Charles VIII of France

Last updated

Charles VIII
Portrait of King Charles VIII of France (1470-1498), by anonymous artist, 16th century (cropped).jpg
16th-century portrait
King of France
Reign30 August 1483 – 7 April 1498
Coronation 30 May 1484 (Reims)
Predecessor Louis XI
Successor Louis XII
Regent Anne of France and Peter II, Duke of Bourbon (1483–1491)
Born30 June 1470
Château d'Amboise, France
Died7 April 1498(1498-04-07) (aged 27)
Château d'Amboise, France
Burial1 May 1498
Saint Denis Basilica (body)
Notre-Dame de Cléry Basilica, Cléry-Saint-André (heart)
(m. 1491)
Charles Orlando, Dauphin of France
House Valois
Father Louis XI of France
Mother Charlotte of Savoy
Signature Charles VIII of France signature.svg

Charles VIII, called the Affable (French : l'Affable; 30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498), was King of France from 1483 to his death in 1498. He succeeded his father Louis XI at the age of 13. His elder sister Anne acted as regent jointly with her husband Peter II, Duke of Bourbon until 1491, when the young king turned 21 years of age. During Anne's regency, the great lords rebelled against royal centralisation efforts in a conflict known as the Mad War (1485–1488), which resulted in a victory for the royal government.


In a remarkable stroke of audacity, Charles married Anne of Brittany in 1491 after she had already been married by proxy to the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in a ceremony of questionable validity. Preoccupied by the problematic succession in the Kingdom of Hungary, Maximilian failed to press his claim. Upon his marriage, Charles became administrator of Brittany and established a personal union that enabled France to avoid total encirclement by Habsburg territories.

To secure his rights to the Neapolitan throne that René of Anjou had left to his father, Charles made a series of concessions to neighbouring monarchs and, due to his revolutionary artillery, conquered the Italian peninsula without much opposition. A coalition formed against the French invasion of 1494–98 attempted to stop Charles' army at Fornovo, but failed and Charles marched his army back to France.

Charles died in 1498 after accidentally striking his head on the lintel of a door at the Château d'Amboise, his place of birth. Since he had no male heir, he was succeeded by his second cousin once removed and brother-in-law at the time, Louis XII, from the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois.


Charles was born at the Château d'Amboise in France, the only surviving son of King Louis XI by his second wife Charlotte of Savoy. [1] His godparents were Charles II, Duke of Bourbon (the godchild's namesake), Joan of Valois, Duchess of Bourbon, and the teenage Edward of Westminster, the son of Henry VI of England who had been living in France since the deposition of his father by Edward IV. Charles succeeded to the throne on 30 August 1483 at the age of 13. [2] His health was poor. He was regarded by his contemporaries as possessing a pleasant disposition, but also as foolish and unsuited for the business of the state. In accordance with the wishes of Louis XI, the regency of the kingdom was granted to Charles' elder sister Anne, a formidably intelligent and shrewd woman described by her father as "the least foolish woman in France". [3] She ruled as regent, together with her husband Peter of Bourbon, until 1491. [2] [1]


Charles was betrothed on 22 July 1483 to the 3-year-old Margaret of Austria, daughter of the Archduke Maximilian of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I) and Mary, Duchess of Burgundy. [4] The marriage was arranged by Louis XI, Maximilian, and the Estates of the Low Countries as part of the 1482 Peace of Arras between France and the Duchy of Burgundy. Margaret brought the counties of Artois and Franche-Comté to France as her dowry, [5] and she was raised in the French court as a prospective queen.

In 1488, however, Francis II, Duke of Brittany, died in a riding accident, leaving his 11-year-old daughter Anne as his heir. Anne, who feared for the independence of her duchy against the ambitions of France, arranged a marriage in 1490 between herself and the widower Maximilian. The regent Anne of France and her husband Peter refused to countenance such a marriage, however, since it would place Maximilian and his family, the Habsburgs, on two French borders. The French army invaded Brittany, taking advantage of the preoccupation of Maximilian and his father, Emperor Frederick III, with the disputed succession to Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary. Anne of Brittany was forced to renounce Maximilian (whom she had only married by proxy) and agree to be married to Charles VIII instead. [6]

Marriage to Anne of Brittany at the Chateau de Langeais. Loire Indre Langeais tango7174.jpg
Marriage to Anne of Brittany at the Château de Langeais.

In December 1491, in an elaborate ceremony at the Château de Langeais, Charles and Anne of Brittany were married. The 14-year-old Duchess Anne, not happy with the arranged marriage, arrived for her wedding with her entourage carrying two beds. However, Charles's marriage brought him independence from his relatives and thereafter he managed affairs according to his own inclinations. Queen Anne lived at the Clos Lucé in Amboise.

There still remained the matter of Charles' first betrothed, the young Margaret of Austria. Although the cancellation of her betrothal meant that she by rights should have been returned to her family, Charles did not initially do so, intending to marry her usefully elsewhere in France. Eventually, in 1493, she was returned to her family, together with her dowry – though the Duchy of Burgundy was retained in the Treaty of Senlis.

Around the king there was a circle of court poets, the most memorable being the Italian humanist Publio Fausto Andrelini from Forlì, who spread Renaissance humanism in France. During a pilgrimage to pay respects to his father's remains, Charles observed Mont Aiguille and ordered Antoine de Ville to ascend to the summit in an early technical alpine climb, later alluded to by Rabelais. [7] [8]

Italian War

To secure France against invasions, Charles made treaties with Maximilian I of Austria (the Treaty of Barcelona with Maximilian of Austria on 19 January 1493) [9] and England, (the Treaty of Étaples with England on 3 November 1492) [10] buying their neutrality with large concessions. The English monarch Henry VII had forced Charles to abandon his support for the pretender Perkin Warbeck by despatching an expedition which laid siege to Boulogne. He devoted France's resources to building up a large army, including one of Europe's first siege trains with artillery.

In 1489, Pope Innocent VIII (1484–1492), then being at odds with Ferdinand I of Naples, offered Naples to Charles, who had a vague claim to the Kingdom of Naples through his paternal grandmother, Marie of Anjou. Innocent's policy of meddling in the affairs of other Italian states [11] was continued by his successor, Pope Alexander VI (1492–1503), when the latter supported a plan for a carving out a new state in central Italy. The new state would have impacted on Milan more than any of the other states involved.[ citation needed ] Consequently, in 1493, Ludovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan, appealed for help to Charles VIII. [12] Charles then returned Perpignan to Ferdinand II of Aragon to free up forces for the invasion of Italy. [13] The next year in 1494, Milan faced an additional threat. On 25 January 1494, Ferdinand I, King of Naples, died unexpectedly. [14] His death made Alfonso II, king of Naples. Alfonso II laid claim to the Milanese duchy. [15] Alfonso II now urged Charles to take Milan militarily. Charles was also urged on in this adventure by his favorite courtier, Étienne de Vesc. Thus, Charles came to imagine himself capable of actually taking Naples, and invaded Italy.

French troops under Charles VIII entering Florence, 17 November 1494, by Francesco Granacci French troops under Charles VIII entering Florence 17 November 1494 by Francesco Granacci.jpg
French troops under Charles VIII entering Florence, 17 November 1494, by Francesco Granacci

In an event that was to prove a watershed in Italian history, [16] Charles invaded Italy with 25,000 men (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries) in September 1494 and marched across the peninsula virtually unopposed, using gunpowder artillery powerful enough to rapidly reduce Italian fortifications not designed to endure it. He arrived in Pavia on 21 October 1494 and entered Pisa on 8 November 1494. [17] The French army subdued Florence in passing on their way south. Reaching Naples on 22 February 1495, [18] the French Army took Naples without a pitched battle or siege; Alfonso was expelled, and Charles was crowned King of Naples.

There were those in the Republic of Florence who appreciated the presence of the French king and his Army. The famous friar Savonarola believed that King Charles VIII was God's tool to purify the corruption of Florence. He believed that once Charles had ousted the evil sinners of Florence, the city would become a center of morality. Thus, Florence was the appropriate place to restructure the Church. This situation would eventually spill over into another conflict between Pope Alexander VI, who despised the idea of having the king in northern Italy where the Pope feared the King of France would interfere with the Papal States, [19] and Savonarola, who called for the king's intervention. This conflict would eventually lead Savonarola to be suspected of heresy and to be executed by the State.

The speed and power of the French advance frightened the other Italian rulers, including the Pope and even Ludovico of Milan. They formed an anti-French coalition, the League of Venice on 31 March 1495. The formation of the League of Venice, which included the northern Italian states of Duchy of Milan, the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Mantua, and the Republic of Florence in addition to the Kingdom of Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Naples, appeared to have trapped Charles in southern Italy and blocked his return to France. Charles would have to cross the territory of at least some of the League members to return home to France. At Fornovo in July 1495, the League was unable to stop Charles from marching his army out of Italy. [20] The League lost 2,000 men to Charles' 1,000 and, although Charles lost nearly all the booty of the campaign, the League was unable to stop him from crossing their territory on his way back to France. Meanwhile, Charles' remaining garrisons in Naples were quickly subdued by Aragonese forces sent by Ferdinand II of Aragon, ally of Alfonso on 6–7 July 1495. [21] Thus in the end, Charles VIII lost all the gains that he had made in Italy.

Over the next few years, Charles VIII tried to rebuild his army and resume the campaign, but he was hampered by the large debts incurred in 1494–95. He never succeeded in gaining anything substantive.


Charles died in 1498, two and a half years after his retreat from Italy, as the result of an accident. While on his way to watch a game of jeu de paume (real tennis) in Amboise he struck his head on the lintel of a door. [22] At around 2:00 p.m., while returning from the game, he fell into a sudden coma and died nine hours later.

Coat of arms of Charles VIII, showing France Moderne and France Ancient quartered with Jerusalem cross, representing Charles's claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem Armes charles 8 france et naples.png
Coat of arms of Charles VIII, showing France Moderne and France Ancient quartered with Jerusalem cross, representing Charles's claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem

Charles bequeathed a meagre legacy: he left France in debt and in disarray as a result of his ambition. However, his expedition did strengthen cultural ties to Italy, energizing French art and literature in the latter part of the Renaissance. [23] Since his children predeceased him, Charles was the last of the elder branch of the House of Valois. Upon his death, the throne passed to his brother-in-law and second cousin once removed, Louis XII. [24] Anne returned to Brittany and began taking steps to regain the independence of her duchy. In order to stymie these efforts, Louis XII had his 24-year childless marriage to Charles's sister, Joan, annulled and married Anne. [25]


Monument to the children of Charles VIII, Tours Cathedral Tomb of the children of Charles VIII Tours 2.jpg
Monument to the children of Charles VIII, Tours Cathedral

Charles and Anne had:


The 1671 English play Charles VIII of France by John Crowne depicts his reign.

Charles VIII's invasion of Italy and his relations with Pope Alexander VI are depicted in the novel The Sultan's Helmsman.

In the 2011 Showtime series The Borgias , Charles VIII is portrayed by French actor Michel Muller.

In the 2011 French-German historical drama Borgia , Charles VIII is played by Simon Larvaron. The event of the king's death is depicted in the TV series Borgia with a small twist: in the episode, Charles himself plays a game of jeu de paume with Cesare Borgia and loses; while leaving the game, Charles strikes his head on the lintel of a door.

The 2012 Spanish TV series Isabel also depicts the death of Charles VIII. In that series, Charles was played by the actor Héctor Carballo. [30]

In the 2017 German-Austrian historical drama Maximilian, a young Charles when he was Dauphin is portrayed by French actor Max Baissette de Malglaive. Made available by American cable network Starz in 2018.


See also


    Related Research Articles

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Alexander VI</span> Head of the Catholic Church from 1492 to 1503

    Pope Alexander VI was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 11 August 1492 until his death in 1503. Born into the prominent Borgia family in Xàtiva in the Kingdom of Valencia under the Crown of Aragon, Rodrigo studied law at the University of Bologna. He was ordained deacon and made a cardinal in 1456 after the election of his uncle as Pope Callixtus III, and a year later he became vice-chancellor of the Catholic Church. He proceeded to serve in the Curia under the next four popes, acquiring significant influence and wealth in the process. In 1492, Rodrigo was elected pope, taking the name Alexander VI.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Pope Julius II</span> Head of the Catholic Church from 1503 to 1513

    Pope Julius II was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 1503 to his death, in February 1513. Nicknamed the Warrior Pope, Battle Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. One of the most powerful and influential popes, Julius II was a central figure of the High Renaissance and left a significant cultural and political legacy. As a result of his policies during the Italian Wars, the Papal States increased their power and centralization, and the office of the papacy continued to be crucial, diplomatically and politically, during the entirety of the 16th century in Italy and Europe.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Valois</span> Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

    The Capetian house of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Louis XII</span> King of France from 1498 to 1515

    Louis XII was King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Marie of Cleves, he succeeded his second cousin once removed and brother-in-law, Charles VIII, who died childless in 1498.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Italian Wars</span> European conflicts from 1494–1559

    The Italian Wars were a series of conflicts fought between 1494 and 1559, mostly in the Italian Peninsula, but later expanding into Flanders, the Rhineland and Mediterranean Sea. The primary belligerents were the Valois kings of France, and their Habsburg opponents in the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. At different points, various Italian states participated in the war, some on both sides, with limited involvement from England and the Ottoman Empire.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Anne of Brittany</span> Queen of France (1491–1498; 1499–1514) and Duchess of Brittany (1488–1514)

    Anne of Brittany was reigning Duchess of Brittany from 1488 until her death, and Queen of France from 1491 to 1498 and from 1499 to her death. She was the only woman to have been queen consort of France twice. During the Italian Wars, Anne also became Queen of Naples, from 1501 to 1504, and Duchess of Milan, in 1499–1500 and from 1500 to 1512.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">René II, Duke of Lorraine</span> Duke of Lorraine from 1473 to 1508

    René II was Count of Vaudémont from 1470, Duke of Lorraine from 1473, and Duke of Bar from 1483 to 1508. He claimed the crown of the Kingdom of Naples and the County of Provence as the Duke of Calabria 1480–1493 and as King of Naples and Jerusalem 1493–1508. He succeeded his uncle John of Vaudémont as Count of Harcourt in 1473, exchanging it for the county of Aumale in 1495. He succeeded as Count of Guise in 1504.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Gilbert, Count of Montpensier</span>

    Gilbert of Bourbon-Montpensier, Count of Montpensier, was a member of the House of Bourbon. He was the son of Louis I, Count of Montpensier and Gabrielle de La Tour d'Auvergne, Count of Montpensier and Dauphin d'Auvergne. He was appointed to the Order of Saint Michael by King Charles VIII of France in October 1483.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Peace of Étaples</span> Treaty between England and France in 1492

    The Peace of Étaples was signed on 3 November 1492 in Étaples between Charles VIII of France and Henry VII of England. Charles agreed to end his support for the Yorkist Pretender Perkin Warbeck, in return for being recognised as ruler of the Duchy of Brittany.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Italian War of 1494–1495</span> First phase of the Italian Wars (1494-1497)

    The First Italian War, or Charles VIII's Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI, known as the League of Venice.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Italian Wars of 1499–1504</span> Second & Third phase of the Italian Wars (1499–1504)

    The Italian Wars of 1499–1504 are divided into two connected, but distinct phases: the Second Italian War (1499–1501), sometimes known as Louis XII's Italian War, and the Third Italian War (1502–1504) or War over Naples. The first phase was fought for control of the Duchy of Milan by an alliance of Louis XII of France and the Republic of Venice against Ludovico Sforza, the second between Louis and Ferdinand II of Aragon for possession of the Kingdom of Naples.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of Granada (1500)</span> Partition of Kingdom of Naples between France and Aragon

    The Treaty of Granada (1500), signed on 11 November 1500, was a secret treaty between Ferdinand II of Aragon and Louis XII of France, in which they agreed to partition the Kingdom of Naples.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Hugo of Moncada</span> Spanish political and military leader

    Hugo de Moncada a.k.a. Ugo de Moncada, was a Spanish political and military leader of the late 15th and early 16th century. He served as General of Ocean and Land, Viceroy of Sicily, 1509–1517, Viceroy of Naples, 1527 - 1528.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of Senlis</span> 1493 treaty between Austria and France

    The Treaty of Senlis concerning the Burgundian succession was signed at Senlis, Oise on 23 May 1493 between Maximilian I of Habsburg and his son Philip "the Handsome", Archduke of Austria, and King Charles VIII of France.

    The decade of the 1490s in art involved some significant events.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor</span> Cardinal

    Juan de Borja Lanzol (Llançol) de Romaní, el mayor was the first of ten cardinal-nephews elevated by Pope Alexander VI, the cousin of his father, Galcerán de Borja y Moncada.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Giambattista Orsini</span> Italian Roman Catholic cardinal

    Giambattista Orsini was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal. He served as papal legate to the Marches of Ancona.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Jean Bilhères de Lagraulas</span> French cardinal

    Jean Bilhères de Lagraulas or Jean Villier de la Grolaie, or Groslaye etc., also called the Cardinal of Saint-Denis, was a French Roman Catholic abbot, bishop and from 1493 cardinal. He died as French ambassador in Rome, and is remembered for commissioning Michelangelo in 1498 to sculpt his Pietà for St. Peter's Basilica.

    The imperial election of 1486 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Frankfurt on February 16.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">Treaty of Blois (1499)</span> Military alliance between France and the Republic of Venice

    The Treaty of Blois (1499), signed on 9 February 1499, was a secret military alliance between Louis XII of France and the Republic of Venice, in which they agreed to a joint attack on the Duchy of Milan. In return, the Venetians were to receive part of the Duchy, while France also undertook to provide military assistance if Venice was attacked by the Ottoman Empire.


    1. 1 2 Fletcher 1999, p. 76.
    2. 1 2 Kendall 1971, p. 373-374.
    3. Hand 2013, p. 24.
    4. Drees 2000, p. 339.
    5. Blockmans & Prevenier 1999, p. 211.
    6. Hare, Christopher (1907). The high and puissant princess Marguerite of Austria, princess dowager of Spain, duchess dowager of Savoy, regent of the Netherlands. Harper & Brothers. pp.  43–44.
    7. "Histoire et Événements" (in French). p. Le Mont Aiguille – Supereminet invius. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
    8. "L'ascension historique de 1492" [The historic ascent of 1492] (in French). 12 January 2009. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
    9. Mallet & Shaw 2012, p. 32.
    10. Mallet & Shaw 2012, p. 13.
    11. Robert S. Hoyt and Stanley Chodorow, Europe in the Middle Ages (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc., 1976) pp. 618–619.
    12. Robert S. Hoyt and Stanley Chodorow, Europe in the Middle Ages, p. 619.
    13. Pigaillem 2008, p. 109.
    14. Mallet & Shaw 2012, p. 14.
    15. Robert S. Hoyt and Stanely Chodorow, Europe in the Middle Ages, p. 619.
    16. Robert S. Hoyt, Europe in the Middle Ages, p. 619.
    17. Mallet & Shaw 2012, p. 20-21.
    18. R. Ritchie, Historical Atlas of the Renaissance, 64.
    19. Mallet & Shaw 2012, p. 11.
    20. Mallet & Shaw 2012, p. 31.
    21. Mallet & Shaw 2012, p. 32-33.
    22. Heiner Gillmeister, Tennis: A Cultural History (London: Leicester University Press, 1998) p. 21. ( ISBN   978-0718501471)
    23. Rorimer, James J. (1954). "The Glorification of Charles VIII". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 12 (10): 281–299. doi:10.2307/3257546. ISSN   0026-1521. JSTOR   3257546.
    24. Rorimer, James J. (1954). "The Glorification of Charles VIII". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. 12 (10): 281–299. doi:10.2307/3257546. ISSN   0026-1521. JSTOR   3257546.
    25. Frederic J. Baumgartner, Louis XII (New York: St. Martin Press, 1996) p. 79.
    26. Broomhall 2004, p. 188.
    27. Anderson 2014, p. 163.
    28. 1 2 3 Broomhall 2004, p. 189.
    29. Gobry 2012, Genealogie de Charles VIII.
    30. "'Isabel' se refuerza de cara a la tercera temporada". 25 November 2013.


    Charles VIII of France
    Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
    Born: 30 June 1470 Died: 7 April 1498
    Regnal titles
    Preceded by King of France
    30 August 1483 – 7 April 1498
    Succeeded by
    Preceded by King of Naples
    Succeeded by
    French royalty
    Title last held by
    Dauphin of France
    Title next held by
    Charles Orlando
    Titles in pretence
    Preceded by TITULAR 
    Emperor of Constantinople
    Succeeded by
    Andreas Palaiologos or Louis XII
    (claimed by both)