Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria

Last updated

Charles Theodore
Kurfurst Karl Theodor (Bayern).jpg
Painted by Anna Dorothea Therbusch in 1763
Elector Palatine
Reign31 December 1742 – 30 December 1777
Predecessor Charles III Philip
Elector of Bavaria
Count Palatine of the Rhine
Reign30 December 1777 – 16 February 1799
Predecessor Maximilian III Joseph
Successor Maximilian IV Joseph
Born(1724-12-11)11 December 1724
Drogenbos, Brussels, Austrian Netherlands
Died16 February 1799(1799-02-16) (aged 74)
Munich Residenz, Bavaria
Burial
Spouse Countess Palatine Elisabeth Augusta of Sulzbach
Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este
House House of Wittelsbach
Father John Christian, Count Palatine of Sulzbach
Mother Maria Henriette de La Tour d'Auvergne

Charles Theodore (German: Karl Theodor; 11 December 1724 – 16 February 1799) reigned as Prince-elector and Count Palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777 to his death. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Sulzbach, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.

Prince-elector members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire

The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, or Electors for short, were the members of the lectoral college that elected the Holy Roman Emperor.

Electoral Palatinate historical territory of the Holy Roman Empire

The County Palatine of the Rhine, later the Electorate of the Palatinate or simply Electoral Palatinate, was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine. Its rulers served as prince-electors (Kurfürsten) from time immemorial, were noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, and were confirmed as electors by the Golden Bull of 1356.

Duchy of Jülich duchy

The Duchy of Jülich comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries. The duchy lay left of the Rhine river between the Electorate of Cologne in the east and the Duchy of Limburg in the west. It had territories on both sides of the river Rur, around its capital Jülich – the former Roman Iuliacum – in the lower Rhineland. The duchy amalgamated with the County of Berg beyond the Rhine in 1423, and from then on also became known as Jülich-Berg.

Contents

Family and ascent

Charles Theodore was of the Wittelsbach house Palatinate-Sulzbach. [1] His father was Johann Christian, who later became Count Palatine of Sulzbach. His mother was Marie-Anne-Henriette-Leopoldine de La Tour d'Auvergne, Margravine of Bergen op Zoom, a grandniece of Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Viscount of Turenne. Charles Theodore was born in Drogenbos near Brussels and educated in Mannheim.

Palatinate-Sulzbach was the name of two separate states of the Holy Roman Empire located in modern Amberg-Sulzbach, Bavaria, Germany, ruled by a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.

Maria Henriette de La Tour dAuvergne French noblewoman

Maria Henriette de La Tour d'Auvergne was a noblewoman born into the House of La Tour d'Auvergne. She was the suo jure Margravine of Bergen op Zoom from 1710 at the death of her father. She was the mother of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria.

Henri de La Tour dAuvergne, Viscount of Turenne French nobleman, general, Marshal of France

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, often called simply Turenne, was a French Marshal General and the most illustrious member of the La Tour d'Auvergne family. His military exploits over his five-decade career earned him a reputation as one of the greatest generals in modern history.

Charles Theodore was the Margrave of Bergen op Zoom from 1728 onwards. He then succeeded his father as Count Palatine of Sulzbach in 1733 and inherited the Electoral Palatinate and the duchies of Jülich and Berg in 1742, with the death of Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine. To strengthen the union of all lines of the Wittelsbach dynasty Charles III Philip had organised a wedding on 17 January 1742 when his granddaughter Elizabeth Augusta was married to Charles Theodore and her sister Maria Anna to the Bavarian prince Clement.

Lords and margraves of Bergen op Zoom Wikimedia list article

The following is a list of lords and later on margraves of Bergen op Zoom. Bergen op Zoom became separated from the lordship of Breda in 1287 under the nominal overlordship of the duchy of Brabant. In 1559 the lordship was elevated to the rank of margraviate. The title was only a nominal one until 1795 when it was abolished.

Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine Elector Palatine, Duke of Jülich and Berg and Count Palatine of Neuburg

Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine was a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach. He was Elector Palatine, Count of Palatinate-Neuburg, and Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1716 to 1742. Until 1728 Charles III Philip was also Count of Megen.

Duke Clement Francis of Bavaria German nobleman

Klemens Franz de Paula, Prince of Bavaria was the son of the Imperial Field Marshal, Ferdinand of Bavaria (1699–1738), and the grandson of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria.

As reigning Prince Elector Palatine, Charles Theodore won the hearts of his subjects by founding an academy of science, stocking up the museums' collections and supporting the arts. When Maximilian III Joseph of Bavaria died in 1777, Charles Theodore became also Elector and Duke of Bavaria and moved to Munich.

Munich Place in Bavaria, Germany

Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna.

Charles Theodore Karl Theodor, Kurfurst (1742-1799).jpg
Charles Theodore

Bavarian succession

Charles Theodore did not immediately take up his new title. He had several mistresses and many illegitimate children. However, these people could inherit neither the Electorate of Bavaria nor that of the Palatine; Charles Theodore needed territory that he could bequeath to his illegitimate children. Charles Theodore also dreamed of resurrecting the Burgundian Empire of the Middle Ages.[ citation needed ]

Kingdom of Burgundy historic region in Western Europe, now Southern France

Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. The historical Burgundy correlates with the border area of France, Italy and Switzerland and includes the major modern cities of Geneva and Lyon.

On 3 January 1778, shortly after the death of Max Joseph, Charles Theodore signed an agreement with Emperor Joseph II to exchange southern Bavaria for part of the Austrian Netherlands.

Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Holy Roman Emperor

Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg lands from November 1780 until his death. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Emperor Francis I, and the brother of Marie Antoinette. He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which resulted in failure to fully implement his programmes. He has been ranked, with Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia, as one of the three great Enlightenment monarchs. His policies are now known as Josephinism. He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold II.

Austrian Netherlands

The Austrian Netherlands was the larger part of the Southern Netherlands between 1714 and 1797. The period began with the acquisition of the former Spanish Netherlands under the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 and lasted until its annexation during the aftermath of the Battle of Sprimont in 1794 and the Peace of Basel in 1795. Austria, however, did not relinquish its claim over the province until 1797 in the Treaty of Campo Formio. The Austrian Netherlands was a noncontiguous territory that consisted of what is now western Belgium as well as greater Luxembourg, bisected by the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The dominant languages were German, Dutch (Flemish), and French, along with Picard and Walloon.

The plan was strongly opposed by Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony, the widow of Max Joseph, and Charles Theodore's cousin Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken, the head of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld and next heir of Bavaria and the Palatinate. They were supported by Frederick II of Prussia, and most of the German minor states.

The ensuing diplomatic crisis led to the War of the Bavarian Succession, which was ended by the Peace of Teschen (1779). Charles Theodore accepted the Bavarian succession, but agreed that his illegitimate descendants could not inherit Bavaria. [2] Austria acquired the Innviertel, a part of Bavaria in the basin of the Inn river. [3]

Charles Theodore had only one son with his wife, Countess Elizabeth Augusta of Sulzbach, who died a day after birth. His wife died in 1794. In 1795, he married Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, Joseph's niece, but they had no children. A second proposal to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands in 1784 also failed as Frederick II of Prussia initiated the Fürstenbund.

When Charles Theodore died, Bavaria and the Electorate passed to his cousin, Max Joseph, Duke of Zweibrücken, the younger brother of Charles August, who had died in 1795.

In 1989, Marvin E. Thomas in Karl Theodor and the Bavarian Succession, 1777–1778 argued that in fact Charles Theodore wanted to maintain possession of his new territory, as is shown in his diplomatic correspondence. Thomas is the only scholar to produce such an analysis. [4] It is more widely understood that Charles Theodore continued the despotic and expensive habits he had developed as Elector Palatine.

Rule as elector of Bavaria

Charles Theodore never became popular as a ruler in Bavaria according to his critic Lorenz von Westenrieder. He attempted, without success to exchange the ducal lands of Bavaria, for the Austrian Netherlands and a royal crown, and he never managed to control the mounting social tensions in Bavaria. After a dispute with Munich's city council, he even moved the electoral residence in 1788 to Mannheim but returned only one year later. [5]

In 1785, he appointed the American Loyalist exile Benjamin Thompson as his aide-de-camp and chamberlain. Over the next 11 years, Thompson reformed the army and many aspects of the state, rising to high ministerial rank with Charles Theodore's backing, and becoming Count von Rumford.

Charles Theodore is also known for disbanding Adam Weishaupt's order of the Illuminati in 1785.

In 1794, the armies of revolutionary France occupied the Duchy of Jülich, in 1795 they invaded the Palatinate, and in 1796 marched towards Bavaria. Charles Theodore begged Francis II for help that would have made Bavaria a puppet state of Austria. When he died of a stroke in Munich in 1799, the population in Munich celebrated for several days. He is buried in the crypt of the Theatinerkirche in Munich.

Despite the mutual dislike and distrust between the Duke and his Bavarian subjects, Charles Theodore left a distinctive mark on the city of Munich: it was during his reign that the English Garden , Munich's largest park, was created, and the city's old fortifications were dismantled to make place for a modern, expanding city. One of Munich's major squares, Karlsplatz, is named after Charles Theodore. Munich natives, however, seldom use that name, calling the square instead Stachus , after the pub "Beim Stachus" that was located there until construction work for Karlsplatz began, mainly because Charles Theodore, as noted above, never enjoyed the popularity in Bavaria that he enjoyed in the Palatinate.

Silver thaler coin of Charles Theodore, 1778.
Karl Theodor Silver Coin.jpg
Obverse
CAR[OLUS] TH[EODORUS] D[EI] G[RATIA] C[OMES] P[ALATINUS] R[HENI] U[TRIUSQUE] B[AVARIAE] D[UX] S[ACRI] R[OMANI] I[MPERII] A[RCHIDAPIFER] & EL[ECTOR] D[UX] I[ULIACI] C[LIVIAE] & M[ONTIUM]."Charles Theodore, by the Grace of God, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke of both (Upper and Lower) Bavaria, Archsteward and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Jülich, Cleves and Berg." Right profile of Charles Theodor in armour with sash and decoration.
Reverse
PATRONA BAVARIAE 1778. "Patroness of Bavaria 1778." Image of the crowned Virgin with the Christ child, bearing orb and sceptre, seated upon clouds before a sunburst, and treading on a crescent moon.

Character

Charles Theodore was more interested in arts and philosophy than in politics. Historian Thomas Carlyle referred to him as a "poor idle creature, of purely egoistical, ornamental, dilettante nature; sunk in theatricals, bastard children and the like; much praised by Voltaire, who sometimes used to visit him; and Collini, to whom he [Charles Theodore] is a kind master." [6]

The French foreign minister, Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes, knew him and described his foibles even more succinctly:

Although by nature intelligent, he has never succeeded in ruling by himself; he has always been governed by his ministers or by his father-confessor or (for a time) by the [E]lectress [his wife]. This conduct has increased his natural weakness and apathy to such a degree that for a long time he has had no opinions save those inspired in him by his entourage. The void which this indolence has left in his soul is filled with the amusements of the hunt and of music and by secret liaisons, for which His Electoral Majesty has at all times had a particular penchant. [7]

In the course of his career, Charles Theodore acquired a celebrated secretary when the Florentine noble, Cosimo Alessandro Collini (1727–1806), who had been Voltaire's secretary, accepted his patronage and remained in the Palatine. [8] Although Charles Theodore certainly wished to acquire more territory, he had only natural sons, thus he preferred territory that he could dispose of through his testament, rather than territory encumbered by a legal entailment that could only pass to a legitimate son. [9]

Cultural legacy

Charles Theodore was a great lover of the arts, including drama and especially music. His Mannheim court orchestra was considered one of the finest in its time. The Mannheim School (including composer Christian Cannabich and conductor Johann Stamitz) did groundbreaking work that the celebrated Wiener Klassik would later draw upon. Mozart applied for a position with the Mannheim orchestra in 1777, but was turned down, as the court was about to move to Munich. In 1780, Charles Theodore commissioned Idomeneo from the composer. Mozart quotes him as saying "No music has ever made such an impression on me. It is magnificent." [10]

In keeping with the customs of the time, an Italian opera company as well as a troupe of French actors were employed at Mannheim, each performing in their respective tongues. Later, the Nationaltheater (national theatre) was established, one of the first theatres in Germany to exclusively showcase plays in the native tongue (most notably, the first staging of Schiller's "Die Räuber" in 1782).

In the visual arts, a massive collection of plaster casts taken from celebrated antique works was assembled at Mannheim. The preexisting Düsseldorf gallery, including many works by Rubens, was first transferred to Mannheim, then to Munich, where it was later incorporated in the Alte Pinakothek. While none of the Mannheim painters are particularly notable today (with the possible exception of Kobell, primarily a master of landscapes), the elector had several highly talented sculptors at his disposal, among them Verschaffelt, Simon Peter Lamine and Konrad Linck. Linck also distinguished himself as a designer of porcelain figurines at Frankenthal. [11]

Charles Theodore’s chief architect Nicolas de Pigage was charged to complete the Mannheim Palace, design the Schlosstheater and the gardens at Schwetzingen Palace ( including numerous pavilions, among them several artificial "Roman" ruins and a "mosque") as well as Benrath palace. While these works are in a pure contemporary French style (marked by the transition from late Baroque to early classicism), some of the other architects employed by Charles Theodore were proponents of a more Italianate style. This mixture of influences is, in fact, typical of many German courts of the period. Charles Theodore was also responsible for the construction of the Old Bridge in Heidelberg, which bears his name as the Karl-Theodor-Brücke.

Schloss Benrath, Dusseldorf Schloss Benrath HG vorne.jpg
Schloss Benrath, Düsseldorf
Mosque at Schwetzingen Castle. Schwetzingen Moschee-02.jpg
Mosque at Schwetzingen Castle.
Entrance to Schwetzingen Castle. Schwetzingen Schloss Eingang.jpg
Entrance to Schwetzingen Castle.

Charles Theodore liked to style himself as a prince of peace, in contrast to other princes like his chief political opponent, the great warrior Frederick II of Prussia. Allegorically, Minerva, the Roman goddess of wisdom and protectress of the arts, is often depicted as a stand-in for the elector himself. This self-view is best summed up in the inscription of a small monument at Schwetzingen:

“A field of war and death of Romans and Germans has been discovered, through the unearthing of weapons, urns and bones, in the year 1765. – To the arts of peace, which are the sole joys of his life, the elector Charles Theodore has dedicated this spot, excavated to the height of seven feet, and had this monument erected in 1768.”

Orangerie at Schwetzingen Castle Schwetzingen Orangerie.jpg
Orangerie at Schwetzingen Castle
Garden at Schwetzingen Castle Schlossgarten Schwetzingen.jpg
Garden at Schwetzingen Castle

Family

Marriages and children

On 17 January 1742, in Mannheim, he married Elisabeth Auguste, daughter of Count Palatine Joseph Charles of Sulzbach and his consort Countess Palatine Elizabeth Augusta Sophie of Neuburg. There was one child of this marriage who died in infancy, Francis Louis Joseph (28 June – 29 June 1761).

On 15 February 1795, in Innsbruck, he married Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este. There were no children of this marriage.

Illegitimate children

From his liaison with the actress Françoise Després-Verneuil, later Countess von Parkstein (died 1765):

  1. Karoline Franziska Dorothea, Countess von Parkstein (1762 – 7 September 1816, Ickelheim); married Prince Friedrich Wilhelm zu Isenburg-Büdingen-Birstein (13 December 1730, Birstein – 12 October 1804, Mannheim)
  2. son (1764–1765)
Charles Theodore's legitimated children and his second mistress H C Brandt Grafin Heydeck mit ihren Kindern.jpg
Charles Theodore's legitimated children and his second mistress

From his liaison with Maria Josefa Seyfert, Countess von Heydeck (1748  1771):

  1. Karoline Josepha von Bretzenheim (27 January 1768 – 27 April 1786); married Count Maximilian Josef von Holnstein (20 May 1760 – 1838) in 1784
  2. Karl August, Count of Heydeck and Reichsfürst von Bretzenheim, (24 December 1769 – 27 February 1823) married Maria Walburga von Oettingen-Spielberg (29 August 1766 – 8 May 1833) on 27 April 1788, Oettingen
  3. Eleonore Karoline von Bretzenheim (9 December 1771 – 23 December 1832); married Prince Wilhelm Karl von Leiningen (5 July 1737 – 26 January 1809) on 21 November 1787 (divorced 1801)
  4. Friederike Karoline von Bretzenheim (9 December 1771 – 2 March 1816), twin with Eleonore; married Count Maximilian von Westerholt-Gysenberg (1772 – 19 April 1854) in 1796

From his liaison with Maria Anna, Gräfin zu Leiningen, widow of Franz Friedrich, Graf von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein-Vallendar:

  1. Karoline von Ezenried (31 August 1771 Münstereifel – 24 September 1828, Schloss Laim bei München, married in second marriage with Dr. Joseph Reubel, Professor of Medicine, University of München)

Ancestry

See also

Related Research Articles

House of Wittelsbach German noble family

The House of Wittelsbach is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.

Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria King of Bavaria

Maximilian I Joseph was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, prince-elector of Bavaria from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria from 1806 to 1825. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.

Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria Duke of Bavaria

Maximilian III Joseph was a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria from 1745 to 1777.

Duke in Bavaria was a title used among others since 1506, when primogeniture was established, by all members of the House of Wittelsbach, with the exception of the Duke of Bavaria which began to be a unique position. So reads for instance the full title of Karl I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld and patriarch of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld: "Count Palatine by Rhine, Duke in Bavaria, Count to Veldenz and Sponheim". The title grew in importance as Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen began to use it as his primary title. This choice has also had effect for his descendants.

Palatinate-Neuburg

Palatinate-Neuburg was a territory of the Holy Roman Empire, founded in 1505 by a branch of the House of Wittelsbach. Its capital was Neuburg an der Donau. Its area was about 2,750 km², with a population of some 100,000.

Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach German countess

Countess Palatine Maria Francisca of Sulzbach, was a Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld by marriage to Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld.

Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste Sofie of Neuburg Grandmother of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

Elisabeth Auguste of Neuburg was the only surviving child of Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine. The Palatinate-Neuburg line became extinct with her father and was succeeded by the Palatinate-Sulzbach line. Her sons with Count Palatine Joseph Charles of Sulzbach would have been the indisputable heirs to the Electorate of the Palatinate, but they all died in infancy. She was the Hereditary Princess of Sulzbach by marriage.

Electorate of Bavaria

The Electorate of Bavaria was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.

Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken Father of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He was the son of Christian III of Palatinate-Zweibrücken and Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken and a member of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach. He was the father of the Bavarian King Maximilian I Joseph.

Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken Duke of Zweibrücken, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler

Charles II August Christian was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1775 to 1795. A member of the Palatine House of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach, he was the elder brother of the first King of Bavaria, Maximilian I, and of Queen Amalia of Saxony.

Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este Archduchess of Austria

Archduchess Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, was an Electress of Bavaria as the second spouse of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria.

Countess Palatine Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach German countess

Elisabeth Auguste of Sulzbach was the eldest granddaughter of the Elector of the Palatinate Charles III Philip, and by her marriage to Elector Palatine Charles IV Theodore, Electress Palatine and later Electress of Bavaria.

Count Palatine Joseph Charles of Sulzbach Heir apparent of Neuburg, Sulzbach and the Palatinate

Joseph Charles, Hereditary Prince of Sulzbach was the eldest son of Theodore Eustace, Count Palatine of Sulzbach.

John Christian, Count Palatine of Sulzbach Count Palatine of Sulzbach

John Christian was the Count Palatine of Sulzbach from 1732–33. He was the second and youngest surviving son of duke Theodore Eustace, Count Palatine of Sulzbach (1659–1732) with his consort Eleonore Maria Amalia of Hesse-Rotenburg (1675–1720). His elder brother was Joseph Charles, Count Palatine of Sulzbach.

Duke Wilhelm in Bavaria Great-grandfather of Empress Elisabeth of Austria

Duke Wilhelm in Bavaria, full German name: Wilhelm, Herzog in Bayern was Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen between 1789 and 1799 and first Duke in Bavaria from 16 February 1799 until his death in 1837. From 17 December 1803 to 20 March 1806, Wilhelm was titled Duke of Berg. Wilhelm was a great-grandfather of Empress Elisabeth of Austria through his son Duke Pius August in Bavaria.

References

  1. (in German) Brockhaus Geschichte Second Edition
  2. Thomas, Marvin E. Karl Theodor and the Bavarian Succession.
  3. Hochedlinger, p. 367.
  4. Thomas, Marvin E., Karl Theodor and the Bavarian Succession, 1777–1778. The Edwin Mellen Press: Lewiston/Lampeter/Queenston: 1989.
  5. See the Tagebuch of Lorenz von Westenrieder, Lorenz von Westenrieder.
  6. Thomas Carlyle. History of Friedrich II of Prussia called Frederick the great : in eight volumes. Vol. VIII in The works of Thomas Carlyle in thirty volumes. London: Chapman and Hall, 1896–1899, p. 193.
  7. J. C. Easton. "Charles Theodore of Bavaria and Count Rumford." The Journal of Modern History. Vol. 12, No. 2 (Jun., 1940), pp. 145–160, pp. 145–146 quoted.
  8. See (in German) Collini, found in (in German) Jörg Kreutz: Cosimo Alessandro Collini (1727–1806). Ein europäischer Aufklärer am kurpfälzischen Hof. Mannheimer Altertumsverein von 1859 – Gesellschaft d. Freunde Mannheims u. d. ehemaligen Kurpfalz; Reiss-Engelhorn-Museen Mannheim; Stadtarchiv — Institut f. Stadtgeschichte Mannheim (Hrsg.). Mannheimer historische Schriften Bd. 3, Verlag Regionalkultur, 2009, ISBN   978-3-89735-597-2.
  9. Henry Smith Williams. The Historians' History of the World: a comprehensive narrative of the rise and development of nations as recorded by the great writers of all ages. London: The Times, 1908, p. 245.
  10. David Cairns, Mozart and his operas, 2006, p.48.
  11. see The Catalogue of the paintings in the Old pinakothek, Munich https://books.google.com/books?id=d6hJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA288&dq=karl+theodore+alte+pinakothek+catalogue&as_brr=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false
  12. Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 91.
Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria
Born: 12 December 1724 Died: 16 February 1799
German nobility
Preceded by
John Christian
Count Palatine of Sulzbach
1733–99
Succeeded by
Maximilian IV Joseph
Preceded by
Charles III Philip
Elector Palatine
1742–99
Duke of Jülich and Berg
1742–99
Count Palatine of Neuburg
1742–99
Preceded by
Maximilian III Joseph
Elector of Bavaria
1777–99
Preceded by
Marie Henriette
Marquis of Bergen op Zoom
1742–95
Batavian Republic