Charles Lyttelton(1714–1768) was an English churchman and antiquary from the Lyttelton family, who served as Bishop of Carlisle from 1762 to 1768 and President of the Society of Antiquaries of London from 1765 to 1768.
Lyttelton was the third son of Sir Thomas Lyttelton, 4th Baronet, by his wife Christian, daughter of Sir Richard Temple, 3rd Baronet of Stowe, Buckinghamshire. He was born at Hagley, Worcestershire, and educated at Eton College and University College, Oxford, where he matriculated on 10 October 1732, and graduated B.C.L. March 1745, D.C.L. June 1745. He was called to the bar at the Middle Temple in 1738, but soon abandoned it for the church, being ordained in 1742.
Almost immediately (13 August 1743) he was instituted to the rectory of Alvechurch, Worcestershire. Through his family influence he was made chaplain to George II in December 1747, installed as Dean of Exeter on 4 June 1748, and collated to a prebendal stall in Exeter Cathedral on 5 May 1748. In 1761 the Dean describes the cathedral library as having over 6,000 books and some good manuscripts. He describes the work which has been done to repair and list the contents of the manuscripts. At the same time the muniments and records had been cleaned and moved to a suitable muniment room. George Grenville, a cousin, pressed for Lyttelton's advancement. He was promoted to the see of Carlisle, and was consecrated in Whitehall Chapel on 21 March 1762, but his health was not good. He died unmarried in Clifford Street, London, on 22 December 1768, and was buried at St John the Baptist Church, Hagley, on 30 December. The chancel of that church had been ornamented in 1764 at his expense with shields of arms of his paternal ancestors.
Lyttelton was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in January 1743, and Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1746; and in 1765 he was promoted to be President of the Society of Antiquaries. He contributed to the Philosophical Transactions , and wrote for Archaeologia (vols. 1–3.). Rosemary Sweet writes:
Antiquaries such as Charles Lyttelton and Richard Gough played a pivotal role in establishing the systematic study of architectural history, and in their re-evaluation of the Gothic style of architecture contributed to the development of a historicist approach to the past.
William Borlase addressed to him his volume on Scilly (1758), Andrew Coltee Ducarel inscribed to him a work on Anglo-Norman antiquities (1767), and Samuel Pegge wrote to him an essay on the coins of Cunobelin (1766). Lyttelton bequeathed his manuscripts to the Society of Antiquaries. They formed the basis of Treadway Russell Nash's History of Worcestershire, and of the works of later writers on the county. Stebbing Shaw's History of Staffordshire was partly compiled from them, and from the same source many improvements were made in Sampson Erdeswicke's Survey of Staffordshire (1820 and 1844). Not the least of his impact was in his encouragement of his ward Samuel Hellier to study at Exeter College, Oxford, where he developed a passion for music.
Notes by the Rev. Charles Lyttelton on churches, other buildings and antiquities in various counties known as the Lyttelton Bequest at the Society of Antiquariesare of importance because, as Rosemary Sweet observed in her book Antiquaries: The Discovery of the Past in Eighteenth-Century Britain, “Charles Lyttelton was one of the first to attempt a systematic study of Saxon and Gothic architecture…" and “he put pressure upon the society to publish plates of what he took to be Saxon buildings…and supported the move to commission engravings of the illustrations of the Caedmon manuscript, chiefly because they served to illustrate Saxon architectural features”. Images held in the archive of the Conway Library at The Courtauld Institute of Art, which are listed as ‘From "Drawings of Saxon Churches"; collection by Lyttleton, Soc. Of Antiq.’, are being digitised under the wider Courtauld Connects project.
An antiquarian or antiquary is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past. More specifically, the term is used for those who study history with particular attention to ancient artifacts, archaeological and historic sites, or historic archives and manuscripts. The essence of antiquarianism is a focus on the empirical evidence of the past, and is perhaps best encapsulated in the motto adopted by the 18th-century antiquary Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts, not theory."
Richard Gough was a prominent and influential English antiquarian. He served as director of the Society of Antiquaries of London from 1771 to 1791; published a major work on English church monuments; and translated and edited a new edition of William Camden's Britannia.
The Society of Antiquaries of London (SAL) is a learned society "charged by its Royal Charter of 1751 with 'the encouragement, advancement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries'." It is based at Burlington House, Piccadilly, London, and is a registered charity.
George Lyttelton, 1st Baron Lyttelton,, known between 1751 and 1756 as Sir George Lyttelton, 5th Baronet, was a British statesman. As an author himself, he was also the supporter of other writers and as a patron of the arts made an important contribution to the development of 18th century landscape design.
Hagley Hall is a Grade I listed 18th-century house in Hagley, Worcestershire, the home of the Lyttelton family. It was the creation of George, 1st Lord Lyttelton (1709–1773), secretary to Frederick, Prince of Wales, poet and man of letters and briefly Chancellor of the Exchequer. Before the death of his father in 1751, he began to landscape the grounds in the new Picturesque style, and between 1754 and 1760 it was he who was responsible for the building of the Neo-Palladian house that survives to this day.
Sanderson Miller was an English pioneer of Gothic revival architecture and landscape designer. He is noted for adding follies or other Picturesque garden buildings and features to the grounds of an estate.
Hagley is a large village and civil parish in Worcestershire, England. It is on the boundary of the West Midlands and Worcestershire counties between the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley and Kidderminster. Its estimated population was 7,162 in 2019.
Sir Thomas Lyttelton, 4th Baronet, of Frankley, in the County of Worcester, was an English landowner and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1721 to 1741. He held office as one of the Lords of the Admiralty from 1727 to 1741.
Sir Henry Charles Englefield, 7th Baronet FRS FRSE FSA FLS was an English antiquary and astronomer.
Thomas Astle FRS FRSE FSA was an English antiquary and palaeographer. He became a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and the Royal Society.
The Wodehouse is a grade II* listed English country house near Wombourne, Staffordshire, notable as the family seat of the Georgian landscape designer and musicologist Sir Samuel Hellier and, a century later, Colonel Thomas Bradney Shaw-Hellier, director of the Royal Military School of Music. For almost 200 years the family owned the Hellier Stradivarius. It is claimed that the Wodehouse has not been sold for over 900 years, though more than once the family has died out.
English county histories, in other words historical and topographical works concerned with individual ancient counties of England, were produced by antiquarians from the late 16th century onwards. The content was variable: most focused on recording the ownership of estates and the descent of lordships of manors, thus the genealogies of county families, heraldry and other antiquarian material. In the introduction to one typical early work of this style, The Antiquities of Warwickshire published in 1656, the author William Dugdale writes:
I offer unto you my noble countriemen, as the most proper persons to whom it can be presented wherein you will see very much of your worthy ancestors, to whose memory I have erected it as a monumentall pillar and to shew in what honour they lived in those flourishing ages past. In this kind, or not much different, have divers persons in forrein parts very learnedly written; some whereof I have noted in my preface: and I could wish that there were more that would adventure in the like manner for the rest of the counties of this nation, considering how acceptable those are, which others have already performed
Rev. Jeremiah Milles (1714–1784) was President of the Society of Antiquaries and Dean of Exeter between 1762 and 1784. He carried out much internal renovation in Exeter Cathedral. As part of his antiquarian research into the history of the parishes of Devon he pioneered the use of the research questionnaire, which resulted in the "Dean Milles' Questionnaire", which survives as a valuable source of historical information.
George North (1707–1772) was an English cleric and numismatist.
Captain Charles John Philip Cave FRAS, FSA was an English meteorologist, a church architectural historian and photographer, and a captain in the Royal Engineers.
Foote Gower (1725/6–1780) was an English cleric, academic and antiquarian.
Hagley Park is the estate of Hagley Hall in Worcestershire, England. The grounds comprise 350 acres (1.4 km2) of undulating deer park on the lower slopes of the Clent Hills. They were redeveloped and landscaped between about 1739 and 1764, with follies designed by John Pitt, Thomas Pitt, James "Athenian" Stuart, and Sanderson Miller. Planned as part of an 18th-century enthusiasm for landscape gardening, especially among poets, the park brought many distinguished literary visitors to admire the views, as well as poetic tributes to their beauty and Classical taste.
Thomas Staveley was a Stuart antiquary, magistrate, anti-Papist, and Church historian. He spent most of his life researching the antiquities of his home county, Leicestershire.
Malcolm Thurlby, teaches art and architectural history at York University, Toronto. His research interests focus on Romanesque and Gothic architecture and sculpture in Europe and 19th and early 20th century architecture in Canada.
Meriel Lyttelton or Littelton was an English aristocrat with extensive family and court connections. She was born Meriel Bromley, a daughter of Sir Thomas Bromley and Elizabeth Fortescue. Her first name is sometimes given as Muriel. The MP for Worcestershire Thomas Bromley was her nephew.