Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham

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The Marquess of Rockingham

2nd Marquess of Rockingham.jpg
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
27 March 1782 1 July 1782
Monarch George III
Preceded by Lord North
Succeeded by The Earl of Shelburne
In office
13 July 1765 30 July 1766
MonarchGeorge III
Preceded by George Grenville
Succeeded by William Pitt the Elder
Personal details
Born(1730-05-13)13 May 1730
Wentworth, Yorkshire, England
Died1 July 1782(1782-07-01) (aged 52)
Wimbledon, Surrey, England
Resting place York Minster
Political party Whig
Spouse(s)
Mary Bright(m. 1752)
Parents Thomas Watson-Wentworth, 1st Marquess of Rockingham
Ann Hatton
Alma mater St John's College, Cambridge
Arms of Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, KG (Watson in 1st and 4th quarters, Wentworth in 2nd and 3rd) Coat of arms of Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, KG, PC, FRS.png
Arms of Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, KG (Watson in 1st and 4th quarters, Wentworth in 2nd and 3rd)

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, KG, PC, FRS (13 May 1730 – 1 July 1782), styled The Hon. Charles Watson-Wentworth before 1733, Viscount Higham between 1733 and 1746, Earl of Malton between 1746 and 1750 and The Marquess of Rockingham in 1750 was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Prime Minister of Great Britain. He became the patron of many Whigs, known as the Rockingham Whigs, and served as a leading Whig grandee. He served in only two high offices during his lifetime (Prime Minister and Leader of the House of Lords), but was nonetheless very influential during his one and a half years of service.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians, who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Fellow of the Royal Society Elected Fellow of the Royal Society, including Honorary, Foreign and Royal Fellows

Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a 'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'.

Kingdom of Great Britain constitutional monarchy in Western Europe between 1707–1801

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain, was a sovereign state in western Europe from 1 May 1707 to 31 December 1800. The state came into being following the Treaty of Union in 1706, ratified by the Acts of Union 1707, which united the kingdoms of England and Scotland to form a single kingdom encompassing the whole island of Great Britain and its outlying islands, with the exception of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. The unitary state was governed by a single parliament and government that was based in Westminster. The former kingdoms had been in personal union since James VI of Scotland became King of England and King of Ireland in 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I, bringing about the "Union of the Crowns". After the accession of George I to the throne of Great Britain in 1714, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Electorate of Hanover.

Contents

Early life: 1730–1751

A descendant of the 1st Earl of Strafford, Lord Rockingham was brought up at the family home of Wentworth Woodhouse near Rotherham in Yorkshire. He was educated at Westminster School. [1] During the Jacobite rising of 1745 Rockingham's father made him a colonel and organised volunteers to defend the country against the "Young Pretender". [2] :3 Rockingham's sister Mary wrote to him from London, saying the King "did not doubt but that you was as good a colonel as he has in his army" and his other sister Charlotte wrote that "you have gained immortal honour and I have every day the satisfaction of hearing twenty handsome things said of the Blues and their Collonel". [2] :3 The march of the Jacobite army into northern England caused the Wentworth household to flee to Doncaster and Rockingham rode from Wentworth to Carlisle to join the Duke of Cumberland in pursuit of the "Young Pretender". Rockingham did this without parental consent and Cumberland wrote to Rockingham's father, saying that his "zeal on this occasion shows the same principles fix't that you yourself have given such strong proofs of". [2] :3 Rockingham wrote to his father that Cumberland "blamed me for my disobedience, yet as I came with a design of saving my King and country...it greatly palliated my offence". [2] :3 Rockingham's mother wrote to his father: "Though I hope you won't tell it him, never any thing met with such general applause, in short he is the hero of these times, and his Majesty talks of this young Subject, in such terms, as must please you to hear...in the Drawing Room [3] no two people talk together, but he makes part of the discourse". [2] :4

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford English earl and politician

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford was an English statesman and a major figure in the period leading up to the English Civil War. He served in Parliament and was a supporter of King Charles I. From 1632–40 he was Lord Deputy of Ireland, where he established a strong authoritarian rule. Recalled to England, he became a leading advisor to the King, attempting to strengthen the royal position against Parliament. When Parliament condemned Wentworth to death, Charles reluctantly signed the death warrant and Wentworth was executed.

Wentworth Woodhouse country house in the village of Wentworth, South Yorkshire, England

Wentworth Woodhouse is a Grade I listed country house in the village of Wentworth, in the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham in South Yorkshire, England. It is currently owned by the Wentworth Woodhouse Preservation Trust. Considered to be the largest private residence in the United Kingdom, it has an east front of 606 feet (185 m); the longest country house façade in Europe. The house has more than 300 rooms, although the precise number is unclear, with 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2) of floorspace. It covers an area of more than 2.5 acres (1.0 ha), and is surrounded by a 180-acre (73 ha) park, and an estate of 15,000 acres (6,100 ha).

Rotherham town in South Yorkshire, England

Rotherham is a town in South Yorkshire, England, which together with its conurbation and outlying settlements to the north, south and south-east forms the Metropolitan Borough of Rotherham, with a recorded population of 257,280 in the 2011 census. Historically in the West Riding of Yorkshire, its central area is on the banks of the River Don below its confluence with the Rother on the traditional road between Sheffield and Doncaster. Rotherham was well known as a coal mining town as well as a major contributor to the steel industry.

In April 1746 Rockingham's father was made a marquess (remaining the only marquess in the British peerage for quite some time) and Rockingham himself assumed the courtesy title of Earl of Malton. These honours came about due to the patronage of Henry Pelham. [2] :4 At this time Rockingham was travelling across Europe under the tutorship of George Quarme, as his father had decided against sending him to Cambridge. [2] :5–9 [4] During his stay in Rome, Rockingham noted that amongst Englishmen Whigs outnumbered Jacobites four-to-one and there were "no Persons of rank about the Pretender" and that "the vile spirit of Jacobitism" was greatly declining. [2] :8 When in Herrenhausen, Hanover Rockingham met George II and made an impression: the King told Rockingham's uncle Henry Finch that he had never seen a finer or a more promising youth. [2] :9 In September 1750, two months before his father's death, he was raised to the Peerage of Ireland in his own right as Baron Malton and Earl Malton.

A marquess is a nobleman of high hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in Imperial China and Imperial Japan.

Henry Pelham Prime Minister of Great Britain

Henry Pelham was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 until his death. He was the younger brother of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, who served in Pelham's government and succeeded him as Prime Minister. Pelham is generally considered to have been Britain's third Prime Minister after Sir Robert Walpole and the Earl of Wilmington.

Herrenhausen city district of Hanover

Herrenhausen is a district of the German city of Hanover, northwest of the city centre, officially the Stadtbezirk of Herrenhausen-Stöcken. In 2014 it had a population of 35,920.

Early political career: 1751–65

A young Rockingham Young Marquess of Rockingham.jpg
A young Rockingham

On 13 May 1751 (his 21st birthday), Rockingham inherited his father's estates. The rents from the land in Yorkshire, Northamptonshire and Ireland gave him an annual income of £20,000 (equivalent to £2,883,946in 2016). [5] He also controlled both of the borough parliamentary seats of Malton and one seat for the single-member borough of Higham Ferrers (Northants), along with twenty-three livings and five chaplaincies in the church. [2] :10 In July he was appointed Lord Lieutenant and custos rotulorum of the West Riding in Yorkshire, Lord Lieutenant of York city, and custos rotulorum of York city and county. In 1751–52 Rockingham joined White's, the Jockey Club and the Royal Society. [2] :10

Malton, also called New Malton, was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England in 1295 and 1298, and again from 1640, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It was represented by two Members of Parliament until 1868, among them the political philosopher Edmund Burke, and by one member from 1868 to 1885.

Higham Ferrers was a parliamentary borough in Northamptonshire, which was represented in the House of Commons from 1558 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. It was one of the very small number of English boroughs in that period which was entitled to elect only one rather than two Members of Parliament.

Custos rotulorum is a civic post which is recognised in the United Kingdom and in Jamaica.

Rockingham's maiden speech was on 17 March 1752 in support of the Bill which disposed of Scottish lands confiscated in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745. He wanted the lands cultivated by people "employed in husbandry & handicrafts" who repudiated "plunder, rapine & rebellion". He said "the highlanders have remained in their ancient state, prolific, bold, idle, & consequently hives of rebellion". He compared his favoured policy with the policy which his ancestor Lord Strafford had used in Ireland. Rockingham's speech was not well received, with Horace Walpole criticising him for venturing into "a debate so much above his force". [2] :11 Rockingham's uncle William Murray, the Solicitor-General, believed him to be poorly educated so he employed Quarme as Rockingham's tutor again. Rockingham was for four months to study Demosthenes for oratory, to learn the histories of the Assyrian, Persian, Greek and Roman empires along with modern history. Murray wanted Rockingham to take after Sir Walter Raleigh. [2] :11

Horace Walpole 18th-century English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician

Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, also known as Horace Walpole, was an English writer, art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.

William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield 18th-century British judge

William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law. Born to Scottish nobility, he was educated in Perth, Scotland, before moving to London at the age of 13 to take up a place at Westminster School. He was accepted into Christ Church, Oxford, in May 1723, and graduated four years later. Returning to London from Oxford, he was called to the Bar by Lincoln's Inn on 23 November 1730, and quickly gained a reputation as an excellent barrister.

Demosthenes ancient Athenian statesman and orator

Demosthenes was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. His orations constitute a significant expression of contemporary Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. He delivered his first judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.

Charles Watson-Wentworth married Mary Bright (pictured) in 1752 Mary Bright.jpg
Charles Watson-Wentworth married Mary Bright (pictured) in 1752

In 1752, Rockingham was appointed Lord of the Bedchamber to George II and married Mary Bright. [6] In 1753 the Rockingham Club was formed, containing the first Rockingham Whigs. Rockingham hired James Stuart, of whom he was a patron, [7] to paint portraits of William III and George II for the club rooms. The club held monthly meetings and a list written in June 1754 showed it had 133 members. [2] :20 In 1755 the King appointed him to the honorary office of Vice Admiral of the North. [2] :21 During a French invasion scare in 1756 Rockingham raised a volunteer militia at his own expense and when rioting broke out against Army enlistments Rockingham restored order without the use of military force in Sheffield. The Secretary at War, Lord Barrington, wrote to him: "You are the only instance of a Lord lieutenant's exerting the civil authority upon these occasions". [2] :21 Rockingham asked in 1760 to be made a knight of the Order of the Garter and the King consented.

A Lord of the Bedchamber, previously known as a Gentleman of the Bedchamber, was a courtier in the Royal Household of the King of the United Kingdom and the Prince of Wales. A Gentleman of the Bedchamber's duties originally consisted of assisting the King with his dressing, waiting on him when he ate in private, guarding access to him in his bedchamber and closet and providing companionship. The offices were in the gift of The Crown and were originally sworn by Royal Warrant directed to the Lord Chamberlain. From 1660, the first Lord of the Bedchamber was Groom of the Stool.

James Stuart (1713–1788) 18th-century English archaeologist, architect and artist

James "Athenian" Stuart was a British archaeologist, architect and artist, best known for his central role in pioneering Neoclassicism.

William III of England 17th-century Stadtholder, Prince of Orange and King of England, Scotland and Ireland

William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".

In 1760, George II died, and his grandson ascended the throne as George III. Rockingham was allied to the Duke of Newcastle and his supporters, whilst the new King had a favourite in Lord Bute. Rockingham believed that Bute and his supporters wanted to take "the whole Administration & Government of this country into their hands" and wanted Newcastle to resign now before he would be inevitably disposed of. Rockingham believed that the revolution in British politics since George III's accession was harmful to the country, since it removed the Whigs from their ascendancy which had settled the constitution and secured the House of Hanover on the British throne. Rockingham wrote to Newcastle:

...without flattery to your Grace, I must look and ever shall upon you and your connections as the solid foundations on which every good which has happened to this country since the [Glorious] Revolution, have been erected. ... What a medley of government is probably soon to take place & when it does what an alarm will ensue! [2] :37

Rockingham resigned as Lord of the Bedchamber on 3 November 1762 in protest at the King's policies and other Whigs associated with the Duke of Newcastle did the same. [2] :43–44 The next month the King removed Rockingham from the office of Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding, Lord Lieutenant of the city and county of York, as custos rotulorum of the North and West Riding, as custos rotulorum of the city and county of York and as Vice Admiral of York and county. [2] :45

Over the next several years, Rockingham gradually became the leader of those of Newcastle's supporters who were unwilling to reconcile themselves to the premierships of Bute and his successor, George Grenville.

Prime Minister: 1765–1766

The king's dislike, as well as Grenville's general lack of parliamentary support, led to his dismissal in 1765, and, following negotiations conducted through the medium of the king's uncle, the Duke of Cumberland, Lord Rockingham was appointed Prime Minister. [8] Rockingham recovered the honours of which he had been deprived in 1762. Rockingham appointed his allies Henry Seymour Conway and the Duke of Grafton as secretaries of state. Also at this time, Edmund Burke, the Irish statesman and philosopher, became his private secretary and would remain a lifelong friend, political ally and advisor until Rockingham's premature death in 1782.

Rockingham's administration was dominated by the American issue. Rockingham wished for repeal of the Stamp Act 1765 and won a Commons vote on the repeal resolution by 275 to 167 in 1766. [2] :113 However Rockingham also passed the Declaratory Act, which asserted that the British Parliament had the right to legislate for the American colonies in all cases whatsoever.

However, internal dissent within the cabinet led to his resignation and the appointment of Lord Chatham as Prime Minister (the Duke of Grafton was appointed First Lord of the Treasury, one of the few cases in which those two offices were separate).

Opposition: 1766–1782

Lord Rockingham painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1768 Charles Watson-Wentworth, Second Marquis of Rockingham.jpg
Lord Rockingham painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1768

Rockingham spent the next sixteen years in opposition. He was a keen supporter of constitutional rights for colonists.

Rockingham wrote to Edmund Burke on 14 February 1771: "I fear indeed the future struggles of the people in defence of their Constitutional Rights will grow weaker and weaker. It is much too probable that the power and influence of the Crown will increase rapidly. We live at the period when for the first time since the Revolution, the power and influence of the Crown is held out, as the main and chief and only support of Government. If we...do not exert now, we may accelerate the abject state to which the Constitution may be reduced". [9] On 24 May 1771 Benjamin Franklin arrived from the Rectory of Thornhill, where he had stayed with the Rev. John Michell, vicar to Rockingham's kinsman, fellow leading politician and keen advocate of colonists' rights Sir George Savile. [10] Rockingham wrote to Augustus Keppel on 3 November 1779, saying that he believed the war against America could not be won, that the government was corrupt but not unpopular, and that the longer this continued the greater the danger to the liberties and the constitution of Britain: "Perhaps a total change of men and measures, & system in the Government: of this country might have effect on the councils of some foreign countries...who might think that it was no longer a Court system to combat, but that the whole nation wd; united & make the utmost efforts". [11]

Rockingham was recruited to hunt down the Cragg Vale Coiners. He had thirty Coiners arrested by Christmas Day 1769.

Prime Minister: 1782

In 1782 he was appointed Prime Minister for a second time (with Charles James Fox and Lord Shelburne as Secretaries of State) and, upon taking office, pushed for an acknowledgement of the independence of the United States, initiating an end to British involvement in the American War of Independence.

Due to rising unemployment, in this second premiership, Rockingham's administration saw the passage of Gilbert's Act, the Relief of the Poor Act 1782, after 17 years of opposing Thomas Gilbert's ideas, this saw the creation of unions of civil parishes, later officially called unions under Gilbert's Act, to provide outdoor relief and set up workhouses. [12]

Paul Langford has claimed that the Rockingham administration "represented a landmark in constitutional history. The ministerial changes of 1782 involved a more extensive upheaval among office-holders than any since 1714, virtually replacing one administration with another drawn from opposition". [13]

Rockingham's second term was short-lived, for Lord Rockingham died fourteen weeks later at the beginning of July from an Influenza epidemic. He was replaced as Prime Minister by Lord Shelburne, who was more reluctant to accept the total independence of America and proposed a form of Dominion status, however by April 1783 succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his legacy. [14]

Rockingham was buried in York Minster in Yorkshire. [15]

Legacy

Rockingham's estates, but not his marquisate, passed to his nephew William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam. Burke wrote to Fitzwilliam on 3 July 1782: "You are Lord Rockingham in every thing. ... I have no doubt that you will take it in good part, that his old friends, who were attached to him by every tie of affection, and of principle, and among others myself, should look to you, and should not think it an act of forwardness and intrusion to offer you their services". [2] :383 On 7 July 150 supporters of Rockingham met at Fitzwilliam's house and decided to withdraw support for Lord Shelburne's administration. The old Rockingham party fragmented, with Fox and the Duke of Portland leading a coalition of Whigs. The Whig party further split over the French Revolution, with Burke writing to Fitzwilliam on 4 January 1797: "As to our old friends, they are so many individuals, not a jot more separated from your Lordship, than they are from one another. There is no mutual affection, communication, or concert between them". [2] :385

The Whig historian Thomas Babington Macaulay was an admirer of Rockingham and his Whig faction:

They were men worthy to have charged by the side of Hampden at Chalgrove, or to have exchanged the last embrace with Russell on the scaffold in Lincoln's Inn Fields. They carried into politics the same high principles of virtue which regulated their private dealings, nor would they stoop to promote even the noblest and most salutary ends by means which honour and probity condemn. Such men were Lord John Cavendish, Sir George Savile, and others whom we hold in honour as the second founders of the Whig party, as the restorers of its pristine health and energy after half a century of degeneracy. The chief of this respectable band was the Marquess of Rockingham, a man of splendid fortune, excellent sense, and stainless character. He was indeed nervous to such a degree that, to the very close of his life, he never rose without great reluctance and embarrassment to address the House of Lords. But, though not a great orator, he had in a high degree some of the qualities of a statesman. He chose his friends well; and he had, in an extraordinary degree, the art of attaching them to him by ties of the most honourable kind. The cheerful fidelity with which they adhered to him through many years of almost hopeless opposition was less admirable than the disinterestedness and delicacy which they showed when he rose to power. [16]

Places named after Lord Rockingham

Cabinets of Lord Rockingham

1765–1766

PortfolioMinisterTookofficeLeftofficeParty
  The Marquess of Rockingham *13 July 1765 (1765-07-13)30 July 1766 (1766-07-30) Whig
Lord Chancellor   The Earl of Northington 16 January 1761 (1761-01-16)30 July 1766 (1766-07-30) Whig
Lord President of the Council   The Earl of Winchilsea 12 July 1765 (1765-07-12)30 July 1766 (1766-07-30) Whig
Lord Privy Seal   The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 1765 (1765)1766 (1766) Whig
Chancellor of the Exchequer   William Dowdeswell 16 July 1765 (1765-07-16)2 August 1766 (1766-08-02) Whig
Secretary of State for the Northern Department   The Duke of Grafton 12 July 1765 (1765-07-12)14 May 1766 (1766-05-14) Whig
  Henry Seymour Conway 23 May 1766 (1766-05-23)20 January 1768 (1768-01-20) Whig
 Henry Seymour Conway12 July 1765 (1765-07-12)23 May 1766 (1766-05-23) Whig
Secretary of State for the Southern Department  The Duke of Richmond 23 May 1766 (1766-05-23)29 July 1766 (1766-07-29) Whig
First Lord of the Admiralty   The Earl of Egmont 1763 (1763)1766 (1766) Whig
Master-General of the Ordnance   The Marquess of Granby 1763 (1763)1770 (1770) Independent
Minister without Portfolio   HRH The Duke of Cumberland 1765 (1765)1766 (1766) Independent

1782

PortfolioMinisterTookofficeLeftofficeParty
  The Marquess of Rockingham *27 March 1782 (1782-03-27)1 July 1782 (1782-07-01) Whig
Lord Chancellor   The Lord Thurlow 3 June 1778 (1778-06-03)7 April 1783 (1783-04-07) Independent
Lord President of the Council   The Lord Camden 27 March 1782 (1782-03-27)2 April 1783 (1783-04-02) Whig
Lord Privy Seal   The Duke of Grafton 1782 (1782)1783 (1783) Whig
Chancellor of the Exchequer   Lord John Cavendish 27 March 1782 (1782-03-27)10 July 1782 (1782-07-10) Whig
Secretary of State for the Home Department   The Earl of Shelburne 27 March 1782 (1782-03-27)10 July 1782 (1782-07-10) Whig
  Charles James Fox 27 March 1782 (1782-03-27)5 July 1782 (1782-07-05) Whig
First Lord of the Admiralty   The Viscount Keppel 1782 (1782)1783 (1783) Whig
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster   The Lord Ashburton 17 April 1782 (1782-04-17)29 August 1783 (1783-08-29) Independent
Master-General of the Ordnance   The Duke of Richmond 1782 (1782)1783 (1783) Whig

Titles

Ancestry

Arms

Notes

  1. Wikisource-logo.svg Rigg, James McMullen (1899). "Watson-Wentworth, Charles". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography . 60. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Hoffman, Ross J.S. (1973). The Marquis: A Study of Lord Rockingham, 1730-1782. New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN   9780823209705.
  3. The British royal morning receptions that the French called levées were called "drawing rooms", with the sense originally that the privileged members of court would gather in the drawing room outside the king's bedroom, where he would make his first formal public appearance of the day.
  4. Rigg (1899) has him attending St John's College, Cambridge. However, there is no mention of him in Alumni Cantabrigienses , and the DNB is not followed in this detail by the Oxford DNB .
  5. UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  6. "Wentworth, Mary Watson-". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/68349.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  7. Bristol, Kerry (1997). James "Athenian" Stuart and London Club Culture. William Shipley Group. p. 4. ISBN   978-1291916454.
  8. Langford, Paul (1973). The First Rockingham Administration. 1765–1766. Oxford University Press. pp. 8–11.
  9. Elofson, W. M. (1996). The Rockingham Connection and the Second Founding of the Whig Party, 1768–1773. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 119–120. ISBN   9780773513884.
  10. Journal of Jonathan Williams, Jr., of His Tour with Franklin and Others through Northern England, [28 May 1771]: résumé Journal of Jonathan Williams, Jr., of His Tour with Franklin and Others through Northern England
  11. O'Gorman, Frank (1975). The Rise of Party in England. The Rockingham Whigs. 1760–1782. George Allen & Unwin. p. 401.
  12. See Lewis, Samuel, ed. (1848). "Fenton – Fersfield". A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 25 October 2012. e.g. Fenton Kirk and Ferensby
  13. Langford, Paul (1989). A Polite and Commercial People: England, 1727–1783. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 557–558. ISBN   9780198207337.
  14. "Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham". Past Prime Ministers. UK Government.
  15. Farrell, S. M. "Wentworth, Charles Watson". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/28878.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  16. Macaulay, Thomas Babington (October 1844). "The Earl of Chatham". Edinburgh Review.
  17. 1 2 Cokayne, George E. (1900). Complete baronetage. Exeter : W. Pollard & co., ltd. p.  165.
  18. 1 2 PD-icon.svg York, Philip Chasney (1911). "Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica . 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 978–980.
  19. 1 2 Burke, John (1838). A genealogical and heraldic history of the extinct and dormant baronetcies of England. p. 429. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  20. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg  Lee, Sidney (1887). "Cotton, Robert Bruce". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography . 12. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  21. 1 2 Cokayne (1900), p. 35.
  22. 1 2 Power, D’Arcy (1898). William Harvey. New York: Longmans Green & Co. p. 7.
  23. 1 2 Wikisource-logo.svg Goodwin, Gordon (1891). "Hatton, Christopher (1605?-1670)". In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography . 25. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  24. Horwitz, Henry. "Finch, Daniel, second earl of Nottingham and seventh earl of Winchilsea". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9427.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  25. 1 2 Burke (1838), p. 550
  26. Broadway, Jan. "Hatton, Christopher, first Viscount Hatton (bap. 1632, d. 1706)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12607.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  27. "Rockingham, Marquess of (GB, 1746 - 1782)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. Retrieved 16 December 2015.

Further reading

Court offices
Preceded by
New government
Lord of the Bedchamber
1760–1762
Succeeded by
The Duke of Manchester
Political offices
Preceded by
George Grenville
Prime Minister of Great Britain
13 July 1765 – 30 July 1766
Succeeded by
William Pitt the Elder
Preceded by
The Earl of Halifax
Leader of the House of Lords
1765–1766
Succeeded by
The Duke of Grafton
Preceded by
Lord North
Prime Minister of Great Britain
27 March 1782 – 1 July 1782
Succeeded by
The Earl of Shelburne
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Marquess of Rockingham
Custos Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire
1751–1762
Succeeded by
The Earl of Holderness
Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire
1751–1763
Succeeded by
The Earl of Huntingdon
Preceded by
Sir Conyers Darcy
as Vice-Admiral of the North Riding
Vice-Admiral of Yorkshire
1755–1763
Succeeded by
The Earl of Holderness
Preceded by
The Viscount of Irvine
as Vice-Admiral of the East Riding
Preceded by
The Earl of Huntingdon
Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire
1765–1782
Succeeded by
Earl of Surrey
Preceded by
The Earl of Holderness
Custos Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire
1765–1782
Succeeded by
The Earl Fauconberg
Vice-Admiral of Yorkshire
1776–1782
Vacant
Title next held by
The Duke of Leeds
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Thomas Watson-Wentworth
Marquess of Rockingham
1750–1782
Extinct
Peerage of Ireland
New creation Earl Malton
1750–1782
Extinct

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