Charlotte Corday

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Charlotte Corday
Charlotte Corday.PNG
Charlotte Corday, painted at her request by Jean-Jacques Hauer, a few hours before her execution.
Born
Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont

27 July 1768
Saint-Saturnin-des-Ligneries, Écorches (in present-day Orne), Normandy, France
Died17 July 1793(1793-07-17) (aged 24)
Cause of deathExecution by guillotine
Known forAssassination of Jean-Paul Marat
Parent(s)Jacques François de Corday, seigneur d'Armont
Charlotte Marie Jacqueline Gaultier de Mesnival

Marie-Anne Charlotte de Corday d'Armont (27 July 1768 – 17 July 1793), known as Charlotte Corday (French:  [kɔʁdɛ] ), was a figure of the French Revolution. In 1793, she was executed by guillotine for the assassination of Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat, who was in part responsible for the more radical course the Revolution had taken through his role as a politician and journalist. [1] Marat had played a substantial role in the political purge of the Girondins, with whom Corday sympathized. His murder was depicted in the painting The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David, which shows Marat's dead body after Corday had stabbed him in his medicinal bath. In 1847, writer Alphonse de Lamartine gave Corday the posthumous nickname l'ange de l'assassinat (the Angel of Assassination).

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Guillotine apparatus designed for carrying out executions by beheading

A guillotine is an apparatus designed for efficiently carrying out executions by beheading. The device consists of a tall, upright frame in which a weighted and angled blade is raised to the top and suspended. The condemned person is secured with stocks at the bottom of the frame, positioning the neck directly below the blade. The blade is then released, to quickly fall and forcefully decapitate the victim with a single, clean pass so that the head falls into a basket below.

Jean-Paul Marat politician and journalist during the French Revolution

Jean-Paul Marat was a French political theorist, physician, and scientist. He was a journalist and politician during the French Revolution.

Contents

Biography

Corday's birth house in Normandy Corday maison.JPG
Corday's birth house in Normandy

Born in Saint-Saturnin-des-Ligneries, a hamlet in the commune of Écorches (Orne), in Normandy, Charlotte Corday was a member of a minor aristocratic family. She was a fifth-generation matrilineal descendant of the dramatist Pierre Corneille. Her parents were cousins. [2]

Écorches Commune in Normandy, France

Écorches is a commune in the Orne department in north-western France. Birth place of Charlotte Corday, Girondist and assassin of Marat.

Orne Department of France

Orne is a department in the northwest of France, named after the river Orne.

Normandy Administrative region of France

Normandy is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

While Corday was a young girl, her older sister and their mother, Charlotte Marie Jacqueline Gaultier de Mesnival, died. Her father, Jacques François de Corday, Seigneur d'Armont (1737–1798), unable to cope with his grief over their death, sent Corday and her younger sister to the Abbaye aux Dames convent in Caen, where she had access to the abbey's library and first encountered the writings of Plutarch, Rousseau and Voltaire. [3] :154–55 After 1791, she lived in Caen with her cousin, Madame Le Coustellier de Bretteville-Gouville. The two developed a close relationship, and Corday was the sole heir to her cousin's estate. [3] :157

Caen Prefecture and commune in Normandy, France

Caen, is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Calvados department. The city proper has 108,365 inhabitants, while its urban area has 420,000, making Caen the largest city in former Lower Normandy. It is also the third largest municipality in all of Normandy after Le Havre and Rouen and the third largest city proper in Normandy, after Rouen and Le Havre. The metropolitan area of Caen, in turn, is the second largest in Normandy after that of Rouen, the 21st largest in France.

Plutarch Ancient Greek historian and philosopher

Plutarch, later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist. Plutarch's surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers.

Voltaire French writer, historian, and philosopher

François-Marie Arouet, known by his nom de plumeVoltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his criticism of Christianity, especially the Roman Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and separation of church and state.

Corday's physical appearance is described on her passport as "five feet and one inch... hair and eyebrows auburn,eyes gray, forehead high, mouth medium size, chin dimpled, and an oval face." [4]

Political influence

Charlotte Corday a Caen en 1793 by Tony Robert-Fleury, Musee Bonnat-Helleu Tony Robert-Fleury - Charlotte Corday a Caen en 1793.jpg
Charlotte Corday à Caen en 1793 by Tony Robert-Fleury, Musée Bonnat-Helleu

After the revolution radicalized further and headed towards terror, Charlotte Corday began to sympathize with the Girondins. She admired their speeches and grew fond of many of the Girondist groups whom she met while living in Caen. She respected the political principles of the Girondins and came to align herself with their thinking. She regarded them as a movement that would ultimately save France. [5] The Gironde represented a more moderate approach to the revolution and they, like Corday, were skeptical about the direction the revolution was taking. They opposed the Montagnards, who advocated a more radical approach to the revolution, which included the extreme idea that the only way the revolution would survive invasion and civil war was through terrorizing and executing those opposed to it. [6] The opposition to this radical thinking, coupled with the influence of the Gironde, ultimately led Corday to carry out her plan to murder the most radical of them all, Jean-Paul Marat.

Corday's action aided in restructuring the private versus public role of the woman in society at the time. The idea of women as second class or "less than" was challenged, and Corday was considered a hero to those who were against the teachings of Marat. There have been suggestions that her act incited the banning of women's political clubs, and the executions of female activists such as the Girondist Madame Roland. [7]

Madame Roland French revolutionary

Marie-Jeanne 'Manon' Roland de la Platière, born Marie-Jeanne Phlipon, and best known under the name Madame Roland, was a French revolutionary, salonnière and writer.

The influence of Girondin ideas on Corday is evident in her words at her trial: "I knew that he Marat was perverting France. I have killed one man to save a hundred thousand." As the revolution progressed, the Girondins had become progressively more opposed to the radical, violent propositions of the Montagnards such as Marat and Robespierre. Corday's notion that she was saving a hundred thousand lives echoes this Girondin sentiment as they attempted to slow the revolution and reverse the violence that had escalated since the September Massacres of 1792.

Marat's assassination

Jean-Paul Marat was a member of the radical Jacobin faction that had a leading role during the Reign of Terror. As a journalist, he exerted power and influence through his newspaper, L'Ami du peuple ("The Friend of the People"). [8]

Corday's decision to kill Marat was stimulated not only by her revulsion at the September Massacres, for which she held Marat responsible, but by her fear of an all-out civil war. [3] :161 She believed that Marat was threatening the Republic, and that his death would end violence throughout the nation. She also believed that King Louis XVI should not have been executed. [3] :160 Corday believed in a structure like that of Ancient Greece or Rome, the realization of which was made unlikely by the efforts of Marat. [9]

On 9 July 1793, Corday left her cousin, carrying a copy of Plutarch's Parallel Lives , and went to Paris, where she took a room at the Hôtel de Providence. [10] She bought a kitchen knife with a 6-inch (15 cm) blade. During the next few days, she wrote her Addresse aux Français amis des lois et de la paix ("Address to the French people, friends of Law and Peace") to explain her motives for assassinating Marat. [11]

The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David (1793) Death of Marat by David.jpg
The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David (1793)

Corday initially planned to assassinate Marat in front of the entire National Convention. She intended to make an example of him, but upon arriving in Paris she discovered that Marat no longer attended meetings because his health was deteriorating due to a skin disorder (perhaps dermatitis herpetiformis). She was then forced to change her plan. She went to Marat's home before noon on 13 July, claiming to have knowledge of a planned Girondist uprising in Caen; she was turned away by Catherine Evrard, the sister of Marat's fiancee Simonne. [12]

On her return that evening, Marat admitted her. At the time, he conducted most of his affairs from a bathtub because of his skin condition. Marat wrote down the names of the Girondists that she gave to him; she then pulled out the knife and plunged it into his chest. He called out: Aidez-moi, ma chère amie! ("Help me, my dear friend!"), and then died. [13]

This is the moment memorialized by Jacques-Louis David's painting. The iconic pose of Marat dead in his bath is viewed from a different angle in Baudry's painting of 1860 (illustration, below).

In response to Marat's dying shout, Simonne Evrard rushed into the room. She was joined by a distributor of Marat's newspaper, who seized Corday. Two neighbors, a military surgeon and a dentist, attempted to revive Marat. Republican officials arrived to interrogate Corday and to calm a hysterical crowd who appeared ready to lynch her. [14]

Trial

Caricature of Corday's trial by James Gillray, 1793. Corday-Gillray-color.jpeg
Caricature of Corday's trial by James Gillray, 1793.

Charlotte Corday sent the following farewell letter to her father which was intercepted and read during the trial, the letter helping to establish that Marat murder was premeditated:

Pardonnez-moi, mon cher papa, d’avoir disposé de mon existence sans votre permission. J’ai vengé bien d’innocentes victimes, j’ai prévenu bien d’autres désastres. Le peuple, un jour désabusé, se réjouira d’être délivré d’un tyran. Si j’ai cherché à vous persuader que je passais en Angleterre, c’est que j’espérais garder l’incognito, mais j’en ai reconnu l’impossibilité. J’espère que vous ne serez point tourmenté. En tout cas, je crois que vous auriez des défenseurs à Caen. J’ai pris pour défenseur Gustave Doulcet : un tel attentat ne permet nulle défense, c’est pour la forme. Adieu, mon cher papa, je vous prie de m’oublier, ou plutôt de vous réjouir de mon sort, la cause en est belle. J’embrasse ma sœur que j’aime de tout mon cœur, ainsi que tous mes parents. N’oubliez pas ce vers de Corneille :

Le Crime fait la honte, et non pas l’échafaud !

C’est demain à huit heures, qu’on me juge. Ce 16 juillet

Forgive me, my dear father, for having ended my existence without your permission. I avenged many innocent victims, I prevented many other disasters. The people, when they become disillusioned some day, will rejoice to be rid of a tyrant. If I sought to persuade you that I was leaving for England, it's because I hoped to remain incognito, but I have recognized its impossibility. I hope that you will not be tormented. In any case, I believe that you will have defenders in Caen. I took Gustave Doulcet as my defender: a case like this permits no defense, so it is just a formality. Farewell my dear father, I beg you to forget me, or rather to rejoice at my fate, for the cause is beautiful. I embrace my sister, whom I love with all my heart, as well as my parents. Do not forget Corneille's verse: "The crime causes the shame, and not the scaffold!" The judgement is tomorrow at 8 o'clock. This July 16

Corday underwent three separate cross-examinations by senior revolutionary judicial officials, including the President of the Revolutionary Tribunal and the chief prosecutor. She stressed that she was a republican and had been so even before the Revolution, citing the values of ancient Rome as an ideal model. [15]

The focus of the questioning was to establish whether she had been part of a wider Girondist conspiracy. Corday remained constant in insisting that "I alone conceived the plan and executed it." She referred to Marat as a "hoarder" and a "monster" who was respected only in Paris. She credited her fatal knifing of Marat with one blow not to practicing in advance but to luck. [16]

Charlotte Corday asked for Gustave le Doulcet, an old acquaintance, to defend her, but he did not receive in time the letter she wrote to him so Claude François Chauveau-Lagarde was appointed instead to assist her during the trial. [17] [18] . It is believed that Fouquier-Tinville voluntarily delayed the letter [1] , however, it is said that Corday thought that Le Doulcet refused to defend her and sent to him a last letter of reproach just before going to the scaffold. [19] [20]

Execution

Charlotte Corday being conducted to her execution, by Arturo Michelena (1889); the warden carries the red blouse worn by Corday and the painter Hauer stands at the right. Carlota Corday 1889 by Arturo Michelena.jpg
Charlotte Corday being conducted to her execution, by Arturo Michelena (1889); the warden carries the red blouse worn by Corday and the painter Hauer stands at the right.

Following her sentencing Corday asked the court if her portrait could be painted, purportedly to record her true self. [21] She made her request pleading, "Since I still have a few moments to live, might I hope, citizens, that you will allow me to have myself painted." [9] Given permission, she selected as the artist a National Guard officer, Jean-Jacques Hauer, who had already begun sketching her from the gallery of the courtroom. Hauer's likeness (see above) was completed shortly before Corday was summoned to the tumbril, after she had viewed it and suggested a few changes. [22]

On 17 July 1793, four days after Marat was killed, Corday was executed by the guillotine in the Place de Greve wearing the red overblouse denoting a condemned traitor who had assassinated a representative of the people. Standing alone in the tumbril amid a large and curious crowd she remained calm, although drenched by a sudden summer rainfall. [23] Her corpse was disposed of in the Madeleine Cemetery.

Aftermath

After Corday's decapitation, a man named Legros lifted her head from the basket and slapped it on the cheek. Charles-Henri Sanson, the executioner, indignantly rejected published reports that Legros was one of his assistants. Sanson stated in his diary that Legros was in fact a carpenter who had been hired to make repairs to the guillotine. [24] Witnesses report an expression of "unequivocal indignation" on her face when her cheek was slapped. The oft-repeated anecdote has served to suggest that victims of the guillotine may in fact retain consciousness for a short while, including by Albert Camus in his Reflections on the Guillotine. ("Charlotte Corday's severed head blushed, it is said, under the executioner's slap."). [25]

This offense against a woman executed moments before was considered unacceptable and Legros was imprisoned for three months because of his outburst. [26]

Jacobin leaders had her body autopsied immediately after her death to see if she was a virgin. They believed there was a man sharing her bed and the assassination plans. To their dismay, she was found to be virgo intacta (a virgin). [27]

The direct consequence of her crime were opposite to what she expected: The assassination did not stop the Jacobins or the Terror, which intensified after the murder. [1] Also Marat became a martyr, a bust of him replaced a religious statue on the rue aux Ours and a number of place-names were changed to honor Marat. [28]

Corday's act transformed the idea of what a woman was capable of, and to those who did not shun her for her act, she was a heroine. André Chénier, for example, wrote a poem in honor of Corday. This highlighted the "masculinity" possessed by Corday during the revolution.[ citation needed ]

French (Original)English (Translation)
La vertu seule est libre. Honneur de notre histoire,

Notre immortel opprobre y vit avec ta gloire,

Seule tu fus un homme, et vengeas les humains.

Et nous, eunuques vils, troupeau lâche sans âme,

Nous savons répéter quelques plaintes de femme,

Mais le fer pèserait a nos dèbiles mains.

Virtue alone is free. Honor of our history,

Our immortal opprobrium lives there with your glory,

Only you were a man, and avenged the humans.

And we, vile eunuchs, a cowardly herd without a soul,

We know how to repeat a few complaints from a woman,

But the iron would be heavy in our feeble hands.

The Revolution and Women

Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aime Baudry, posthumous (1860). Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, as indicated by her location in front of the map. Charlotte Corday.jpg
Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aimé Baudry, posthumous (1860). Under the Second Empire, Marat was seen as a revolutionary monster and Corday as a heroine of France, as indicated by her location in front of the map.

Corday's act served as a turning point of views held of women during the revolutionary period. During the revolution women were given a new-found power resulting from the necessity of their being increasingly involved in the revolution. It is said[ by whom? ] that Corday's act served as a "Consolidation of a new system of gender relations during the revolution,"[ This quote needs a citation ] because by entering into a new "public sphere," she challenged gender norms of this time period.

It is suggested[ by whom? ] that this newfound power resulting from women's taking revolutionary action, led to the death of some powerful women of this era, including Marie Antoinette, Olympe de Gouges, and Madame Roland. Corday's killing of such an influential leader during the revolution angered many people. Her actions were described by many as disquieting as well as transgressive.[ citation needed ] This behavior left a lasting impression on male revolutionaries because even though women were not at the forefront, they nonetheless had a place in the revolution, but not a prominent enough one to counteract a woman committing such an act.[ citation needed ]

Her killing of Marat was considered vile, an "arch-typically masculine statement," which reaction showed that whether or not one approved of what she did, it is clear that the murder of Marat changed the political role and position of women during the French Revolution. [29] Corday was surprised by the reaction of revolutionary women stating, "As I was truly calm I suffered from the shouts of a few women. But to save your country means not noticing what it costs." [30]

After Corday murdered Marat, the majority of women distanced themselves from her because they believed that what she had done would spark a reaction against the now developing feminist movement, which was already facing criticism. Also, many of these women were attached to Marat in that they were supporters of his revolutionary efforts and sympathized with him as citizens of France. [9]

Cultural references

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 "Le procès de Charlotte Corday". French Ministry of Justice. 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2018-08-05.
  2. "Charlotte Corday", Encyclopedie (in French), FR: Larousse[ dead link ]
  3. 1 2 3 4 Whitham, John Mills (1968), Men and Women of the French Revolution, Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press
  4. Cabanès, Augustin (1898). Curious Bypaths of History: Being Medico-historical Studies and Observations. C. Carrington.
  5. Cher, Marie (1929). Charlotte Corday and Certain Men Of The Revolutionary Torment. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 70. ISBN   1-4366-8354-8.
  6. Andress, David (2005). The Terror. Great Britain: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN   978-0-374-53073-0.
  7. Elizabeth, Kindleberger (1994). Charlotte Corday in Text and Image: A Case Study in the French Revolution and Women's History. Duke University Press. p. 973.
  8. Schama 2005, p. 445.
  9. 1 2 3 Thomas, Chantal (1989). HEROISM IN THE FEMININE: THE EXAMPLES OF CHARLOTTE CORDAY AND MADAME ROLAND. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  10. The Hotel was at 19 rue des Vieux Augustins, now rue d'Argout
  11. Richard Cobb, p. 192 "The French Revolution. Voices From A Momentous Epoch" CN 8039, Guild Publishing 1988
  12. Schama 2005, p. 735.
  13. Schama 2005, p. 736.
  14. Schama 2005, p. 737.
  15. Richard Cobb (1988). "The French Revolution. Voices from a momentous epoch: 1789–1795", Guild Publishing. pp. 192–93
  16. Schama 2005, p. 736–37.
  17. "13 juillet 1793 : Charlotte Corday assassine le citoyen Marat dans sa baignoire". Le Figaro. 2018-07-12. Retrieved 2018-08-06.
  18. Louis Du Bois (1838). Charlotte de Corday : essai historique, offrant enfin des détails authentiques sur la personne et l'attentat de cette héroïne. Librairie Historique de la Révolution. p. 141.
  19. "Louis Gustave le Doulcet, Comte de". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-08-06.
  20. "Lettres de Doulcet au tribunal" (PDF). corday.free.fr. Retrieved 2018-08-06.
  21. Chantal, Thomas (1789). HEROISM IN THE FEMININE: THE EXAMPLES OF CHARLOTTE CORDAY AND MADAME ROLAND. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  22. Schama 2005, p. 740–741.
  23. Schama 2005, p. 741.
  24. La Révolution française vue par son bourreau : Journal de Charles-Henri Sanson, Documents (in French), Monique Lebailly, preface, Le Cherche Midi, 2007, p. 65, ISBN   978-2-7491-0930-5 ; idem, Griffures, Paris: Éditions de l'Instant, 1988, ISBN   978-2-86929-128-7
  25. Reflexions sur la peine Capitale, a symposium by Arthur Koestler and Albert Camus, Calmann-Levy, p. 139.
  26. Mignet, François (1824), History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814
  27. Corazzo, Nina; Montfort, Catherine R (1994), "Charlotte Corday: femme-homme", in Montfort, Catherine R, Literate Women and the French Revolution of 1789 (47), Birmingham, AL: Summa Publications, p. 45
  28. Schama 2005, p. 745.
  29. Kindleberger, Elizabeth (1994). Charlotte Corday in Text and Image: A Case Study in the French Revolution and Women's History. Duke University Press. pp. 969–999.
  30. Revue contemporaine, Volume 79. https://books.google.com/books?id=o7pIAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA618&lpg=PA618#v=onepage&q&f=false. 1865. p. 618.
  31. Harris, Sharon M., ed. (24 June 2003). Women's Early American Historical Narratives. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 136. ISBN   978-1440626593 . Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  32. Shelley, Percy Bysshe; Hogg, Thomas Jefferson (1810). Posthumous fragments of Margaret Nicholson; being poems found amongst the papers of that noted female who attempted the life of the king in 1786. Oxford, UK: J. Munday. pp. 11–17.
  33. de Lamartine, Alphonse (1995). Histoire de Charlotte Corday: un livre de l'Histoire des Girondins [History of Charlotte Corday: A book of the History of the Girondins] (in French). Editions Champ Vallon. p. 13. ISBN   978-2876732025 . Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  34. Ponsard, François (1867). Cassal, C., ed. Charlotte Corday: A Tragedy. Trübner and Company. p. 7. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  35. Hugo, Victor (1987). Les Miserables. Translated by Lee Fahnestock & Norman MacAfee. Signet Classics. p. 1175. ISBN   978-0-451-41943-9.
  36. Harper's Weekly: Volume 9 for the Year 1865. Harper's Magazine Company. 1865. p. 278.
  37. Wilde, Oscar (1907). The Writings of Oscar Wilde: Salome; The duchess of Padua; Vera, or, The nihilists. Keller-Farmer. p. 400. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  38. Bellew, Kyrle (1912). Short Stories. the Shakespeare Press. p. 138. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  39. Wiggins, Kate Douglas (1903). Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (Golden Illustrated ed.). p. 62.
  40. "Charlotte Corday (1942)" (PDF). Archives Drieu La Rochelle (in French). Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  41. Lom, Herbert (1993). Dr Guillotine: The Eccentric Exploits of an Early Scientist. Trafalgar Square. ISBN   978-1856191111.
  42. Charlotte Corday at AllMusic
  43. Eckford, Teresa (August 2000). "A Far Better Rest by Susanne Alleyn". Historical Novels Review. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
  44. Perez, Damien; Ricaume, Sophie; Alexander, Alexis (2014), L'Ordre Du Chaos (in French), IV. Charlotte Corday, Delcourt, ISBN   978-2756024820
  45. "The Revolutionists". New Play Exchange. Retrieved 2018-07-11.

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Antoine-François Momoro publisher during the French Revolution

Antoine-François Momoro was a French printer, bookseller and politician during the French Revolution. An important figure in the Cordeliers club and in Hébertisme, he is the originator of the phrase ″Unité, Indivisibilité de la République; Liberté, égalité, fraternité ou la mort″, one of the mottoes of the French Republic.

The Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women were two most famous political clubs during the French Revolution formed May 10, 1793, lasting less than five months. In this short span, however, the two Societies managed to create quite a stir in the national political scene, and brought to light some controversial points about women and political and sexual equality.

Federalist revolts

The Federalist revolts were uprisings that broke out in various parts of France in the summer of 1793, during the French Revolution. They were prompted by resentments in France’s provincial cities about increasing centralisation of power in Paris, and increasing radicalisation of political authority in the hands of the Jacobins. In most of the country the trigger for uprising was the exclusion of the Girondins from the Convention after the Insurrection of 31 May – 2 June 1793. Although they shared common origins and political objectives, the revolts were not centrally organised or well-coordinated. The revolts failed to win any sustained popular support and were put down by the armies of the Convention over the following months. The Reign of Terror was then imposed across France to punish those associated with them and to enforce Jacobin ideology.

Women in the French Revolution

Historians since the late 20th century have debated how women shared in the French Revolution and what long-term impact it had on French women. Women had no political rights in pre-Revolutionary France; they were considered "passive" citizens, forced to rely on men to determine what was best for them. That changed dramatically in theory as there seemingly were great advances in feminism. Feminism emerged in Paris as part of a broad demand for social and political reform. The women demanded equality to men and then moved on to a demand for the end of male domination. Their chief vehicle for agitation were pamphlets and women's clubs, especially the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women. However, the Jacobin (radical) element in power abolished all the women's clubs in October 1793 and arrested their leaders. The movement was crushed. Devance explains the decision in terms of the emphasis on masculinity in wartime, Marie Antoinette's bad reputation for feminine interference in state affairs, and traditional male supremacy. A decade later the Napoleonic Code confirmed and perpetuated women's second-class status.

Jean-Jacques Hauer German painter

Jean-Jacques Hauer or Johann Jakob Hauer was a German painter active in France. Hauer is known to have painted the portrait of Charlotte Corday before her execution.

The artist who drafted the portrait of Charlotte Corday in the tribunal was M. Hauer, painter and National Guard officer for the Theatre Francais. Being back in her cell, she asked the janitor to allow him to enter to finish his work. M. Hauer was let in. Charlotte thanked him of the interest he took of her fate and posed in front of him with serenity

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