Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond

Last updated

The Duke of Richmond and Lennox
Peter Lely Charles Stewart 3rd Duke of Richmond.jpg
Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond and 6th Duke of Lennox by Sir Peter Lely.
Lord Lieutenant of Kent
In office
Relations Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk (grandfather)
Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox (grandfather)
Parent(s) George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny
Lady Katherine Howard
Residence Richmond House

Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, 6th Duke of Lennox KG (7 March 1639 December 1672) of Cobham Hall in Kent and of Richmond House in Whitehall, London, 11th Seigneur d'Aubigny in France, [1] was an English nobleman of Franco-Scottish ancestry and a 4th cousin of King Charles II of England, both being descended in the male line from John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox. [2]


Early life

He was the only son and heir of George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny by his wife Lady Katherine Howard, a daughter of Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk. He was a grandson of Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox. [3]


On 10 December 1645, he was created Baron Stuart of Newbury, Berkshire, and Earl of Lichfield, titles conferred on him "to perpetuate the titles which were intended to have been conferred on his uncle" Lord Bernard Stewart, youngest son of the Duke of Lennox, who had been killed in the Battle of Rowton Heath in the English Civil War in September of that year. [4]

In January 1658, Charles Stewart went into exile in France, and took up his residence in the house of his uncle, Ludovic Stewart, 10th Seigneur d'Aubigny. [1] In the following year he fell under the displeasure of The Protectorate's Council of State, and warrants were issued for seizing his person and goods. [5]

He returned to England with King Charles II in 1660, on the Restoration of the Monarchy and sat in the Convention Parliament, showing great animosity towards the supporters of the Commonwealth. [5] On the death of his 10-year-old cousin Esmé Stewart on 10 August 1660, He succeeded as 3rd Duke of Richmond and 6th Duke of Lennox. [4] In that same year he was created Hereditary Great Chamberlain of Scotland, Hereditary Great Admiral of Scotland, and Lord-Lieutenant of Dorset. On 15 April 1661 he was invested with the Order of the Garter. [5]

Around 1660 he built Richmond House on the site of the bowling green of Henry VIII's Palace of White Hall. [6] He also owned (and extended) Cobham Hall in the County of Kent.

On the death of his uncle, Ludovic Stuart, he succeeded him as 12th Seigneur D'Aubigny, for which title he did homage by proxy to King Louis XIV of France on 11 May 1670. In July 1667, on the death of his cousin, Mary Butler, countess of Arran, he became Baron Clifton. On 4 May 1668 he was made Lord Lieutenant and Vice Admiral of Kent, jointly with the Earl of Winchilsea, [5] and commanded one of the regiments of Kent Militia [7]

In 1671 he was sent as ambassador to the Danish court to persuade Denmark to join England and France in a projected attack on the Dutch. Whilst there at Elsinore [4] [5] in 1672 he died by drowning, aged 33. [8]

Personal life

Charles Stewart married three times, but had no children. Firstly, after June 1659, to Elizabeth Rogers, and after her death, secondly, on 31 March 1662, to Margaret Banaster, widow of William Lewis, who died in 1666. [3]

His third marriage was in March 1667, to Frances Teresa Stewart (1647–1702), granddaughter of Walter Stewart, 1st Lord Blantyre, known at court as "Le Belle Stuart" [9] who had been desired by Richmond's cousin, King Charles II, as a mistress.

Richmond died in December 1672 and was buried in Westminster Abbey on 20 September 1673. As he died without issue, his titles became extinct, with the exception of that of Baron Clifton, which passed with most of his property to his sister Katherine, Lady O'Brien. His wife, however, had been granted the Lennox estates for life. [8] In 1675, the titles Duke of Richmond, Duke of Lennox and Earl of March, were resurrected for Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and Lennox, the illegitimate son of King Charles II by his mistress Louise de Kérouaille.

See also

Honorary titles
Interregnum Lord Lieutenant of Dorset
Succeeded by
Preceded by Lord Lieutenant of Kent
Succeeded by
Title last held by
Sir Thomas Walsingham
Vice-Admiral of Kent
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by Duke of Lennox
Peerage of England
Preceded by Duke of Richmond
New creation Earl of Lichfield
Preceded by Baron Clifton
Succeeded by


  1. 1 2 Callow, John (2004). "Stuart, Charles, sixth duke of Lennox and third duke of Richmond (1639–1672), courtier and ambassador" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26696. ISBN   978-0-19-861412-8 . Retrieved 21 May 2022.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox was the paternal grandfather of Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, father of King James I of England, grandfather of King Charles II
  3. 1 2 "Lennox, Duke of (S, 1581 - 1672)". Heraldic Media Limited. Archived from the original on 8 April 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  4. 1 2 3 Money 1881, pp. 187–188
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Dictionary of National Biography, p. 73
  6. "Richmond Terrace and House". UK Parliament. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  7. J.R. Western, The English Militia in the Eighteenth Century: The Story of a Political Issue 1660–1802, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965, p. 23.
  8. 1 2 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lennox"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 420.
  9. McNeill, Ronald John (1911). "Richmond, Earls and Dukes of"  . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica . Vol. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 306.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl of Lichfield</span> Earldom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom

Earl of Lichfield is a title that has been created three times, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom (1831). The third creation is extant and is held by a member of the Anson family.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duke of Richmond</span> Title in the Peerage of England

Duke of Richmond is a title in the Peerage of England that has been created four times in British history. It has been held by members of the royal Tudor and Stuart families.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl of March</span> Titles in the peerages of Scotland and England

Earl of March is a title that has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of England. The title derived from the "marches" or borderlands between England and either Wales or Scotland, and it was held by several great feudal families which owned lands in those districts. Later, however, the title came to be granted as an honorary dignity, and ceased to carry any associated power in the marches.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl of Darnley</span> Hereditary title in the Peerage of Scotland

Earl of Darnley is a hereditary title that has been created three times, twice in the Peerage of Scotland and once in the Peerage of Ireland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond</span>

Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, 1st Duke of Lennox,, of Goodwood House near Chichester in Sussex, was the youngest of the seven illegitimate sons of King Charles II, and was that king's only son by his French-born mistress Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. He was appointed Hereditary Constable of Inverness Castle.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Earl of Lennox</span>

The Earl or Mormaer of Lennox was the ruler of the district of the Lennox in western Scotland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">James Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond</span>

James Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond, 4th Duke of Lennox KG, lord of the Manor of Cobham, Kent, was a Scottish nobleman. A third cousin of King Charles I, he was a Privy Councillor and key member of the Royalist party in the English Civil War. In 1641–42, he served as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. He spent five months in exile in 1643, returning to England to defend the city of Oxford for the king.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baron Clifton</span> Title in the Peerage of England

Baron Clifton, of Leighton Bromswold in the County of Huntingdon, is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1608 for Sir Gervase Clifton, who made Prebendal house which was built by John Thorpe and later owned by the Clifton baronets branch of the family. The peerage was created by writ, which means that it can descend through both male and female lines. Lord Clifton died without surviving male issue and was succeeded by his daughter Katherine, the second Baroness. She married Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox. They were both succeeded by their eldest son James, the fourth Duke and third Baron. When he died the titles passed to his son, the fifth Duke and fourth Baron. On his death in 1660 at the age of 11 the barony separated from the dukedom. The barony was inherited by the late Duke's sister Mary, the fifth Baroness. She married Richard Butler, 1st Earl of Arran, but died aged only 18. She was succeeded by her first cousin the sixth Duke of Lennox, who became the sixth Baron Clifton as well. He was the son of Lord George Stuart, fourth son of the third Duke and the second Baroness Clifton. On his death the barony and dukedom again separated.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Esmé Stewart, 2nd Duke of Richmond</span> Scottish duke

Esmé Stuart, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 5th Duke of Lennox was the infant son and heir of James Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond, 4th Duke of Lennox (1612–1655), of Cobham Hall in Kent, by his wife Mary Villiers (1622–1685), only daughter of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox</span> Scots earl exiled to France

Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox, 1st Earl of Lennox, 6th Seigneur d'Aubigny, of the Château d'Aubigny at Aubigny-sur-Nère in the ancient province of Berry, France, was a Roman Catholic French nobleman of Scottish ancestry who on his move to Scotland at the age of 37 became a favourite of the 13-year-old King James VI of Scotland, of whose father, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, he was a first cousin. Despite his conversion to Calvinism he was never trusted by the Scots and returned to France where he ended his days. Sir James Melville described him as "of nature upright, just and gentle". He was the first to popularise the firstname Esmé in the British Isles.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox</span> Scottish nobleman

Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox, KG, 7th Seigneur d'Aubigny, lord of the Manor of Cobham, Kent, was a Scottish nobleman and through their paternal lines was a second cousin of King James VI of Scotland and I of England. He was a patron of the playwright Ben Jonson who lived in his household for five years.

Stewart of Darnley, also known as the Lennox Stewarts, were a notable Scots family, a branch of the Clan Stewart, who provided the English Stuart monarchs with their male-line Stuart descent, after the reunion of their branch with the royal Scottish branch.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Duke of Aubigny</span> French peerage held by British noble

Duke of Aubigny is a title that was created in the Peerage of France in 1684. It was granted by King Louis XIV of France to Louise de Kérouaille, the last mistress of King Charles II of England, and to descend to Charles's illegitimate issue by her, namely to the descendants of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, 1st Duke of Lennox (1672–1723) of Goodwood House in Sussex. Louis XIV also granted her the Château de la Verrerie, a former secondary seat of the Stewart Seigneurs d'Aubigny, Franco-Scottish cousins of the Stewart monarchs, seated from 1422 to 1672 at the Château d'Aubigny in the parish and manor of Aubigny-sur-Nère in the ancient province of Berry in France.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lord Bernard Stewart</span> Franco-Scottish nobleman

Lord Bernard Stewart was a Franco-Scottish nobleman and a third cousin of King Charles I of England, both being descended in the male line from John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox. He served as a Royalist commander in the English Civil War, during which he was killed aged 22 and unmarried.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Katherine Clifton, 2nd Baroness Clifton</span> 17th century English and Scottish earl

Katherine Clifton, 2nd Baroness Clifton, was an English-born Scottish peer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny</span> Scottish nobleman and royalist military commander

Lord George Stewart, 9th Seigneur d'Aubigny was an Anglo-Scottish nobleman of French descent and a third cousin of King Charles I of England. He supported that king during the Civil War as a Royalist commander and was killed aged 24 at the Battle of Edgehill in 1642.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Stewart of Darnley</span> Scottish nobleman

Sir John Stewart of Darnley, 1st Comte d'Évreux, 1st Seigneur de Concressault, 1st Seigneur d'Aubigny was a Scottish nobleman and famous military commander who served as Constable of the Scottish Army in France, supporting the French against the English during the Hundred Years War. He was a fourth cousin of King James I of Scotland, the third monarch of the House of Stewart.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Château de la Verrerie (Cher)</span>

The Château de la Verrerie is a château in Oizon, in the ancient province of Berry in France. It is an historic ancestral seat of a junior branch of the Scottish House of Stewart, known by the territorial title Seigneur d'Aubigny. It is situated about 14 miles south-east of Aubigny-sur-Nère, and the Château d'Aubigny, the original seat of its owners.

Sir Reginald John Cust was a barrister of Lincoln's Inn, judge, and Chief Commissioner of the West India Incumbered Estates Commission. He was knighted in the 1890 Birthday Honours.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lord John Stuart and his Brother, Lord Bernard Stuart</span>

Lord John Stuart and his Brother, Lord Bernard Stuart is a large oil painting by Anthony van Dyck made c.1638. The life-size double portrait depicts the two youngest sons of Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox: Lord John Stewart (1621–1644) and Lord Bernard Stuart (1622–1645), aged about 17 and 16 respectively. The painting measures 237.5 cm × 146.1 cm, and has been held by the National Gallery, London since 1988.