|Born||15 March 1791|
Windsor, Berkshire, England
|Died||9 March 1873 (aged 81)|
Addlestone, Surrey, England
|Occupation||Publisher, editor, author|
|Known for||Knight's Quarterly Magazine|
The Results of Machinery
Charles Knight (15 March 1791 – 9 March 1873) was an English publisher, editor and author. He published and contributed to works such as The Penny Magazine , The Penny Cyclopaedia , and The English Cyclopaedia , and established the Local Government Chronicle .
The Penny Magazine was an illustrated British magazine aimed at the working class, published every Saturday from 31 March 1832 to 31 October 1845. Charles Knight created it for the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in response to Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, which started two months earlier. Sold for only a penny and illustrated with wood-engravings, it was an expensive enterprise that could only be supported by very large circulation. Though initially very successful—with a circulation of 200,000 in the first year—it proved too dry and too Whiggish to appeal to the working-class audience it needed to be financially viable. Its competitor—which included a weekly short story—grew more slowly, but lasted much longer.
The Local Government Chronicle (LGC) is a British weekly magazine for local government officers, and is published by Metropolis. The magazine was launched in 1855 by bookseller and publisher Charles Knight. It is politically independent.
The son of a bookseller and printer at Windsor, he was apprenticed to his father. On completion of his indentures he took up journalism and had an interest in several newspaper speculations, including the Windsor, Slough and Eton Express .
Windsor is a historic market town and unparished area in the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead in Berkshire, England. It is widely known as the site of Windsor Castle, one of the official residences of the British Royal Family.
An indenture is a legal contract that reflects or covers a debt or purchase obligation. It specifically refers to two types of practices: in historical usage, an indentured servant status, and in modern usage, it is an instrument used for commercial debt or real estate transaction.
The Windsor and Eton Express was founded on August 1, 1812 by Charles Knight Snr and his son, Charles Knight Jnr. Charles Knight Snr was a local book seller and printer and edited and printed the newspaper from Church Street in Windsor. When Charles Knight Snr died the paper was passed to his son, who was unhappy with the cost of the newspaper, which was six-and-a-half pence when it began and rose to seven pence in September 1815 due to a heavy stamp duty. Charles Knight Jnr believed in a cheap press, but at the start of the Express newspapers were only ever subscribed to by the wealthy, before the abolition of stamp duty in 1855.
In 1823, in conjunction with friends he had made as publisher (1820–1821) of The Etonian, he started Knight's Quarterly Magazine, to which Winthrop Mackworth Praed, Derwent Coleridge and Thomas Macaulay contributed. It lasted for only six issues, but it made Knight's name as publisher and author, beginning a career which lasted over forty years. The periodical included an 1824 review of Frankenstein in which Percy Bysshe Shelley was attributed as the author in a comparison with his wife's second novel. One of his early publications was the diary of the naval chaplain Henry Teonge (c. 1620–1690).
Winthrop Mackworth Praed —typically written as W. Mackworth Praed—was an English politician and poet.
Derwent Coleridge (1800–1883), third son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, was a distinguished English scholar and author.
Percy Bysshe Shelley was one of the major English Romantic poets, who is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential. A radical in his poetry as well as in his political and social views, Shelley did not see fame during his lifetime, but recognition of his achievements in poetry grew steadily following his death. Shelley was a key member of a close circle of visionary poets and writers that included Lord Byron, John Keats, Leigh Hunt, Thomas Love Peacock, and his own second wife, Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein.
In 1827 Knight was forced to give up publishing, and became the superintendent of the publications of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, for which he projected and edited The British Almanack and Companion , begun in 1828. In 1829 he resumed business on his own account with the publication of The Library of Entertaining Knowledge , writing several volumes of the series himself. In 1832 and 1833 he started The Penny Magazine and The Penny Cyclopaedia , both of which had a large circulation. The Penny Cyclopaedia, as a result of the heavy excise duty, was only completed in 1844 at a financial loss.
The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (SDUK), was founded in 1826, mainly at the instigation of Lord Brougham, with the object of publishing information to people who were unable to obtain formal teaching, or who preferred self-education. A Whiggish London organisation that published inexpensive texts intended to adapt scientific and similarly high-minded material for the rapidly expanding reading public, it was wound up in 1848.
An excise or excise tax is any duty on manufactured goods which is levied at the moment of manufacture, rather than at sale. Excises are often associated with customs duties ; customs are levied on goods which come into existence – as taxable items – at the border, while excise is levied on goods which came into existence inland.
Besides many illustrated editions of standard works, including in 1842 an edition of the works of William Shakespeare entitled The Pictorial Shakspere, which had appeared in parts (1838–1841), Knight published a variety of illustrated works, such as Old England and The Land we Live in and The Pictorial Gallery of Arts – Useful Arts, the latter based on the Great Exhibition of 1851. He also undertook the series known as Weekly Volumes, himself contributing the first volume, a biography of William Caxton. Many famous books, Harriet Martineau's Tales, Anna Brownell Jameson's Early Italian Painters and G. H. Lewes's Biographical History of Philosophy, appeared for the first time in this series.
William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
William Caxton was an English merchant, diplomat, and writer. He is thought to be the first person to introduce a printing press into England, in 1476, and as a printer was the first English retailer of printed books.
Harriet Martineau was a British social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.
In 1853 Knight became editor of The English Cyclopaedia , essentially a revision of The Penny Cyclopaedia. Knight also launched the Local Government Chronicle in 1855, and at about the same time he began his Popular History of England (8 vols., 1856–1862).
In addition to being the editor and author of Penny Magazine and Penny Cyclopedia, and other popular works, Knight wrote The Results of Machinery(1831) and Knowledge is Power, which was published in 1855. In 1864 he withdrew from the business of publishing, but he continued to write nearly to the close of his long life, authoring The Shadows of the Old Booksellers (1865), an autobiography under the title Passages of a Working Life during Half a Century (2 vols., 1864–1865), and an historical novel, Begg'd at Court (1867).
Charles Knight died at Addlestone, Surrey on 9 March 1873. A gateway was erected in his memory at the cemetery adjacent to Bachelors Acre in Windsor, where he was buried.He is considered to be the first person to propose the use of stamped newspaper wrappers in 1834, thus is attributed as their inventor.
The English Cyclopaedia: A new dictionary of universal knowledge, was published by Charles Knight, based on the Penny Cyclopaedia, of which he had the copyright. He was assisted by Alexander Ramsay and James Thorne. It was sometimes popularly referred to as "Knights Encyclopedia".
George Long was an English classical scholar.
The lock of a firearm is the firing mechanism used to ignite the propellant. Types of lock include matchlock, wheellock, snaplock, snaphance, miquelet lock, doglock, flintlock, modern caplock/percussion cap, and experimental electronic types. Parts of the lock can include the serpentine, wheel, cock and frizzen or the hammer. A complete muzzleloader consists of lock, stock, and barrel.
The Eyalet of Childir or Akhalzik was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire in the Southwestern Caucasus. The area of the former Çıldır Eyalet is now divided between Samtskhe-Javakheti and the Autonomous Republic of Adjara in Georgia and provinces of Artvin, Ardahan and Erzurum in Turkey. The administrative center was Çıldır between 1578-1628, Ahıska between 1628-1829, and Oltu between 1829-1845.
D. Appleton & Company was an American company founded by Daniel Appleton, who opened a general store which included books. He published his first book in 1831. The company's publications gradually extended over the entire field of literature. It issued the works of contemporary scientists at moderate prices, for example, Herbert Spencer, John Tyndall, Thomas Huxley, Charles Darwin, etc. Medical books formed a special department, and books in the Spanish language for the South American market were a specialty which the firm made its own. In belles lettres and American history, it had a strong list of names among its authors.
Marcello Tegalliano was, according to tradition, the second Doge of Venice (717–726). He is described as having hailed from Eraclea, and during his nine-year reign was apparently in great disagreement with the nearby Longobards. He died in 726 and was succeeded by Orso Ipato.
The Penny Cyclopædia published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge was a multi-volume encyclopedia edited by George Long and published by Charles Knight alongside the Penny Magazine. Twenty-seven volumes and three supplements were published from 1833 to 1843.
Bartolommeo Coriolano was an Italian engraver during the Baroque period. His father, Cristoforo Coriolano, and brother, Giovanni Battista Coriolano were also woodblock printers, although there is some doubt over the actual relationship between Cristoforo and Bartolommeo Coriolano. Coriolano had a daughter, Teresa Maria Coriolano, who later became a painter and engraver.
The Fortress of Mainz was a fortressed garrison town between 1620 and 1918. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, under the term of the 1815 Peace of Paris, the control of Mainz passed to the German Confederation and became part of a chain of strategic fortresses which protected the Confederation. With the dissolution of the Confederation and the Austro-Prussian War, control of the fortress first passed to Prussia, and, after the 1871 Unification of Germany, to the German Empire.
William Ashdowne (1723–1810) was an English Unitarian preacher.
Sir James Parker was a British barrister who became Vice Chancellor of the High Court.
Alonzo Hartwell was an engraver and portrait artist in Boston, Massachusetts, in the 19th century. He trained with Abel Bowen in Boston and in 1826 went into business for himself. Hartwell's work appeared in the American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge and other publications. Among Hartwell's students were artists George Loring Brown and Benjamin F. Childs. In 1850, he received the silver medal of the Charlestown, Massachusetts, Mechanics' Association. He continued as an engraver until 1851, when he turned to portrait painting. Hartwell is buried in Mount Feake Cemetery in Waltham, MA. One of Hartwell's children, Henry Walker Hartwell, became an architect in the Boston firm Hartwell and Richardson.
Charles Baker (1803–1874), was an English instructor of the deaf notable for writing some of the earliest school text books suited to deaf children.
Cyclopedia, cyclopaedia or cyclopædia is an archaic term for encyclopedia.
Samuel Anetsi also Samuel of Ani was an Armenian historian and priest of the 12th century. Samuel is known for his writing of history and chronicles a book where he is the first author to use the Armenian Chronology. Samuel was also a disciple of Hovhannes Imastaser. According to the Penny Cyclopaedia, "Samuel of Ani wrote a concise but accurate chronological work, extending from Adam to the pontificate of Gregory Vikayaser."
George Dodd was an English journalist and writer. His best known work was The Food of London (1856).
Boteiras was a local prince of the region of Bithynia, and the father of Bas of Bithynia, first independent ruler of Bithynia, who governed fifty years, from 376 to 326 BCE.
Falmouth Bay is a body of water off the coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom, with Rosemullion Head and Pendennis Point as its extremities. It separates the estuaries of Helford River (Helford) and River Fal.
namely, cheap production and increased employment exhibited : being an address to the working-men of the United Kingdom
a view of the productive forces of modern society, and the results of labour, capital, and skill
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