that he had voted for Senator Barack Obama for President by absentee ballot. Fried cited Senator McCain's selection of Governor Sarah Palin as his running mate as the principal reason for his decision to vote for Senator Obama. [7] As president of the Harvard Law Review in 1990, Obama had published an article Fried wrote criticizing the effects of race-based affirmative action. [8] Fried later told The Wall Street Journal :

I admire Senator McCain and was glad to help in his campaign, and to be listed as doing so; but when I concluded that I must vote for Obama for the reason stated in my letter, I felt it wrong to appear to be recommending to others a vote that I was not prepared to cast myself. So it was more of an erasure than a public affirmation—although obviously my vote meant that I thought that Obama was preferable to McCain-Palin. I do not consider abstention a proper option. [9]

In February 2011, Fried testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee in support of President Obama's health care reform law. [10] When asked by Illinois Senator Richard Durbin to respond to critics of the law's individual mandate who ask: "[I]f the government can require me to buy health insurance, can it require me to have a membership in a gym, or eat vegetables?," Fried replied:

Yes. We hear that quite a lot. It was put by Judge Vinson, and I think it was put by Professor Barnett in terms of eating your vegetables, and for reasons I set out in my testimony, that would be a violation of the 5th and the 14th Amendment, to force you to eat something. But to force you to pay for something? I don't see why not. It may not be a good idea, but I don't see why it's unconstitutional. [11] [12]

Fried is an adviser to the Harvard chapter of the Federalist Society. [13] Fried endorsed Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U.S. presidential election. [14]

Works

See also

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References

  1. Ed, 63rd (1 August 1999). "International Who's Who 2000". Taylor & Francis via Google Books.
  2. "Board Members". Campaign Legal Center. Retrieved 2018-02-14.
  3. "Prof. Charles Fried, McCain advisor, defects to Obama". Harvard Law Record . 2008-10-16. Retrieved 2008-10-26.[ permanent dead link ]
  4. "American Academy of Arts & Sciences".
  5. Fried, Charles; Morning Edition November 1, 2005, National Public Radio
  6. Fried, Charles (2006-01-03). "Samuel Alito, in Context". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  7. Cass. R. Sunstein, Reagan Appointee and (Recent) McCain Adviser Charles Fried Supports Obama, The New Republic (October 24, 2008), available at http://blogs.tnr.com/tnr/blogs/the_plank/archive/2008/10/24/reagan-appointee-and-recent-mccain-adviser-charles-fried-supports-obama.aspx.
  8. "Obama kept Law Review balanced". The Politico . 2008-06-24. Archived from the original on 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  9. Jones, Ashby (2008-10-24). "Harvard Law Prof, Reagan SG, Gives Obama His Vote". The Wall Street Journal Law Blog. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  10. "The Constitutionality of the Affordable Care Act" (witness list)". Archived from the original on 2017-03-08. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  11. Suderman, Peter (2011-02-03) Harvard Law Prof Tells Senate that Congress Can Make You Buy Broccoli, Reason
  12. Roy, Avik (2011-02-02) Harvard Law’s Fried: A Broccoli Mandate is Constitutional, Forbes
  13. "Harvard Law School Federalist Society". Harvard Federalist Society. 2005. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
  14. Blake, A. 78 Republican politicians, donors and officials who are supporting Hillary Clinton.. The Washington Post. December 7, 2016.

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from websites or documents ofthe Office of the Solicitor General .

Legal offices
Preceded by
Rex Lee
Solicitor General of the United States
1985–1989
Succeeded by
William Bryson
Acting
Preceded by
Joseph Nolan
Associate Justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court
1995–1999
Succeeded by
Judith Cowin