Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst

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The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst

Charles Hardinge.jpg
Governor-General of India
Viceroy of India
In office
23 November 1910 4 April 1916
Monarch George V
Preceded by The Earl of Minto
Succeeded by The Lord Chelmsford
Personal details
Born20 June 1858 (1858-06-20)
Died2 August 1944 (1944-08-03) (aged 86)
Penshurst, Kent
Nationality British
Spouse(s) Winifred Selena Sturt
Children3
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge

Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, KG , GCB , GCSI , GCMG , GCIE , GCVO , ISO , PC , DL (20 June 1858 – 2 August 1944) was a British diplomat and statesman who served as Viceroy and Governor-General of India from 1910–16.

Imperial Service Order award in British honours system

The Imperial Service Order was established by King Edward VII in August 1902. It was awarded on retirement to the administration and clerical staff of the Civil Service throughout the British Empire for long and meritorious service. Normally a person must have served for 25 years to become eligible, but this might be shortened to 16 years for those serving in unsanitary locations. There was one class: Companion. Both men and women were eligible, and recipients of this order are entitled to use the post-nominal letters 'ISO'.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Governor-General of India position

The Governor-General of India was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India".

Contents

Background and education

Hardinge was the second son of Charles Hardinge, 2nd Viscount Hardinge, and the grandson of Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge, a former Governor-General of India. He was educated at Harrow School [1] and Trinity College, Cambridge. [2]

Charles Stewart Hardinge, 2nd Viscount Hardinge, was a British Conservative politician.

Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge British politician

Field Marshal Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge, was a British Army officer and politician. After serving in the Peninsula War and the Waterloo Campaign he became Secretary at War in Wellington's ministry. After a tour as Chief Secretary for Ireland in 1830 he became Secretary at War again in Sir Robert Peel's cabinet. He went on to be Governor-General of India at the time of the First Anglo-Sikh War and then Commander-in-Chief of the Forces during the Crimean War.

Harrow School English independent school for boys

Harrow School is an independent boarding school for boys in Harrow, London, England. The School was founded in 1572 by John Lyon under a Royal Charter of Elizabeth I, and is one of the original seven public schools that were regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. Harrow charges up to £12,850 per term, with three terms per academic year (2017/18). Harrow is the fourth most expensive boarding school in the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference.

Career

1912 assassination attempt on Lord Hardinge An assassination attempt on Lord Charles Hardinge.jpg
1912 assassination attempt on Lord Hardinge
Garter-encircled shield of arms of Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel. Shield of Arms of Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, KG, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, ISO, PC, DL.png
Garter-encircled shield of arms of Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, KG, as displayed on his Order of the Garter stall plate in St. George's Chapel.

Hardinge entered the diplomatic services in 1880, was appointed first secretary at Tehran in 1896 and first secretary at Saint Petersburg in 1898 when he was promoted over the heads of seventeen of his seniors. After a brief stint as Assistant Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs he became Ambassador to Russia in 1904. In 1906 he was promoted to the position of Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office, and despite his own conservatism, worked closely with Liberal Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey. In 1907 he declined the post of Ambassador to the United States. In 1910 Hardinge was raised to the peerage as Baron Hardinge of Penshurst , in the County of Kent, [3] and appointed by the Asquith government as Viceroy of India. [ citation needed ]

Saint Petersburg Federal city in Northwestern, Russia

Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon British Liberal statesman

Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon,, better known as Sir Edward Grey, was a British Liberal statesman and the main force behind British foreign policy in the era of the First World War. An adherent of the "New Liberalism", he served as foreign secretary from 1905 to 1916, the longest continuous tenure of any person in that office. He is probably best remembered for his "the lamps are going out" remark on 3 August 1914 on the outbreak of the First World War. He signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement on 16 May 1916. Ennobled in 1916, he was Ambassador to the United States between 1919 and 1920 and Leader of the Liberal Party in the House of Lords between 1923 and 1924.

Baron Hardinge of Penshurst

Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, in the County of Kent, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1910 for the diplomat the Hon. Sir Charles Hardinge, Viceroy and Governor-General of India from 1910 to 1916. He was the second son of Charles Hardinge, 2nd Viscount Hardinge. His son, the second Baron, served as private secretary to both King Edward VIII and King George VI.

Hardinge and his wife Winifred during his term as Viceroy of India, ca. 1910-1916. Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, and Winifred Selina, nee Sturt, Lady Hardinge of Penshurst.jpg
Hardinge and his wife Winifred during his term as Viceroy of India, ca. 1910-1916.

His tenure was a memorable one, seeing the visit of King George V and the Delhi Durbar of 1911, as well as the move of the capital from Calcutta to New Delhi in 1912. Although Hardinge was the target of assassination attempts by Indian nationalists, his tenure generally saw better relations between the British administration and the nationalists, thanks to the implementation of the Morley-Minto reforms of 1909, Hardinge's own admiration for Mohandas Gandhi, and criticism of the South African government's anti-Indian immigration policies.[ citation needed ]

Delhi Durbar

The Delhi Durbar was an Indian imperial style mass assembly organised by the British at Coronation Park, Delhi, India, to mark the succession of an Emperor or Empress of India. Also known as the Imperial Durbar, it was held three times, in 1877, 1903, and 1911, at the height of the British Empire. The 1911 Durbar was the only one that a sovereign, George V, attended. The term was derived from the common Mughal term durbar.

Kolkata Capital city of West Bengal, India

Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 75 kilometres (47 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city; the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the suburb population brought the total to 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.

New Delhi Capital City / District in Delhi, India

New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India.

Hardinge's efforts paid off in 1914 during the First World War. Due to improved colonial relationships, Britain was able to deploy nearly all of the British troops in India as well as many native Indian troops to areas outside of India. In particular the British Indian Army was able to play a significant role in the Mesopotamian campaign. [4]

British Indian Army 1858-1947 land warfare branch of British Indias military, distinct from the British Army in India

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could also have their own armies. The Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad, particularly during the First World War and the Second World War.

Mesopotamian campaign World War I military campaign

The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from Britain, Australia and British India, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.

In 1916, Hardinge returned to his former post in England as Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office, serving with Arthur Balfour. In 1920 he became ambassador to France before his retirement in 1922.[ citation needed ]

Arthur Balfour British Conservative politician and statesman

Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, was a British statesman and Conservative Party politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905. As Foreign Secretary under David Lloyd George, he issued the Balfour Declaration in November 1917 on behalf of the cabinet.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Personal life

Hardinge family members in ox-cart in Hyderabad State (1911, attending the coronation of Asaf Jah VII ) HardingeFamily oxCart Mahubabad-Hyderabad(state) 1911.jpeg
Hardinge family members in ox-cart in Hyderabad State (1911, attending the coronation of Asaf Jah VII )

He married his first cousin Winifred Selina Sturt on 17 April 1890, over the objections of her family, due to the couple's consanguinity [5] and Hardinge's financial status. [6] She was the 2nd daughter of Henry Gerard Sturt, 1st Baron Alington, by his first wife Lady Augusta Bingham, 1st daughter of George Charles Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan. The couple had a daughter, Diamond Hardinge (1900-1927), and two sons, Edward and Alexander (1894–1960), who succeeded him as Baron Hardinge of Penshurst.

The 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst is commemorated at St John the Baptist, Penshurst. His eldest son, The Hon. Edward Hardinge, died 18 December 1914, aged 22, from wounds while serving as a Lieutenant with the 15th (The King's) Hussars in France. He won a Distinguished Service Order and was mentioned in dispatches. He was also the godson of Alexandra of Denmark [7] . Diamond Hardinge was a bridesmaid at the wedding of Prince Albert, Duke of York, and Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon on 3 May 1923. [8]

Styles and honours

Hardinge had the unusual distinction of being a non-royal recipient of six British knighthoods.

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References

  1. photo at Harrow Photos and cf List of Old Harrovians
  2. "Hardinge, the Hon. Charles (HRDN876C)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  3. 1 2 "No. 28403". The London Gazette . 2 August 1910. p. 5581.
  4. Lord Hardinge and the Mesopotamia Expedition and Inquiry, 1914–1917; Douglas Goold; The Historical Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Dec., 1976), pp. 919–945
  5. for an explanation of this concept, see Alison Weir, Royal Genealogy (1989)
  6. Prior, Katherine (January 2011) [2004]. "Hardinge, Charles, first Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (1858–1944)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33703.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. https://www.cwgc.org/find-war-dead/casualty/368316/hardinge,-the-hon.-edward-charles/
  8. Daily Telegraph: royal wedding photograph; accessed 28 March 2014.
  9. "No. 26639". The London Gazette . 2 July 1895. p. 3740.
  10. "No. 27560". The London Gazette . 2 June 1903. p. 3524.
  11. "No. 27655". The London Gazette . 8 March 1904. p. 1521.
  12. "No. 27662". The London Gazette . 29 March 1904. p. 2025.
  13. "No. 27674". The London Gazette . 6 May 1904. p. 2923.
  14. "No. 27675". The London Gazette . 10 May 1904. p. 3000.
  15. "No. 27750". The London Gazette . 3 January 1905. p. 22.
  16. "No. 27926". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 June 1906. p. 4462.
  17. "No. 28388". The London Gazette (Supplement to the London Gazette Extraordinary). 24 June 1910. p. 4476.
  18. "No. 29519". The London Gazette . 24 March 1916. p. 3175.
  19. "No. 32145". The London Gazette . 30 November 1920. p. 11794.

Sources

Articles

Further reading

Government offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Minto
Viceroy of India
1910–1916
Succeeded by
The Lord Chelmsford
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Charles Stewart Scott
British Ambassador to Russia
1904–1906
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur Nicolson
Preceded by
The Lord Sanderson
Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs
1906–1910
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur Nicolson
Preceded by
Sir Arthur Nicolson
Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs
1916–1920
Succeeded by
Eyre Crowe
Preceded by
The Earl of Derby
British Ambassador to France
1920–1922
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Crewe
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baron Hardinge of Penshurst
1910–1944
Succeeded by
Alexander Hardinge