Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond

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The Duke of Richmond and Lennox

3rd Duke of Richmond.jpg
Portrait by George Romney, circa 1777
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
In office
23 May 1766 29 July 1766
Monarch George III
Prime Minister The Marquess of Rockingham
Preceded by Henry Conway
Succeeded by The Earl of Shelburne
Personal details
Born(1735-02-22)22 February 1735
Westminster, London, England
Died29 December 1806(1806-12-29) (aged 71)
Goodwood, Sussex, England
Resting place Chichester Cathedral
Spouse(s)Mary Bruce
Parents Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond
Sarah Cadogan
Awards Knight of the Garter
Military service
AllegianceUnion flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Kingdom of Great Britain
Branch/serviceFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Years of service1752–1806
Rank Field Marshal
Commands 33rd Regiment of Foot
72nd Regiment of Foot
Battles/wars Seven Years' War
Coat of arms of Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, KG, PC, FRS Coat of arms of Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, , 3rd Duke of Lennox, 3rd Duke of Aubigny, KG, PC, FRS.png
Coat of arms of Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, KG, PC, FRS

Field Marshal Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 3rd Duke of Lennox, 3rd Duke of Aubigny, KG , PC , FRS (22 February 1735 29 December 1806), styled Earl of March until 1750, was a British Army officer and politician. He associated with the Rockingham Whigs and rose to hold the post of Southern Secretary for a brief period. He was noteworthy for his support for the colonists during the American Revolutionary War, his support for a policy of concession in Ireland and his advanced views on the issue of parliamentary reform. He went on to be a reforming Master-General of the Ordnance first in the Rockingham ministry and then in the ministry of William Pitt.

Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736. A five-star rank with NATO code OF-10, it is equivalent to an Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy or a Marshal of the Royal Air Force in the Royal Air Force (RAF). A Field Marshal's insignia consists of two crossed batons surrounded by yellow leaves below St Edward's Crown. Like Marshals of the RAF and Admirals of the Fleet, Field Marshals traditionally remain officers for life, though on half-pay when not in an appointment. The rank has been used sporadically throughout its history and was vacant during parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. After the Second World War, it became standard practice to appoint the Chief of the Imperial General Staff to the rank on his last day in the post. Army officers occupying the post of Chief of the Defence Staff, the professional head of all the British Armed Forces, were usually promoted to the rank upon their appointment.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Fellow of the Royal Society Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, including Honorary, Foreign and Royal Fellows

Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science, and medical science'.

Contents

Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 1758, by Sir Joshua Reynolds Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond.jpg
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 1758, by Sir Joshua Reynolds
Mary, Duchess of Richmond, by William Wynne Ryland after Angelica Kauffman Duchess of Richmond, 1775 stipple engraving.jpg
Mary, Duchess of Richmond, by William Wynne Ryland after Angelica Kauffman

Biography

The son of Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond and Sarah Cadogan, daughter of William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan. Brother of the famous Lennox sisters, he was educated at Westminster School and Leiden University and succeeded his father as Duke of Richmond in August 1750. [1] He was commissioned as an ensign in the 2nd Foot Guards in March 1752, [2] promoted to captain in the 20th Regiment of Foot on 18 June 1753 [3] and was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 11 December 1755. [4]

Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond English patron of cricket

Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny, was a British nobleman, peer, and politician. He was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate son of King Charles II. He held a number of posts in connection with his high office but is best remembered for his patronage of cricket. He has been described as the most important of the sport's early patrons and did much to help its evolution from village cricket to first-class cricket.

Sarah Lennox, Duchess of Richmond British duchess

Sarah Lennox was Duchess of Richmond and Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Caroline from 1724 to 1737.

William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan military officer in the army of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

William Cadogan, 1st Earl Cadogan, was an Irish-born British army officer whose active military service began during the Williamite War in Ireland in 1689 and ended with the suppression of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. A close associate and confidante of the Duke of Marlborough, he was also a diplomat and politician.

Richmond became lieutenant-colonel of the 33rd Regiment of Foot on 7 June 1756. [5] A second battalion (2nd/33rd) of this regiment was raised and in 1757, and the following year it became an independent regiment, the 72nd Foot; Richmond was appointed its lieutenant colonel, while his younger brother George took command of the 33rd Regiment (1st/33rd). [6] In May 1758 he became colonel of the 72nd Regiment. [7]

Duke of Wellingtons Regiment infantry regiment of the British Army

The Duke of Wellington's Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, forming part of the King's Division.

The 72nd Regiment of Foot was a regiment in the British Army from 1758 to 1763.

Lord George Lennox British Army general

General Lord George Henry Lennox was a British Army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1790.

Richmond took part in the Raid on Cherbourg in August 1758 and served as aide-de-camp to Prince Frederick of Brunswick at the Battle of Minden in August 1759. [1] Promoted to major-general on 9 March 1761, he saw the 72nd Regiment disbanded in 1763 at the end of the Seven Years' War. [8] He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Sussex on 18 October 1763. [9]

Raid on Cherbourg

The Raid on Cherbourg took place in August 1758 during the Seven Years' War when a British force was landed on the coast of France by the Royal Navy with the intention of attacking the town of Cherbourg as part of the British government's policy of "descents" on the French coasts.

<i>Aide-de-camp</i> personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank

An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state.

Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel German general

Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was a German-Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years' War. From 1757 to 1762 he led an Anglo-German army in Western Germany which successfully repelled French attempts to occupy Hanover.

Richmond was appointed British ambassador extraordinary in Paris and made a Privy Counsellor in 1765, and in the following year he briefly served as Southern Secretary in the Rockingham Whig administration, resigning office on the accession of Pitt the Elder in July 1766. [1] He was promoted to lieutenant general on 30 April 1770 [10] and was briefly leader of the parliamentary Whigs in opposition in 1771 when Rockingham's wife was ill. [1]

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Secretary of State for the Southern Department position in the cabinet of the government of Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782

The Secretary of State for the Southern Department was a position in the cabinet of the government of Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782, when the Southern Department became the Foreign Office.

The Rockingham Whigs in 18th century British politics were a faction of the Whigs led by Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, from about 1762 until his death in 1782. The Rockingham Whigs briefly held power from 1765 to 1766 and again in 1782, and otherwise were usually in opposition to the various ministries of the period.

Richmond's anti-colonial positions earned him the sobriquet "the radical duke." [11] In the debates on the policy that led to the American Revolutionary War Richmond was a firm supporter of the colonists, and he initiated the debate in 1778 calling for the removal of British troops from America, during which Pitt (now the Earl of Chatham) was seized by his fatal illness. [1] He also advocated a policy of concession in Ireland, with reference to which he originated the phrase "a union of hearts" which long afterwards became famous when his use of it had been forgotten. [12] In 1779 Richmond brought forward a motion for retrenchment of the civil list, and in 1780 he embodied in a bill his proposals for parliamentary reform, which included manhood suffrage, annual parliaments and equal electoral areas. [13] [1]

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.

Ireland Island in north-west Europe, 20th largest in world, politically divided into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (a part of the UK)

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth.

Richmond joined the Second Rockingham Ministry as Master-General of the Ordnance in March 1782; [13] he was appointed a Knight of the Garter on 17 April 1782 [14] and promoted to full general on 20 November 1782. [15] He resigned as Master-General when the Fox–North Coalition came to power in April 1783. [1]

In January 1784 he joined the First Pitt the Younger Ministry as Master-General of the Ordnance; in this role he reformed the Department, introducing salaries for office holders, starting a survey of the South Coast (which led to the formation of the Ordnance Survey) and introducing new artillery (leading to the formation of the Royal Horse Artillery). [1] He now developed strongly Tory opinions, and his alleged desertion of the cause of reform led to accusations of apostasy, and an attack on him by Lord Lauderdale in 1792, which nearly led to a duel. [13] [1] In November 1795, when Thomas Hardy and John Horne Tooke were charged with treason and cited his publications on reform in their defence, Richmond became a liability to the Government and was dismissed in February 1795. [1] He became colonel of the Royal Horse Guards on 18 July 1795 [16] and was promoted to field marshal on 30 July 1796. [17] On 15 June 1797 he raised a Yeomanry artillery troop, the Duke of Richmond's Light Horse Artillery at his estate at Goodwood. The troop was equipped with his own design of Curricle gun carriage. [18]

In retirement Richmond built the famous racecourse at the family seat of Goodwood. [1] He was also a patron of artists such as George Stubbs, Pompeo Batoni, Anton Raphael Mengs, Joshua Reynolds and George Romney. [19]

Richmond died at Goodwood on 29 December 1806 and was buried in Chichester Cathedral; he had married Lady Mary Bruce, daughter of the Earl of Ailesbury, on 1 April 1757 but left no legitimate children, so was succeeded in the peerage by his nephew Charles. [10] He did have three illegitimate children by his housekeeper. [1]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 "Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  2. "No. 9147". The London Gazette . 7 March 1752. p. 3.
  3. "No. 9279". The London Gazette . 23 June 1753. p. 2.
  4. "Lists of Royal Society Fellows" (PDF). Royal Society. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  5. "No. 9590". The London Gazette . 8 June 1756. p. 2.
  6. Heathcote, p. 199
  7. "No. 9789". The London Gazette . 6 May 1758. p. 2.
  8. Brereton & Savoury, p. 41
  9. "No. 10357". The London Gazette . 15 October 1763. p. 1.
  10. 1 2 Heathcote, p. 200
  11. Yuhas, Alan (22 April 2017). "Rare parchment manuscript of US Declaration of Independence found in England". The Guardian . Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  12. "Duke of Richmond". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  13. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain :  McNeill, Ronald John (1911). "Richmond, Earls and Dukes of"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 306.
  14. "No. 12288". The London Gazette . 16 January 1782. p. 1.
  15. "No. 12391". The London Gazette . 23 September 1782. p. 1.
  16. "No. 13796". The London Gazette . 14 July 1795. p. 741.
  17. "No. 13918". The London Gazette . 2 August 1796. p. 743.
  18. Barlow & Smith, p. 7.
  19. "Goodwood House painting collection". Goodwood. Retrieved 21 June 2014.

Sources

Military offices
New regiment Colonel of the 72nd Regiment of Foot
1758–1763
Regiment disbanded
Preceded by
The Viscount Townshend
Master-General of the Ordnance
1782–1783
Succeeded by
The Viscount Townshend
Preceded by
The Viscount Townshend
Master-General of the Ordnance
1784–1795
Succeeded by
The Marquess Cornwallis
Preceded by
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway
Colonel of the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards
1795–1806
Succeeded by
The Duke of Northumberland
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
The Earl of Hertford
British Ambassador to France
1765–1766
Succeeded by
The Earl of Rochford
Political offices
Preceded by
Hon. Henry Seymour Conway
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
1766
Succeeded by
The Earl of Shelburne
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Earl of Egremont
Lord Lieutenant of Sussex
1763–1806
Succeeded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Richmond
3rd creation
1750–1806
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Lennox
2nd creation
1750–1806
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox
French nobility
Preceded by
Charles Lennox
Duke of Aubigny
1777–1806
Succeeded by
Charles Lennox