Colonel Charles Swinhoe (27 August 1838, in Calcutta– 2 December 1923 ) was an English naturalist and lepidopterist, who served in the British Army in India. He was one of the eight founders of the Bombay Natural History Society and a brother of the famous naturalist Robert Swinhoe.
Swinhoe was commissioned ensign in the 56th Regiment of Foot without purchase in 1855, serving in the Crimea and reaching India after the 1857 Mutiny. He exchanged into a lieutenancy in the 15th Foot without purchase in 1858 and returned to the 56th Foot in 1859, transferring to the Bombay Staff Corps later the same year. He was at Kandahar with Lord Roberts in 1880, and collected 341 birds there and on the march back to India. These were described in The Ibis (1882: 95-126). He was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1881 and colonel in 1885.
Swinhoe was a keen shikari and had shot 50-60 tigers. He was also a member of the British Ornithologists' Union and contributed papers to The Ibis on the birds of southern Afghanistan and central India, and donated 300 bird skins from each country to the British Museum. While at Mhow he collaborated with Lieutenant Henry Edwin Barnes on the birds of central India. (Ibis 1885: 62-69, 124-138) He collected insects, chiefly Lepidoptera from Bombay, Poona, Mhow and Karachi districts. He had one of the largest collections of Indian Lepidoptera at the time (40,000 specimens of 7,000 species and 400 new species described by him), and completed the Lepidoptera Indica series after the death of Frederic Moore in 1907. He also published in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History . He also wrote A Revision of the Genera of the Family Liparidae which covered 1130 entries and published a Catalogue of the Moths of India (Calcutta, 1887–89) with Everard Charles Cotes. After retirement he settled at Oxford and received an honorary M.A. for his work in entomology. The Entomological Society of France made him an honorary member.His Lepidoptera collection was purchased by James John Joicey.
Colonel William Henry Sykes, FRS was an English naturalist who served with the British military in India and was specifically known for his work with the Indian Army as a politician, Indologist and ornithologist. One of the pioneers of the Victorian statistical movement, a founder of the Royal Statistical Society, he conducted surveys and examined the efficiency of army operation. Returning from service in India, he became a director of the East India Company and a member of parliament representing Aberdeen.
Frederick DuCane Godman DCL FRS FLS FGS FRGS FES FZS MRI FRHS was an English lepidopterist, entomologist and ornithologist. He was one of the twenty founding members of the British Ornithologists' Union. Along with Osbert Salvin, he is remembered for studying the fauna and flora of Central America.
Robert Swinhoe FRS was an English diplomat and naturalist who worked as a Consul in Formosa. He discovered many Southeast Asian birds, and several, such as Swinhoe's pheasant, are named after him.
Titian Ramsay Peale was an American ornithologist, entomologist, photographer, and explorer from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was a scientific illustrator whose paintings and drawings of wildlife were known for their beauty and accuracy.
John Anderson was a Scottish anatomist and zoologist who worked in India as the curator of the Indian Museum.
Charles McFarlane Inglis FES, FZS was a naturalist and curator of the Darjeeling museum in India from 1926 to 1948. The museum was run by the Bengal Natural History Society and many of his writings were published in that society's journal which he started and edited.
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen FRS FZS FRGS MBOU, known until 1854 as Henry Haversham Austen, was an English topographer, geologist, naturalist and surveyor.
Natural history in India has a long heritage with a recorded history going back to the Vedas. Natural history research in early times included the broad fields of palaeontology, zoology and botany. These studies would today be considered under field of ecology but in former times, such research was undertaken mainly by amateurs, often physicians, civil servants and army officers.
Roland Trimen FRS was a British-South African naturalist, best known for South African Butterflies (1887–89), a collaborative work with Colonel James Henry Bowker. He was among the first entomologists to investigate mimicry and polymorphism in butterflies and their restriction to females. He also collaborated with Charles Darwin to study the pollination of Disa orchids.
William Chapman Hewitson was a British naturalist. A wealthy collector, Hewitson was particularly devoted to Coleoptera (beetles) and Lepidoptera and, also, to birds' nests and eggs. His collection of butterflies, collected by him as well as purchased from travellers throughout the world, was one of the largest and most important of his time. He contributed to and published many works on entomology and ornithology and was an accomplished scientific illustrator.
Hugh Whistler, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. was an English police officer and ornithologist who worked in India. He wrote one of the first field guides to Indian birds and documented the distributions of birds in notes in several journals apart from describing new subspecies.
Borbo bevani, the Beavan's swift, is a butterfly belonging to the family Hesperiidae. It is named after Captain Robert Cecil Beavan. It is found throughout India.
Charaxes agrarius, the anomalous nawab, is a butterfly found in Asia that belongs to the rajahs and nawabs group, that is, the Charaxinae subfamily of the brush-footed butterflies family. The name is based on their resemblance to the common nawab, which was described before the discovery of this species.
Charles Thomas Bingham was an Irish military officer and entomologist.
Lieutenant Henry Edwin Barnes FZS (1848–1896) was born in Oxford and educated at Oxford University School. He worked in the Army stationed at Aden, Afghanistan and India. He wrote a Handbook to the Birds of the Bombay Presidency in 1885 and notes on birds at various places.
Captain Robert Cecil Beavan, corresponding member of the Zoological Society of London, served in India with the Bengal Staff Corps for 10 years. During his short life he collected specimens of birds and eggs at various locations. He contributed notes to the Ibis journal as wells as the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. He also collaborated with Allan Octavian Hume. His collection of eggs and birds went into the Natural History Museum through the Tweeddale and Godman-Salvin collections.
Frederic Moore FZS was a British entomologist. He was also an illustrator and produced six volumes of Lepidoptera Indica and a catalogue of the birds in the collection of the East India Company.
Lepidoptera Indica was a 10 volume work on the butterflies of the Indian region that was begun in 1890 and completed in 1913. It was published by Lovell Reeve and Co. of London. It has been considered the magnum opus of its author, Frederic Moore, assistant curator at the museum of the East India Company. Frederic Moore described a number of new species through this publication. Moore was a splitter, known for careless creation of synonyms, sometimes placing the same species in more than one genus.
Charles George Nurse FES was an English military officer, naturalist, ornithologist and entomologist. He was one of many British military officers who made significant contributions to knowledge of the natural history of India. Among his discoveries were a snake, a butterfly, an ant, and a neuropteran. About 50 species of moths that he collected were described by entomologists G. Hampson and Lord Walsingham. Entomologists P. Cameron and Col. C. T. Bingham described 200 species of Hymenoptera from his collections. Nurse also discovered the species of mosquito, Anopheles nursei, later shown to carry the malarial parasite that affected the army campaigns in Mesopotamia.
This list details events in the year 1838 in India. Major events include the Agra famine of 1837-38, and the founding of the Times of India on 3 November.