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|Charles Henry Judd|
Missionary to China
Loughborough, Leicestershire, England
|Died|| 23 October 1919|
Charles Henry Judd (1842 – 23 October 1919), was a British Protestant missionary to China with the China Inland Mission. He was among the first to bring news of the Gospel to Guizhou, Hunan, and Hebei during the late Qing Dynasty when travel was limited to walking or river boat journeys.
The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send". The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach The gospel in his name. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
Charles Henry Judd, was the son of Robert Judd and (Mrs.) Jane Judd. He was born prior to 26 July 1842.
Judds first occupation was as a bank clerk in Loughborough. He later enrolled at the Church Missionary Society College,Islington, London, in preparation to joining the Church Missionary Society. His convictions regarding believer baptism (as opposed to infant baptism) changed his plans, however. Judd attended meetings at Welbeck Street and was acquainted with the CMS missionary Frederick Foster Gough. After the Lammermuir Party had sailed for China, Judd became aware of the writings of Henry Grattan Guinness, and met Thomas John Barnardo at Gough's home in Bow, East End of London. As a result, he became interested in James Hudson Taylor's mission and his book "China's Spiritual Need and Claims". Soon Judd ceased attending the CMS training institute. For several months he lived with William Thomas Berger at Saint Hill Manor, near East Grinstead, Sussex, serving as a tutor in English .
Loughborough is a town in the Charnwood borough of Leicestershire, England, seat of Charnwood Borough Council, and home to Loughborough University. The town had a population of 57,600 in 2004, making it the second largest settlement in Leicestershire. It is close to the Nottinghamshire border and within short distances of Nottingham, East Midlands Airport and Derby. The town has the world's largest bell foundry – John Taylor Bellfounders – which made bells for the Carillon war memorial, a landmark in the Queens Park in the town, of Great Paul for St Paul's Cathedral, and for York Minster.
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
Infant baptism is the practice of baptising infants or young children. In theological discussions, the practice is sometimes referred to as paedobaptism, or pedobaptism, from the Greek pais meaning "child". This can be contrasted with what is called "believer's baptism", or credobaptism, from the Latin word credo meaning "I believe", which is the religious practice of baptising only individuals who personally confess faith in Jesus, therefore excluding underage children. Opposition to infant baptism is termed catabaptism. Infant baptism is also called "christening" by some faith traditions.
Judd married Elizabeth Jane Broumton in October 1867. The newly married couple left for China with Mrs. Ann Bohannan, John Edwin Cardwell and wife, and Edward Fishe. The party arrived in China on 3 March 1868. In 1868 Judd was assigned to Yangzhou, Jiangsu. It was here that the couple saw what hardships possibly awaited them in China, arriving not long after the Yangzhou riot had nearly claimed the lives of Taylor and his family and fellow missionaries.
Yangzhou, postal romanization Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, China. Sitting on the north bank of the Yangtze, it borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the southwest, Huai'an to the north, Yancheng to the northeast, Taizhou to the east, and Zhenjiang across the river to the south. Its population was 4,414,681 at the 2010 census and its urban area is home to 2,146,980 inhabitants, including three urban districts, currently in the agglomeration.
Jiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.
The Yangzhou riot of August 22–23, 1868 was a brief crisis in Anglo-Chinese relations during the late Qing dynasty. The crisis was fomented by the gentry of Yangzhou who opposed the presence of foreign Christian missionaries in the city, who claimed that they were legally residing under the provisions of the Convention of Peking. Threats against the missionaries were circulated by large character posters placed around the city. Rumors followed that the foreigners were stealing babies and killing them to make medicine.
In 1869 the Judds were stationed at Zhenjiang, Jiangsu. They returned to England on furlough in 1872 and came again to China in 1873. In 1874 Judd was at Wuchang, Hubei, with J. Hudson Taylor opening a mission station. In 1875, with Adam C. Dorward and two Chinese going into the “unreached” interior of China for the first time for any missionary in Hunan, they rented a house at Yuezhou (now Yueyang), but were forced out by local Chinese.
Zhenjiang, formerly romanized as Chinkiang, is a prefecture-level city in Jiangsu Province, China. It lies on the southern bank of the Yangtze River near its intersection with the Grand Canal. It is opposite Yangzhou and between Nanjing and Changzhou. Zhenjiang was formerly the provincial capital of Jiangsu and remains as an important transportation hub.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China.
Hunan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China; it borders the province-level divisions of Hubei to the north, Jiangxi to the east, Guangdong and Guangxi to the south, Guizhou to the west, and Chongqing to the northwest. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of approximately 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi), it is China's 7th most populous and the 10th most extensive province-level by area.
In 1877 Judd and his brother-in-law James F. Broumton traveled through Hunan province to become the first Protestant Christian missionaries in Guiyang, Guizhou. Broumton later pioneered work among the Miao and Yi people minority groups. Only the British explorer William Mesny had attempted the introduction of Christianity earlier in Guizhou. While Broumton remained at Guiyang, Judd returned to Wuchang via Chongqing, Sichuan.
Guiyang is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China. It is located in the center of the province, situated on the east of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau, and on the north bank of the Nanming River, a branch of the Wu River. The city has an elevation of about 1,100 meters (3,600 ft). It has an area of 8,034 square kilometers (3,102 sq mi). At the 2010 census, its population was 4,324,561, out of whom 3,037,159 lived in the 7 urban districts.
Guizhou, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country. Its capital city is Guiyang. Guizhou is a relatively poor and economically undeveloped province, but rich in natural, cultural and environmental resources. Demographically it is one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups. Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component groups of people, which include Hmong, Hmub, Xong (Qo-Xiong), and A-Hmao.
In 1879 Judd was doing missionary work at Yantai [or Chefoo], Shandong, before the CIM “Chefoo School” and sanatorium were established there.
Yantai, formerly known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a prefecture-level city on the Bohai Strait in northeastern Shandong Province, China. Lying on the southern coast of the Korea Bay, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and Weihai on the east. It is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the built-up area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping, Fushan, and Laishan.
Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
The Chefoo School, also known as Protestant Collegiate School or China Inland Mission School, was a Christian boarding school established by the China Inland Mission—under James Hudson Taylor—at Chefoo (Yantai), in Shandong province in northern China, in 1880. Its purpose was to provide an education for the children of foreign missionaries and the foreign business and diplomatic communities in China.
Adam Dorward and Judd traveled on an evangelistic journey 1500 miles across China from 1880-1882.
Judd left China again between 1885 and May 1887. He returned, then left again in May 1894. Judd died in London, England, on 23 October 1919. Elizabeth Judd died in 1926. They had several children: George H. Judd, Edwin Judd, Frederick Hudson Judd, Charles H. Judd Jr. and Ross Judd.
James Hudson Taylor was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China and founder of the China Inland Mission. Taylor spent 51 years in China. The society that he began was responsible for bringing over 800 missionaries to the country who began 125 schools and directly resulted in 18,000 Christian conversions, as well as the establishment of more than 300 stations of work with more than 500 local helpers in all eighteen provinces.
OMF International is an international and interdenominational Protestant Christian missionary society with an international centre in Singapore. It was founded in Britain by Hudson Taylor on 25 June 1865.
Benjamin Broomhall was a British advocate of foreign missions, administrator of the China Inland Mission, and author. Broomhall served as the General Secretary of the China Inland Mission (CIM),. A boyhood friend of James Hudson Taylor, he became husband to Hudson Taylor’s sister Amelia. As General Secretary of the CIM, he was involved in fund-raising and recruiting missionaries to send to China and acted as editor of the mission magazine, "China's Millions".
Maria Jane Dyer was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China, and "Mother" of the China Inland Mission with her husband, founder James Hudson Taylor. She was a pioneer missionary and educator there for 12 years. In 1858, she married Taylor and was an invaluable assistant and influence to him. In her time with the CIM, she was instrumental in training single women to be missionaries in China, when opportunities for women to serve had been previously dependent on having a missionary husband.
Mary Geraldine Guinness, often known as Mrs. Howard Taylor, was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China, and author of many missionary biographies on the history of the China Inland Mission (CIM). She was the daughter of the revivalist preacher and author Henry Grattan Guinness, a friend of James Hudson Taylor, founder of the CIM. She became Taylor's daughter-in-law when she married his son, fellow CIM missionary Frederick Howard Taylor.
Marshall B. Broomhall, was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China with the China Inland Mission. He also authored many books on the subject of Chinese missionary work. He was the most famous son of the anti-opium trade activist and General Secretary of the CIM Benjamin Broomhall and Amelia Hudson Taylor. Thus he was also the nephew of the founder of the mission, James Hudson Taylor.
Alfred James Broomhall, also A. J. Broomhall, was a British Protestant Christian medical missionary to China, and author and historian of the China Inland Mission.
Herbert Hudson Taylor, British Protestant Christian missionary to China, author, speaker and eldest son of James Hudson Taylor, founder of the China Inland Mission and Maria Jane Dyer. He served there for over 50 years – the last three as one of the prisoners of the Japanese at the Weifang internment camp during World War II along with Eric Liddell and 1500 others.
Frederick Howard Taylor a.k.a. F. Howard Taylor, was a British pioneer Protestant Christian missionary to China, author, speaker and second son of James Hudson Taylor, founder of the China Inland Mission, and Maria Jane Dyer.
William Thomas Berger (1815–1899) was a Christian starch manufacturer in London and owner of Samuel Berger & Co., a patent rice starch manufacturer, who became the first home (England) director of the China Inland Mission with James Hudson Taylor in 1865. At this time the headquarters of the mission agency was located at Saint Hill Manor in East Grinstead, England. As the Home Director he was responsible for editing the Occasional Paper of the China Inland Mission and carrying on the work of sending more missionaries to follow Hudson Taylor to China.
Mary Ann Aldersey艾迪綏, the first Christian missionary woman to serve in China. She founded a school for girls in Ningbo, Zhejiang. Her pioneering the field of mission work for single women in China was the most remarkable outcome of her life.
Griffith John was a Welsh Christian missionary and translator in China. A member of the Congregational church, he was a pioneer evangelist with the London Missionary Society (LMS), a writer and a translator of the Holy Bible into the Chinese language.
Frederick William Baller was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China, Chinese linguist, translator, educator and sinologist.
Jane Elizabeth "Jennie" Faulding Taylor, was a British Protestant missionary to China with the China Inland Mission. She pioneered the work of single women missionaries in China and eventually married the founder of the mission, James Hudson Taylor, after the death of his first wife, Maria Jane Dyer. As Taylor’s wife, she assumed many roles within the mission agency when Taylor was overseas—acting at times as a home director for the mission. She encouraged women, both married and unmarried, to participate in the work of the China Inland Mission in ways that had previously only been reserved for male missionaries.
Emily Blatchley was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China with the China Inland Mission. She pioneered the work of single women missionaries in China and served as personal secretary to the founder of the mission, James Hudson Taylor.
The Lammermuir Party was a British group of Protestant missionaries who travelled to China in 1866 aboard the tea clipper Lammermuir, accompanied by James Hudson Taylor, the founder of the China Inland Mission. Mission historians have indicated that this event was a turning point in the history of missionary work in China in the 19th century. This was the largest party of Protestant missionaries to date to arrive at one time on Chinese shores. It was also noteworthy that none of the members of the mission were ordained ministers, and only two had any previous overseas experience. In addition to this, there were among them nine unmarried women traveling to a place where single European women were rare for many reasons.
China’s Spiritual Need and Claims is a book written by James Hudson Taylor, the founder of the China Inland Mission, in October 1865. It is arguably the most significant work regarding Christian missions to China in the 19th century. A manifesto of Taylor’s life and work, it describes in stark detail the desperate lack of Protestant Christian missionary endeavor among the people of China. The book was reprinted several times over thirty years and motivated uncounted numbers of Christians in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand to volunteer for service in east Asia. China’s Spiritual Need and Claims helped foster the widest evangelistic campaign since the time of Paul the Apostle. Charles Spurgeon noted in 1879: