Charles Throsby

Last updated

Charles Throsby
Born1777
Died2 April 1828(1828-04-02) (aged 50–51)
NationalityEnglish
OccupationSurgeon, explorer
Known forExploration, pioneer

Charles Throsby (1777 2 April 1828) was an English surgeon who, after he migrated to New South Wales in 1802, became an explorer, pioneer and parliamentarian. He opened up much new land beyond the Blue Mountains for colonial settlement.

Contents

Early life

Throsby was born in Glenfield near Leicester in England. He was engaged as a surgeon on the convict transport Coromandel carrying 136 male convicts from Portsmouth to Sydney. They departed Portsmouth 12 February 1802, [1] and arrived in Sydney without calling in port on 13 June 1802, with no reported convict deaths under his care.

Soon afterwards he joined the medical staff of the Colony, and in October 1802 he was appointed a magistrate and acting-surgeon at Castle Hill. In August 1804 he was transferred to Newcastle, and in April 1805 was made superintendent there. Towards the end of 1808 he was given a grant of 500 acres (2 km²) at Cabramatta, and in the following year resigned his position at Newcastle. [2] In 1811 he was employed as agent by the colony's wealthiest landowner, Sir John Jamison, of Regentville. [3]

He subsequently paid a visit to England

Exploration

In 1817, Throsby did some exploration near Moss Vale and Sutton Forest.

On 8 March 1818, with James Meehan, he set out to discover a route to Jervis Bay, and about three weeks later the party having been split up Throsby's section reached Jervis Bay by way of the Kangaroo and Lower Shoalhaven rivers. Determining that he had no hope of finding his way to his intended destination, he couldn't decide whether to keep going or head back. A pair of aborigines helped him get through the valley by way of Meryla Pass.

On 25 April 1819 Throsby pioneered exploration west of the Blue Mountains, when he left the Cowpastures (near the present day Camden), and travelling first south-south-west, then west, north-west, and north-north-west, finished his journey near the site of Bathurst. Macquarie stated in a dispatch that "the rich fertile country passed over by Mr Throsby . . . will be fully equal to meet every increase of the population . . . for many years". Throsby himself was given a grant of land near Moss Vale at Bong Bong. [4] Throsby undertook the journey with John Rowley, two servants John Wait and Joe Wild, and two Aboriginal guides, named Cookoogong and Dual. [5] [6]

He was put in charge of the construction of a road to the Goulburn plains and in August of that year two of his men reached Lake George. In October Governor Macquarie visited this district with Throsby, and while he was there Throsby and two other men made further explorations. The details of this trip are lost, but it is probable that Throsby passed through what is now the Australian Capital Territory and that he reached the Yass River. On 20 March 1821 Throsby with two companions made an expedition to reach the Murrumbidgee River, having heard of its existence from the aborigines. Coming first to the Molonglo River he probably discovered the Murrumbidgee below Tuggeranong, near Pine Island early in April 1821. [7]

Legislative Council

In November 1824 Throsby was one of the 10 landholders and merchants submitted by Governor Brisbane to Earl Bathurst as suitable for appointment for a colonial council, and when the New South Wales Legislative Council was formed in December 1825, three of these were appointed, of whom Throsby was one. [8] His standing in the community was very high and he was the owner of about 20,000 acres (8,100 ha) and large and valuable herds of cattle.

In about 1811 Throsby had become security for the purchase of a vessel by a friend, Garnham Blaxcell, who had left the colony in 1817 and subsequently died. Proceedings were taken against Throsby which became drawn out, and eventually a verdict against him was obtained for £4000. His health had not been good for some time, and becoming depressed, on 2 April 1828 he committed suicide by shooting himself. [9]

Charles Throsby had no children, and his estate was inherited by his nephew, Charles Throsby. He had previously been sent for and arrived on the Mangles on 7 August 1820. [2] [10] The nephew and his family prospered in the Moss Vale area. He married Elizabeth "Betsey" Broughton, one of the survivors of the 1809 Boyd massacre, and had many children. [11] Throsby Park in Moss Vale was occupied by five generations of the family.

Legacy

Throsby is commemorated in the name of the Commonwealth Electoral Division of Throsby, in the Canberra suburb of Throsby and Throsby Creek in Newcastle, New South Wales.

Related Research Articles

Hamilton Hume Australian explorer (1797–1873)

Hamilton Hume was an early explorer of the present-day Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria. In 1824, along with William Hovell, Hume participated in an expedition that first took an overland route from Sydney to Port Phillip. Along with Sturt in 1828, he was part of an expedition of the first Europeans to find the Darling River.

John Oxley Australian politician

John Joseph William Molesworth Oxley was an explorer and surveyor of Australia in the early period of British colonisation. He served as Surveyor General of New South Wales and is perhaps best known for his two expeditions into the interior of New South Wales and his exploration of the Tweed River and the Brisbane River in what is now the state of Queensland.

John Hunter (Royal Navy officer) Royal Navy officer and colonial administrator (1737–1821)

Vice Admiral John Hunter was an officer of the Royal Navy, who succeeded Arthur Phillip as the second Governor of New South Wales, serving from 1795 to 1800.

Thomas Brisbane British Army general

Major General Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane, 1st Baronet,, was a British Army officer, administrator, and astronomer. Upon the recommendation of the Duke of Wellington, with whom he had served, he was appointed governor of New South Wales from 1821 to 1825.

Charles Sturt Australian explorer

Charles Napier Sturt was a British officer and explorer of Australia, and part of the European exploration of Australia. He led several expeditions into the interior of the continent, starting from Sydney and later from Adelaide. His expeditions traced several of the westward-flowing rivers, establishing that they all merged into the Murray River, which flows into the Southern Ocean. He was searching to prove his own passionately held belief that an "inland sea" was located at the centre of the continent. He reached the rank of Captain, served in several appointed posts, and on the Legislative Council.

Lachlan Macquarie Scottish British army officer and colonial administrator (1762–1824)

Major General Lachlan Macquarie, CB was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. Macquarie served as the fifth Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821, and had a leading role in the social, economic, and architectural development of the colony. He is considered by historians to have had a crucial influence on the transition of New South Wales from a penal colony to a free settlement and therefore to have played a major role in the shaping of Australian society in the early nineteenth century. Despite Macquarie expressing a desire for Aboriginal peoples to be treated kindly, in 1816 he gave orders that led to the Appin Massacre of Gundungurra and Dharawal people during the Hawkesbury and Nepean Wars.

Kangaroo Valley, New South Wales Suburb of City of Shoalhaven, New South Wales, Australia

Kangaroo Valley is a river valley along the Kangaroo River in the Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia, located west of the seaside in the City of Shoalhaven. It is also the name of the small suburb within it, formerly known as Osborne, with a population of 879 in the 2016 census. The township is accessed by the Moss Vale Road, which links Moss Vale to the Princes Highway at Bomaderry a little north of Nowra via the B73 route.

Moss Vale Town in New South Wales, Australia

Moss Vale is a town in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in the Wingecarribee Shire. At the 2016 census, it has a population of 8,579 and is sited on the Illawarra Highway, which connects to Wollongong and the Illawarra coast via Macquarie Pass.

Nineteen Counties

The Nineteen Counties were the limits of location in the colony of New South Wales, Australia. Settlers were permitted to take up land only within the counties due to the dangers in the wilderness.

History of the Australian Capital Territory History of the Australian region

The history of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) as a separate administrative division began in 1911, when it was transferred from New South Wales to the Australian federal government. The territory contains Australia's capital city Canberra and various smaller settlements. Until 1989, it also administered the Jervis Bay Territory, a small coastal region.

Joseph Wild Australian explorer (1759–1837)

Joseph Wild (1759–1837) held a number of titles throughout his life, namely a convict, explorer, shepherd, constable and conveyor. He was convicted of burglary and was eventually sentenced to transportation to Australia. This was a common punishment for English convicts during this time period. It was during his time in Australia that Joseph Wild became known for being an explorer. His significance to Australian history stems from his discoveries within the Australian interior. He is most recognised for his contributions to the "discovery of Canberra," Sutton Forest, Jervis Bay, Bathurst, "Wildes Meadow," the discovery of Lake George and the Mongolo river.

Joseph Lycett Australian portrait and miniature painter

Joseph Lycett was a portrait and miniature painter, active in Australia. Transported to Australia for forging banknotes, Lycett found work in the colony as a painter specialised in topographical views of the major towns of Australia, and some of its more dramatic landscapes.

Burrawang, New South Wales Town in New South Wales, Australia

Burrawang is a village in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia in Wingecarribee Shire. According to the 2016 Australian census, Burrawang's population was 361.

Carwoola Town in New South Wales, Australia

Carwoola is a locality in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is immediately to the south of the Kowen district, which is located in the Australian Capital Territory. The Molonglo River passes through the Carwoola area before opening out into the Molonglo Plains. The Kings Highway and Captains Flat Road are the two major through routes. Carwoola is part of the Queanbeyan-Palerang Regional Council and the Southern Tablelands geographic area. The area also roughly aligns with the original Carwoola Parish.

European land exploration of Australia

European land exploration of Australia deals with the opening up of the interior of Australia to European settlement which occurred gradually throughout the colonial period, 1788–1900. A number of these explorers are very well known, such as Burke and Wills who are well known for their failed attempt to cross the interior of Australia, as well as Hamilton Hume and Charles Sturt.

Mount Broughton

Mount Broughton is a historic house located in Sutton Forest, New South Wales, Australia. It is run commercially as Peppers Manor House. The house was built in 1878 by Henry Edward Kater and was the rural retreat for the Kater family for almost one hundred years. In 1978 it was restored and opened as a country house hotel, one of the first such hotels in NSW. Later, extensions were made to convert it to a hotel and conference centre.

Glenfield Farm Historic site in New South Wales, Australia

Glenfield Farm is a heritage-listed homestead at 88 Leacocks Lane, Casula, City of Liverpool, New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1810 to 1817 by convict labour. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Throsby Park Historic site in New South Wales, Australia

Throsby Park is a heritage-listed homestead at Church Road, Moss Vale, Wingecarribee Shire, New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1820 to 1836. The property is owned by the Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales, but is leased to banker Tim Throsby of Barclays, a descendant of the original owners. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Military Station archaeological site Historic site in New South Wales, Australia

The Military Station archaeological site is a heritage-listed former stock station, military station, depot and provision depot and now archaeological site at 200 Jenolan Caves Road, Hartley, City of Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1815 to 1832 by convict labour. It is also known as Military Station Archaeological Site and Burial at Glenroy, Cox's River Military Station and Government Provision Depot. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 1 October 2010.

Elizabeth Throsby Australian survivor of the 1809 Boyd massacre

Elizabeth Isabella Throsby was an Australian survivor of the 1809 Boyd massacre.

References

  1. "Ship News". The Morning Post and Gazetteer. 15 February 1802. p. 3.
  2. 1 2 Parsons, Vivienne (1967). "Throsby, Charles (1777–1828)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Melbourne University Press. ISSN   1833-7538 . Retrieved 17 April 2019 via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  3. Serle, Percival (1949). "Throsby, Charles". Dictionary of Australian Biography . Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
  4. Canberra's Engineering Heritage, William Charles Andrews, Institution of Engineers, Canberra, 1990 p1
  5. "Government and Gereral Orders". 12 June 1819. p. 1.
  6. "'A real go-getter': How a retired school teacher found a dynamic — but long forgotten — explorer in her family tree". www.abc.net.au. 19 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  7. "Discover our Territory". Canberra & District Historical Society. Archived from the original on 12 September 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
  8. "Mr Charles Throsby (1777-1828)". Former Members of the Parliament of New South Wales . Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  9. "The Honorable Charles Throsby, Esq". Sydney Morning Herald. 4 April 1828. p. 2. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  10. "Colonial Secretary Index, 1788-1825 : Charles Throsby". State Records of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011.
  11. "Betsy Broughton (A Brief Biography)". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 29 October 2009.