Charlotte Auerbach

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Charlotte Auerbach

Born(1899-05-14)14 May 1899
Died17 March 1994(1994-03-17) (aged 94)
CitizenshipGermany, United Kingdom
Known for mutagenesis
Awards Darwin Medal 1976
Scientific career
Fields genetics

Charlotte "Lotte" Auerbach FRS FRSE (14 May 1899 – 17 March 1994) was a German-Jewish geneticist who contributed to founding the science of mutagenesis. She became well known after 1942 when she discovered with A. J. Clark and J. M. Robson that mustard gas could cause mutations in fruit flies. She wrote 91 scientific papers, and was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the Royal Society of London.

Royal Society English learned society for science

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society". It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement.

Royal Society of Edinburgh academy of sciences

The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland. It was established in 1783. As of 2017, it has more than 1,660 Fellows.

Geneticist biologist who studies genetics

A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms.


In 1976, she was awarded the Royal Society's Darwin Medal. Aside her scientific contributions and love of science, she was remarkable in many other ways, including her wide interests, independence, modesty, and transparent honesty. [1] [2]

Darwin Medal medal awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year

The Darwin Medal is awarded by the Royal Society every alternate year for "work of acknowledged distinction in the broad area of biology in which Charles Darwin worked, notably in evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity". First awarded in 1890, it was created in memory of Charles Darwin and is presented with a £2000 prize.

Early life and education

Charlotte Auerbach was born in Krefeld in Germany, the daughter of Selma Sachs and Friedrich Auerbach. [3] She may have been influenced by the scientists in her family: her father Friedrich Auerbach (1870-1925) was a chemist, her uncle a physicist, and her grandfather, the anatomist Leopold Auerbach. [4]

Krefeld Place in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Krefeld, also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located northwest of Düsseldorf, its centre lying just a few kilometres to the west of the river Rhine; the borough of Uerdingen is situated directly on the Rhine. Krefeld is accessed by the autobahns A57 (Cologne–Nijmegen) and the A44 (Aachen–Düsseldorf–Dortmund–Kassel).

Friedrich Auerbach German chemist

Friedrich Auerbach was a German chemist. He was the son of anatomist Leopold Auerbach and the brother of physicist Felix Auerbach. He was the father of geneticist Charlotte Auerbach.

Chemist Scientist trained in the study of chemistry

A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of matter and its properties. Chemists carefully describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists carefully measure substance proportions, reaction rates, and other chemical properties. The word 'chemist' is also used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English.

She studied biology and chemistry at the universities of Würzburg, Freiburg and Berlin. [5] She was taught and inspired by Karl Haider and Max Hartmann in Berlin, and later in Würzburg by Hans Kniep. After very good examinations in biology, chemistry, and physics, she initially decided to become a secondary-school teacher of science, passing the exams for that, with distinction in 1924. [5]

University of Würzburg university in Germany

The Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg is a public research university in Würzburg, Germany. The University of Würzburg is one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Germany, having been founded in 1402. The university initially had a brief run and was closed in 1415. It was reopened in 1582 on the initiative of Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. Today, the university is named for Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn and Maximilian Joseph.

University of Freiburg Public research university in Freiburg, Germany

The University of Freiburg, officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The university was founded in 1457 by the Habsburg dynasty as the second university in Austrian-Habsburg territory after the University of Vienna. Today, Freiburg is the fifth-oldest university in Germany, with a long tradition of teaching the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. The university is made up of 11 faculties and attracts students from across Germany as well as from over 120 other countries. Foreign students constitute about 18.2% of total student numbers.

Karl Johannes Kniep was a German botanist who was a native of Jena.

She taught in Heidelberg (1924-1925) and briefly at the University of Frankfurt, from which she was dismissed - probably because she was Jewish. In 1928 she started postgraduate research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology (Berlin-Dahlem) in Developmental Physiology under Otto Mangold. In 1929 she abandoned her work with Mangold: he would later join the Nazi party, and Auerbach found his dictatorial manner unpleasant. In reply to her suggestion to change direction of her project, he replied "You are my student, you do as I say. What you think is of no consequence!". [1]

Goethe University Frankfurt university in Frankfurt, Germany

Goethe University Frankfurt is a university located in Frankfurt, Germany. It was founded in 1914 as a citizens' university, which means it was founded and funded by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt. The original name was Universität Frankfurt am Main. In 1932, the university's name was extended in honour of one of the most famous native sons of Frankfurt, the poet, philosopher and writer/dramatist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The university currently has around 45,000 students, distributed across four major campuses within the city.

She again taught biology in several schools in Berlin - until the Nazi party ended this by law as she was Jewish. [6] Following her mother's advice, she left the country in 1933 and fled to Edinburgh where she got her PhD in 1935 [7] at the Institute of Animal Genetics in the University of Edinburgh. [8] She would stay affiliated to this Institute throughout her whole career.

Edinburgh Capital city in Scotland

Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.

University of Edinburgh public research university in Edinburgh, Scotland

The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university. The university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, and helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North.

Research career: Edinburgh

Auerbach's PhD dissertation was on the development of legs in Drosophila . [1] After her dissertation she became a personal assistant to Francis Albert Eley Crew, who connected her to the lively group of scientists he had assembled, and to invited scientists including Julian Huxley, J.B.S. Haldane, and most importantly to Lotte, to Hermann Joseph Muller. [1] The famous geneticist and mutation researcher stayed in Edinburgh 1938-1940 and introduced her to mutation research.

Initially, she refused to work with Muller when Crew told her to do so. Muller, however, who was present when she opposed her boss, assured her that he would only want to work with people who are interested in the projects. But since she was interested in how genes operate, Muller noted that to understand this it would be important to understand what happens if the genes are mutated - this convinced her. [1] She said herself "His enthusiasm for mutation research was infectious and from that day on I switched to mutation research. I have never regretted it." [9]

Auerbach's genetic mutation research remained unpublished for many years because the work with mustard gas was considered classified by the government. She was finally able to publish in 1947. [6]

After being an assistant instructor in animal genetics, Auerbach became a lecturer in 1947, Professor of Genetics in 1967 and ended her professional career as a Professor Emeritus in 1969. [5]


While she found teaching at the schools sometimes difficult, she enjoyed teaching at the University and her lectures were models of clarity, usually delivered without any notes. She spoke with authority, but she did not mind questions, and allowed time for discussions. [1]

She wrote several books to teach genetics, several of them were translated in other languages. Her book, Genetics in the Atomic Age (1956) was praised by The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists for her excellent explanations of "an inherently technical matter." [10]


She supported the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND), was a fierce opponent of apartheid, and a confirmed liberal. [5] In 1947, she published a book of fairy stories titled Adventures with Rosalind under the pen-name of Charlotte Austen. [11]

Personal life

Charlotte was an only child, born into a third-generation Jewish family who had lived for several generations in Breslau. Having fled Nazi Germany in 1933, she became a naturalised British citizen in 1939. [12]

Auerbach never married and had no children of her own. She unofficially 'adopted' two boys. One, Michael Avern, was the child of a German-speaking companion to her own elderly mother, who had escaped to Britain as well. She helped to raise Michael. The other, Angelo Alecci, came from a poor Sicilian family and the Save the Children Fund connected Charlotte with him. [2]

Later life and death

In 1989, aged 90, she gave her house in Edinburgh to Michael Avern and moved into the Abbeyfield Home in Polwarth Terrace, Edinburgh, which was operated by the church. She died there five years later, in 1994. She was cremated at Mortonhall Crematorium. [13]

Awards, honors, and distinctions

Charlotte Auerbach Road, Edinburgh Charlotte Auerbach Road, Edinburgh.JPG
Charlotte Auerbach Road, Edinburgh

The greatest reward for herself however was the telegram her hero Hermann Joseph Muller sent after their first striking mutant results in June 1941, which read: "We are thrilled by your major discovery opening great theoretical and practical field. Congratulations." [14]

A room in the Royal Society of Edinburgh's building on George Street, Edinburgh is named for her. [15]

There is a street named Charlotte-Auerbach-Straße in Stuhr-Brinkum. [16] One of the streets in the Kings Buildings university complex in Edinburgh is named Charlotte Auerbach Road in her honour. [17]



Selected publications


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kilbey, B.J. (1995). "In memoriam Charlotte Auerbach, FRS (1899-1994)". Mutation Research. 327 (1–2): 1–4. doi:10.1016/0027-5107(94)00187-a. PMID   7870080.
  2. 1 2 Beale, G.H. (1995). "Charlotte Auerbach. 14 May 1899-17 March 1994". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society . 41: 20–42. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1995.0002.
  3. "Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh" (PDF). Royal Society of Edinburgh. p. 48. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  4. "Profile of geneticist Charlotte Auerbach". Archived from the original on 11 April 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Beale, Geoffrey. "Charlotte Auerbach". Jewish Women's Archive .
  6. 1 2 Swaby, Rachel (2015). Headstrong: 52 Women Who Changed Science - And the World. New York: Broadway Books. pp. 91–94. ISBN   9780553446791.
  7. Auerbach, Charlotte (1935). "Development of the legs, wings and halteres in wild type and certain mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster". hdl:1842/26163.
  8. Institute of Animal Genetics website; accessed 16 March 2016.
  9. Auerbach 1978, pp. 319-20.
  10. Langsdorf Jr., Alexander (November 1956). "Genetics in the Atomic Age" . Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 12 (9): 349. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  11. Beale, Geoffrey (20 March 1994). "Obituary: Professor Charlotte Auerbach". The Independent .
  12. Haines, Catharine (2001). International Women in Science: A Biographical Dictionary to 1950. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN   978-1-57607-090-1.
  13. Waterston, C.D.; Shearer, A. Macmillan (2006). Former Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1783-2002 (PDF). 1. Edinburgh: The Royal Society of Edinburgh. p. 40. ISBN   0 902 198 84 X . Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  14. Swaby, Rachel (7 April 2015). Headstrong: 52 Women Who Changed Science-and the World. Crown/Archetype. p. 98. ISBN   9780553446807.
  15. "Rooms". The Royal Society of Edinburgh. 23 September 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  16. Holden, John-Paul (16 September 2014). "New streets honour Edinburgh thinkers". The Evening News (Edinburgh). Retrieved 17 February 2015.
  17. Edinburgh, A-Z street gazetteer

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Further reading