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Sir Charles Reed Peers CBE FRIBA FSA (22 September 1868 – 16 November 1952) was an English architect, archaeologist and preservationist. After a 10-year gap following the death of Lieutenant-General Augustus Pitt Rivers in 1900, Peers became England's second Inspector of Ancient Monuments from 1910 and was then the first Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments from 1913 to 1933.
Augustus Henry Lane-Fox Pitt Rivers was an English officer in the British Army, ethnologist, and archaeologist. He was noted for innovations in archaeological methodology, and in the museum display of archaeological and ethnological collections. His international collection of about 22,000 objects was the founding collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum at the University of Oxford while his collection of English archaeology from the area around Stonehenge forms the basis of the collection at The Salisbury Museum in Wiltshire.
Peers was born in Westerham in Kent, the eldest son of an Anglican clergyman. He was educated at Charterhouse School and studied classics at King's College, Cambridge from 1887 to 1891, graduating in the second class and then continuing his studies in Dresden and Berlin.
Westerham is a town and civil parish in Kent, England, 5 miles (8 km) west of Sevenoaks.
Charterhouse is an independent day and boarding school in Godalming, Surrey. Founded by Thomas Sutton in 1611 on the site of the old Carthusian monastery in Charterhouse Square, Smithfield, London, it educates over 800 pupils, aged 13 to 18 years, and is one of the original Great Nine English public schools. Today pupils are still referred to as Carthusians, and ex-pupils as Old Carthusians.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world, particularly of its languages and literature but also of Greco-Roman philosophy, history, and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education. The study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education.
From 1893 to 1896 he worked as a pupil architect in the office of Thomas Graham Jackson. He spent a season with archaeologist George Somers Clarke in Egypt in 1896, and then returned to England to practise as an architect. He was editor of The Archaeological Journal from 1900 to 1903.
Sir Thomas Graham Jackson, 1st Baronet was one of the most distinguished English architects of his generation. He is best remembered for his work at Oxford for Oxford Military College as well as the University, notably: the Examination Schools, most of Hertford College, much of Brasenose College, ranges at Trinity College and Somerville College, and the Acland Nursing Home in North Oxford. Much of his career was devoted to the architecture of education and he worked extensively for various schools, notably Giggleswick and his own alma mater Brighton College. Jackson designed the former town hall in Tipperary Town, Ireland. He also worked on many parish churches and the college chapel at the University of Wales, Lampeter. He is also famous for designing the chapel at Radley College. The former City of Oxford High School for Boys in George Street, Oxford, Oxford is another building designed by him.
George Somers Clarke (1841–1926) was an architect and English Egyptologist who worked at a number of sites throughout Egypt, notably in El Kab, where he built a house. He was born in Brighton.
The Archaeological Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal for archaeological and architectural reports and articles. It was established in 1844 by the British Archaeological Association as a quarterly journal, but was taken over by the British Archaeological Institute in 1845, and remained published by them ever since. The journal has been published annually since 1927.
After visiting Egypt again in 1902, he became architectural editor of the Victoria History of the Counties of England in 1903, supervising the architects that described and drew plans of the buildings included in the volumes. Peers himself drew the plans and wrote the descriptions for a number of buildings, including Winchester Cathedral and St Albans Abbey.
Winchester Cathedral is a cathedral of the Church of England in Winchester, Hampshire, England. It is one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the greatest overall length of any Gothic cathedral.
After a gap of 10 years following the death of Lieutenant General Augustus Pitt Rivers in 1900, Peers was appointed as Pitt Rivers' successor as Inspector of Ancient Monuments in 1910, in the Office of Works. Peers was a leading supporter of Lord Curzon's attempt to pass the legislation that became the Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913, spurred by the possibility that American investors would dismantle Tattershall Castle and remove it piece by piece to the United States. Peers became Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments after the Act was passed. The 1913 Act consolidated the earlier Acts of 1882, 1900 and 1910. The 1913 Act established an Ancient Monuments Board, and it was also the first to require the owners of scheduled ancient monuments to apply for permission before altering or demolishing them. However, churches in ecclesiastical use and private houses were still excluded.
The Office of Works was established in the English Royal household in 1378 to oversee the building of the royal castles and residences. In 1832 it became the Works Department forceswithin the Office of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings. It was reconstituted as a government department in 1851 and became part of the Ministry of Works in 1940.
George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston,, who was styled as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911, and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and was known commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman, who served as Viceroy of India, from 1899 to 1905, during which time he created the territory of Eastern Bengal and Assam, and as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, from 1919 to 1924.
The Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that aimed to improve the protection afforded to ancient monuments in Britain.
The 1913 Act also permitted the Ancient Monuments Board to issue preservation orders to take over nationally important monuments and maintain them at public expense. Peers made extensive use of these powers. Assisted by Ministry of Works architect Frank Baines, Peers developed a characteristic style of preservation of ruined medieval buildings. They steered a middle course between the minimal protective works espoused by the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, and the extensive restoration and reconstruction undertaken at French historical sites by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc.
Sir Frank Baines, KCVO, CBE, FRIBA (1877–1933) was chief architect at the British Office of Works from 1920 to 1927.
The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) is an amenity society founded by William Morris, Philip Webb and others, in 1877; to oppose what they saw as destructive 'restoration' of ancient buildings then occurring in Victorian England; 'ancient' being used in the wider sense of 'very old' rather than the more usual modern one of 'pre-medieval'.
Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those which had been damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution. His major restoration projects included Notre Dame Cathedral, the Basilica of Saint Denis, Mont Saint-Michel, Sainte-Chapelle, and the medieval walls of the city of Carcassonne. His later writings on the relationship between form and function in architecture had a notable influence on a new generation of architects, including Antonio Gaudí, Victor Horta, and Louis Sullivan.
Peers preferred method was to turn a picturesque ruined building into an instructive archaeological site, keeping only those elements that would have been present in the medieval period. First, any necessary structural repairs had to be undertaken, but hidden from view. Undergrowth, ivy and later additions – which he termed "accretions" – were ruthlessly removed. The site would then be fenced, and the ruins surrounded by lawns of mown grass, aided by the relatively recent availability of the mechanised lawnmower. The works would be completed by making measured plans, taking photographs, and producing a guidebook, with simple labels distributed around the site. Some of the works authorised by Peers would be very extensive: tons of fallen masonry, earth and "accretions" were removed at Byland Abbey and Rievaulx Abbey. Sites under the control of the Ministry of Works became associated with the antiseptic presentation of masonry ruins and foundation set in neatly mown lawns, an aesthetic which remains associated with many sites under the care of English Heritage nearly a century later.
Rievaulx was taken into the guardianship of the Ministry of Works in 1917. Tons of soil – in places up to 16 feet (4.9 m) deep – were removed using a temporary railway to reveal the medieval ground plan of the site; precariously overhanging masonry was stabilised; and unsteady piers were reconstructed with reinforced concrete cores. Post-medieval farm buildings were removed. As Baines remarked in 1922: "in the twelve months which have transpired since the completion of the work, no trace of what has been undertaken is observable".
The work was undertaken at a great pace. There were 89 properties in Britain in state care in 1910; 22 were added in 1913, mostly ruined abbeys and castles; and 400 sites were preserved by Peers's death in 1952.
Peers retired in 1933, soon after the enactment of the Ancient Monuments Act 1931, which provided compensation for owners of buildings that were compulsorily purchased, required 3 months' notice of works to a scheduled ancient monument, and made scheduling a Land Charge. The Town and Country Planning Act 1932 took up a suggestion from Peers so local councils could propose buildings for a preservation order (although the powers were only used 20 times between 1932 and 1947).
He became surveyor to Westminster Abbey in 1935, and held similar posts at York Cathedral and Durham Cathedral. He was architect-in-charge of the works to underpin Durham Castle to prevent it slipping off its rocky crag. He was also Seneschal of Canterbury Cathedral, an architectural advisor at Winchester Cathedral, sat on the Oxford diocesan committee, and carried out work for New College, Oxford.
Peers became a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1901. He served as secretary of the Society from 1908 until 1921, when he became its Director; as President from 1929 and 1934; and he was awarded its gold medal in 1938. Peers became a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1924, and was knighted in 1931.
He received honorary doctorates from Leeds University and London University, became a governor of Charterhouse, and was an honorary fellow of King's College, Cambridge. He was a commissioner of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England from 1921 and became a Fellow of the British Academy in 1926. He became a trustee of the London Museum in 1930, and a trustee of the British Museum in 1933. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and received its gold medal in 1933. He was Antiquary to the Royal Academy from 1933 to 1952. He was elected President of the first session of the Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences in 1932, and became a Knight Commander of St Olav during its second session in Oslo in 1936.
Peers married art historian Gertrude Katherine Shepherd on 13 April 1899. They had three sons together. They moved to 18th century Chiselhampton House in Oxfordshire in 1924, having inherited the property from Peers' father in 1921. Peers suffered from a long-term illness during the last seven years of his life, and died at a nursing home in Coulsdon. After a funeral service at Westminster Abbey, his ashes were interred in its Islip Chapel.
By the time of his death, Peers had set a standard for the excavation and public presentation of medieval military and monastic sites which endured for several decades. His work has been reassessed in more recent years. Although he is still praised for his contribution towards the protection and preservation of medieval ruins, he has been criticised for the extensive clearance of monastic sites which removed evidence of use and occupation after the medieval period. The clinical presentation of ruins set in lawns with herbaceous borders has also been criticised for removing natural context, and for eliminating the romanticism of overgrown, tumbledown, ivy-clad ruins.
Reims, a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies 129 km (80 mi) east-northeast of Paris. The 2013 census recorded 182,592 inhabitants in the city of Reims proper, and 317,611 inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Its primary river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne.
The Basilica of Saint Denis is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris. The building is of singular importance historically and architecturally as its choir, completed in 1144, shows the first use of all of the elements of Gothic architecture.
St Albans Cathedral, sometimes called the Cathedral and Abbey Church of St Alban, and referred to locally as "the Abbey", is a Church of England cathedral in St Albans, England. Much of its architecture dates from Norman times. It ceased to be an abbey in the 16th century and became a cathedral in 1877. Although legally a cathedral church, it differs in certain particulars from most other cathedrals in England: it is also used as a parish church, of which the dean is rector with the same powers, responsibilities and duties as that of any other parish. At 85 metres long, it has the longest nave of any cathedral in England.
Holyrood Abbey is a ruined abbey of the Canons Regular in Edinburgh, Scotland. The abbey was founded in 1128 by King David I. During the 15th century, the abbey guesthouse was developed into a royal residence, and after the Scottish Reformation the Palace of Holyroodhouse was expanded further. The abbey church was used as a parish church until the 17th century, and has been ruined since the 18th century. The remaining walls of the abbey lie adjacent to the palace, at the eastern end of Edinburgh's Royal Mile. The site of the abbey is protected as a scheduled monument.
In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is a "nationally important" archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorised change.
Strata Florida Abbey is a former Cistercian abbey situated just outside Pontrhydfendigaid, near Tregaron in the county of Ceredigion, Wales. The abbey was founded in 1164. "Strata Florida" is a Latinisation of the Welsh Ystrad Fflur; "Valley of Flowers". The Welsh word ystrad is synonymous with "strath" and "dale", while fflur ("flower") is also the name of the nearby river. After the region around St Davids was firmly occupied by the Norman Marcher lordship of Pembroke by the early 12th century, with St Davids firmly under Norman influence thereafter, the princely Dinefwr family of Deheubarth transferred their patronage to Strata Florida, and interred many of their family members there.
Neath Abbey was a Cistercian monastery, located near the present-day town of Neath in South Wales, UK. It was once the largest abbey in Wales. Substantial ruins can still be seen, and are in the care of Cadw. Tudor historian John Leland called Neath Abbey "the fairest abbey of all Wales."
Byland Abbey is a ruined abbey and a small village in the Ryedale district of North Yorkshire, England, in the North York Moors National Park.
Rievaulx Abbeyree-VOH was a Cistercian abbey in Rievaulx, situated near Helmsley in the North York Moors National Park, North Yorkshire, England. It was one of the great abbeys in England until it was seized under Henry VIII of England in 1538 during the dissolution of the monasteries. The striking ruins of its main buildings are a tourist attraction, owned and maintained by English Heritage.
The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales, established in 1908, is a Welsh Government sponsored body concerned with the archaeological, architectural and historic environment of Wales. It is based in Aberystwyth.
Historic preservation (US), heritage preservation or heritage conservation (UK), is an endeavour that seeks to preserve, conserve and protect buildings, objects, landscapes or other artifacts of historical significance. This term refers specifically to the preservation of the built environment, and not to preservation of, for example, primeval forests or wilderness.
The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland is a learned society based in Ireland, whose aims are "to preserve, examine and illustrate all ancient monuments and memorials of the arts, manners and customs of the past, as connected with the antiquities, language, literature and history of Ireland". Founded in 1849, it has a countrywide membership from all four provinces of Ireland. Anyone subscribing to the aims of the Society, subject to approval by Council, may be elected to membership. Current and past members have included historians, archaeologists and linguists, but the Society firmly believes in the importance of encouraging an informed general public, and many members are non-professionals.
Paul Abadie was a French architect and building restorer. He is considered a central representative of French historicism. He was the son of architect Paul Abadie Sr..
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Monastery is a functioning monastery in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. The monastery is located on the right bank of the Dnieper River on the edge of a bluff northeast of the Saint Sophia Cathedral. The site is located in the historic administrative Uppertown and overlooks the city's historical commercial and merchant quarter, the Podil neighbourhood.
The Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England (RCHME) was a government advisory body responsible for documenting buildings and monuments of archaeological, architectural and historical importance in England. It was established in 1908 ; and was merged with English Heritage in 1999.
The medieval cathedrals of England, which date from between approximately 1040 and 1540, are a group of twenty-six buildings that constitute a major aspect of the country’s artistic heritage and are among the most significant material symbols of Christianity. Though diversified in style, they are united by a common function. As cathedrals, each of these buildings serves as central church for an administrative region and houses the throne of a bishop. Each cathedral also serves as a regional centre and a focus of regional pride and affection.
The Minster Church of St Mary, Stow in Lindsey, is a major Anglo-Saxon church in Lincolnshire. It is one of the oldest parish church buildings in England. It has been claimed that the Minster originally served as the cathedral church of the diocese of Lindsey, founded in the 7th century.
The Abbot's Fish House in Meare, Somerset, England, was built in the 14th century and has been designated as a Grade I listed building and Scheduled Ancient Monument. It is the only surviving monastic fishery building in England.
The Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces is an agency under the aegis of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The agency carries out the cultural policies of the Danish government within the visual and performing arts, music, literature, museums, historical and cultural heritage, broadcasting, libraries and all types of printed and electronic media. It works internationally in all fields, and increased internationalisation of Danish arts and cultural life is a top priority. The Danish Agency for Culture was founded on 1 January 2002 when the Danish Heritage Agency, the Danish Arts Agency and the Danish Agency for Libraries and Media merged. The Danish Agency for Culture and Palaces was founded on 1 January 2016 by a fusion of the Danish Agency for Culture and the Danish agency Styrelsen for Slotte & Kulturejendomme.
Ceredigion is a large rural county in West Wales. It has a long coastline of Cardigan Bay to the west and the remote moorland of the Cambrian Mountains in the east, with the mountainous terrain of Plynlimon in the northeast. Ceredigion has a total of 264 Scheduled monuments. That is too many to have on a single list page, so for convenience the list is divided into two, 163 prehistoric sites and 101 Roman, Medieval and Post Medieval sites.