|Duke of Lorraine|
Charles III, Duke of Lorraine, studio of François Clouet, oil on panel
|Born||18 February 1543|
Ducal Palace of Nancy
|Died||14 May 1608 65)(aged|
|Spouse||Claude of France|
|Issue|| Henry II, Duke of Lorraine |
Christina, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine
Antoinette, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
Francis II, Duke of Lorraine
Catherine, Abbess of Remiremont
Elisabeth, Electress of Bavaria
|Father||Francis I, Duke of Lorraine|
|Mother||Christina of Denmark|
Charles III (18 February 1543 – 14 May 1608), known as the Great, was Duke of Lorraine from 1545 until his death.
He is the direct male ancestor of all rulers of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, including all Emperors of Austria.
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it partially overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806.
He was the eldest surviving son of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark.
Francis I was Duke of Lorraine from 1544–1545.
Christina of Denmark was a Danish princess, the younger surviving daughter of King Christian II of Denmark and Norway and Isabella of Austria. She became the duchess-consort of Milan, then duchess-consort of Lorraine. She served as the regent of Lorraine from 1545 to 1552 during the minority of her son. She was also a claimant to the thrones of Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 1561-1590. Finally, she was sovereign Lady of Tortona in 1578-1584.
In 1545, his father died, and his mother served as the regent during his minority. During his childhood, his aged great-grandmother, Philippa of Gelderland, died in 1547, leaving also her inheritance to the young Charles. His dynasty claimed the Kingdom of Jerusalem and used also the title of Duke of Calabria as symbol of their claims to the Kingdom of Naples. Additionally, they had a claim to the Duchy of Gelderland, inherited from Charles of Egmont, Duke of Gelderland.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks. Its history is divided into two distinct periods. The sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, and lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for a brief two decades in which Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem back into Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade. This second kingdom is sometimes called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of French origin.
Duke of Calabria was the traditional title of the heir apparent of the Kingdom of Naples after the accession of Robert of Naples. It was also adopted by the heads of certain Houses that had once claimed the Kingdom of Naples in lieu of the royal title.
The Kingdom of Naples comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816. It was created as a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate Kingdom of Sicily. Naples continued to be officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily, the name of the formerly unified kingdom. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
In 1552, Lorraine was invaded by France, his mother's regency was terminated and Charles was removed from Lorraine to France, to be raised at the French royal court in accordance to the needs of French interests.In 1559, he was married to Claude of France, and allowed to depart to Lorraine and take control of his domain.
Claude of France was a queen consort of France by marriage to Francis I. She was also ruling Duchess of Brittany from 1514. She was a daughter of the French king Louis XII and Anne of Brittany.
The reign of Charles III is regarded as a great age of peace and prosperity for Lorraine. He pursued a policy of strict neutrality between France and The Holy German Empire, as well as during the French Wars of Religion. He founded the University of Pount-a-Mousson. He also expanded his realm by the incorporation of Pfalzburg from George John I, Count Palatine of Veldenz in 1590, and tried to conquer also Lützelstein, though George John I's widow, Anna of Sweden, managed to negotiate a truce.
George John I was the Duke of Veldenz from 1544 until 1592.
In 1589, he broke his policy of neutrality and allied himself with the French Catholic League because he, as a Catholic, could not accept Henry of Navarre as king of France. In his peace with Henry in 1594, he married his son to Henry's sister Catherine de Bourbon.
He married Claude of Valois, princess of France, daughter of king Henry II and Catherine de' Medici.They had the following children:
|Charles III, Duke of Lorraine||Father:|
Francis I, Duke of Lorraine
Antoine, Duke of Lorraine
René II, Duke of Lorraine
Philippa of Guelders
Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier
Gilbert, Count of Montpensier
Christina of Denmark
Christian II of Denmark
John of Denmark
Christina of Saxony
Isabella of Austria
Philip I of Castile
Joanna of Castile
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Charles III, Duke of Lorraine .|
Catherine de' Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman who was queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II. As the mother of kings Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, she had extensive, if at times varying, influence in the political life of France. From 1560 to 1563, she ruled France as regent for her son Charles IX, King of France.
Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536. Henry was the tenth king from the House of Valois, the third from the Valois-Orléans branch, and the second from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch.
Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Count of Eu, sometimes called Le Balafré (Scarface), was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna d'Este. His maternal grandparents were Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, and Renée of France. Through his maternal grandfather, he was a descendant of Lucrezia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI.
Antoine was the King of Navarre through his marriage to Queen Jeanne III, from 1555 until his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Bourbon, of which he was head from 1537. He was the father of Henry IV of France.
Louis I de Bourbon, Prince of Condé was a prominent Huguenot leader and general, the founder of the House of Condé, a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon.
Francis de Lorraine II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale, was a French soldier and politician. By religion, he practised Catholicism, at a time when France was being polarized between the Catholics and Huguenots. His sister, Mary of Guise, was Queen of Scotland as wife of King James V of Scotland and she was the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Antoine, known as the Good, was Duke of Lorraine from 1508 until his death in 1544.
Henry II, known as "the Good ", was Duke of Lorraine from 1608 until his death. Leaving no sons, both of his daughters became Duchesses of Lorraine by marriage. He was a brother-in-law of Henry IV of France.
Francis II was the son of Charles III, Duke of Lorraine and Claude of Valois. He was Duke of Lorraine briefly in 1625, quickly abdicating in favour of his son.
Henri II de Bourbon, Prince of Condé was the head of the senior-most cadet branch of the House of Bourbon for nearly all his life and heir presumptive to the king of France for the first few years of his life. Henri was the father of Louis, le Grand Condé, the celebrated French general.
Claude of France was a French princess as the second daughter of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici, and Duchess of Lorraine by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Lorraine.
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.
Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry was the daughter of King Francis I of France and Claude, Duchess of Brittany.
Nicolas of Lorraine, Duke of Mercœur was the second son of Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée de Bourbon.
Catherine de Bourbon was a Navarrese princess. She was the daughter of Queen Joan III and King Anthony of Navarre. She ruled the principality of Béarn in the name of her brother, King Henry IV of France, from 1576 until 1596.
Catherine de Clèves was the wife of Henry, Duke of Guise, and matriarch of the numerous and influential House of Guise. By marriage she was Duchess of Guise from 1570 to 1588, and Dowager Duchess of Guise thereafter. She was Countess of Eu in her own right from 1564.
Margherita Gonzaga was Duchess of Lorraine from 1606 until her husband's death in 1624.
Henriette of Cleves was a French courtier and noble, heir of the Cleves-Nevers family. She became the suo jure 4th Duchess of Nevers and the suo jure Countess of Rethel, upon the childless death of her brother, James of Cleves, Duke of Nevers and Count of Rethel, in 1564. She was the spouse of Louis I Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, 1st Duke of Rethel, and Prince of Mantua and Duchess of Rethel and Princess of Mantua by marriage.
Jeanne d'Albret, also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, and was the mother of Henri de Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France, the first Bourbon king of France. She became the Duchess of Vendôme by marriage.
| Duke of Lorraine and Bar |
Marquis of Pont-à-Mousson