Chełmno

Last updated

Chełmno
Chelmno, panorama polnoc.jpg
Chełmno Old Town with the Renaissance Town Hall on the right
Chelmno flaga.svg
Flag
POL Chelmno COA.svg
Coat of arms
Poland adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Chełmno
Coordinates: 53°20′57″N18°25′23″E / 53.34917°N 18.42306°E / 53.34917; 18.42306 Coordinates: 53°20′57″N18°25′23″E / 53.34917°N 18.42306°E / 53.34917; 18.42306
CountryFlag of Poland.svg  Poland
Voivodeship Kuyavian-Pomeranian
County Chełmno County
Gmina Chełmno (urban gmina)
Area
  Total13.56 km2 (5.24 sq mi)
Elevation
75 m (246 ft)
Population
 (2006)
  Total20,388
  Density1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
86-200
Website www.chelmno.pl

Chełmno ( [ˈxɛu̯mnɔ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); older English: Culm; German : Loudspeaker.svg Kulm  ) is a town in northern Poland near the Vistula river with 20,000 inhabitants and the historical capital of Chełmno Land. Situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999, Chełmno was previously in Toruń Voivodeship (1975–1998).

Contents

Name

The city's name Chełmno comes from chelm, the old Polish word for hill. [1] [2] After the arrival of the Teutonic Knights in 1232 the Latin name Colmen was used. During the Middle Ages, the Germanized name Culm was used in official documents regarding the town, as the city was a member of the Hanseatic League and part of the State of the Teutonic Order. [3] Chełmno came under Prussian jurisdiction in 1772 and, as part of a larger Germanization effort, the city was officially renamed Kulm. [4] During the Nazi occupation in World War II, the town was again renamed from Chełmno to Kulm.

History

Medieval town walls with the Powder Tower Mury obronne Chelmna.JPG
Medieval town walls with the Powder Tower

The first written mention of Chełmno is known from a document allegedly issued in 1065 by Duke Boleslaus of Poland for the Benedictine monastery in Mogilno. In 1226 Duke Konrad I of Masovia invited the Teutonic Knights to Chełmno Land. In 1233 Kulm was granted city rights known as "Kulm law" (renewed in 1251), the model system for over 200 Polish towns. The town grew prosperous as a member of the mercantile Hanseatic League. Kulm and Chełmno Land were part of the Teutonic Knights' state until 1454. In 1440, the town was one of the founding members of the Prussian Confederation, which opposed Teutonic rule, [5] and upon the request of which King Casimir IV Jagiellon reincorporated the territory to the Kingdom of Poland in 1454. In May 1454 the town pledged allegiance to the Polish King in Toruń. [6] After the end of the Thirteen Years' War, the Teutonic Knights renounced claims to the town, and recognized it as part of Poland. It was made the capital of Chełmno Voivodeship.

In 1772, following the First Partition of Poland, the city was taken over by the Kingdom of Prussia. Between 1807 and 1815 Chełmno was part of the Polish Duchy of Warsaw, being reannexed by Prussia at the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

As Kulm, it had been a garrison town. In 1776 Frederick the Great founded here a cadet school which was to serve in Germanising Polish areas and nobility [7] In 1890 the garrison included 561 military staff. [8] On 1 October 1890 the cadet school was moved to Koszalin (then Köslin) in Farther Pomerania. [9] Also as part of Anti-Polish policies, the Prussians abolished the local Polish academy, and closed down Catholic monasteries. [10] Poles were subjected to various repressions, local Polish newspapers were confiscated. [10]

Renown Polish surgeon Ludwik Rydygier opened his private clinic in the town in 1878, where he conducted pioneering surgical operations, including the first in Poland and second in the world surgical removal of the pylorus in a patient suffering from stomach cancer in 1880 and the first in the world peptic ulcer resection in 1881. [11] Rydygier sold the clinic to one of his employees, Leon Polewski, in 1887, due to harassment from the Prussian authorities. [11]

On January 22, 1920 Polish troops were greeted by a large crowd of residents and Chełmno was reintegrated with Poland, which regained independence after World War I. [10]

When World War II broke out in 1939, Nazi German authorities murdered 5,000 Polish civilians upon taking control of the territory. [12] The atrocities took place in Klamry, Małe Czyste, Podwiesk, Plutowo, Dąbrowa Chełmińska, and Wielkie Łunawy, while many other Poles were executed in forests. [12] The rest of the Polish population was expelled to the General Government in line with the German policy of Lebensraum. Polish Secret State resistance groups such as Polska Żyje ("Poland Lives"), Rota, Grunwald, and Szare Szeregi were also active in the area. The area was administered as part of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia and served as the seat of the district/county (kreis) of Kulm.

On 25 January 1945 German forces set fire to several buildings in the city, including a hospital, a railway terminal, and a brewery, while retreating (see scorched earth).

Demographics

Convent of the Sisters of Charity in Chelmno Zespol klasztorny Siostr Milosierdzia w Chelmnie...JPG
Convent of the Sisters of Charity in Chełmno
Church of the Assumption in Chelmno Kosciol farny widoczna wieza z ktorej mozna podziwiac panorame miasta.JPG
Church of the Assumption in Chełmno

Since its founding, the city had a mixed population of Poles and Germans, with the former making ⅔ of its population in the second half of the 19th century. [4]

Number of inhabitants in years
YearInhabitantsNotes
18435,000 [13]
18909,762incl. 3,450 Protestants and 470 Jews. [8]
190011,079together with the garrison, incl. 3,530 Protestants and 339 Jews. [9]
192111,700incl. 1,060 Germans. [14]
196918,000 [15]
200620,388

Main sights

Chełmno has a well-preserved medieval center, with five Gothic churches and a beautiful Renaissance town hall in the middle of the market square.

The Old Town is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments ( Pomnik historii ), as designated 20 April 2005, and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland.

Town Hall in Chelmno Chelmno ratusz.jpg
Town Hall in Chełmno

Chełmno gives its name to the protected area called Chełmno Landscape Park, which stretches along the right bank of the Vistula.

Notable residents

Statue of Ludwik Rydygier in Chelmno, the first surgeon in the world to carry out a peptic ulcer resection. Ludwik Rydygier monument.jpg
Statue of Ludwik Rydygier in Chełmno, the first surgeon in the world to carry out a peptic ulcer resection.

See also

Related Research Articles

Prabuty Place in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Prabuty is a town in Kwidzyn County within the Pomeranian Voivodeship of northern Poland. Between 1975 and 1998, Prabuty were part of the Elbląg Voivodeship.

Second Peace of Thorn (1466)

The Peace of Thorn or Toruń of 1466, also known as the Second Peace of Thorn or Toruń, was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn (Toruń) on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon and the Teutonic Knights, which ended the Thirteen Years' War, the longest of Polish–Teutonic wars.

Starogard Gdański Place in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Starogard Gdański is a town in Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland with 48,328 inhabitants (2004).

Bytów Place in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Bytów(listen) (Kashubian: Bëtowò; German: Bütow, [ˈbyːto] is a town in the Gdańsk Pomerania region of northern Poland with 16,888 inhabitants. In the Słupsk Voivodeship, it was the capital of Bytów County in the Pomeranian Voivodeship.

Brodnica Place in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Brodnica(listen) is a town in north-central Poland with 28,574 inhabitants as of 2014. Previously part of Toruń Voivodeship province, from 1975 to 1998, Brodnica is situated in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. It is the seat of Brodnica County. The nearby Brodnica Landscape Park, a protected area, gets its name from Brodnica.

Świecie Place in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Świeciepronounced [ˈɕfʲɛt͡ɕɛ] is a town in northern Poland with 25,968 inhabitants (2006), situated in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship ; it was in Bydgoszcz Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998. It is the capital of Świecie County.

Łeba Place in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Łeba is a seaside town in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of northern Poland. It is located in the Pomerelia sub-region, near Łebsko Lake and the mouth of the river Łeba on the coast of the Baltic Sea.

Nowe Miasto Lubawskie Place in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland

Nowe Miasto Lubawskie is a town in northern Poland, situated on the River Drwęca. The total population in June 2018 was 11,062. Nowe Miasto Lubawskie is the capital of Nowe Miasto County and was assigned to the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in 1999.

Sztum Place in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Sztum is a town in northern Poland in the Powiśle region, located in the Pomeranian Voivodeship. It is the capital of Sztum County, with some 10,141 inhabitants (2004).

Lubawa Place in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland

Lubawapronounced [luˈbava] is a town in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, Poland. It is located in Iława County on the Sandela River, some 18 km (11 mi) southeast of Iława.

Chełmno Voivodeship

The Chełmno Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland since 1454/1466 until the Partitions of Poland in 1772/1795. Together with the Pomeranian and Malbork Voivodeships and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia it formed the historical province of Royal Prussia. Its capital was at Chełmno.

Wąbrzeźno Place in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Wąbrzeźno(listen) is a town in Poland, in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, about 35 kilometres northeast of Toruń. It is the capital of the Wąbrzeźno County. The population is 13,971 inhabitants (2004).

Pelplin Place in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Pelplin is a town in northern Poland, in the Tczew County, Pomeranian Voivodship. Population: 8,320 (2009).

Ludwik Rydygier

Ludwik Rydygier was a Polish surgeon, professor of medicine, rector of the University of Lwów and Brigadier General of the Polish Army. He was one of the most distinguished Polish and worldwide known surgeons in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Kowalewo Pomorskie Town in Golub-Dobrzyń County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Kowalewo Pomorskie is a town in Golub-Dobrzyń County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. It is the capital of the Gmina Kowalewo Pomorskie. From 1975–1998 the city belonged to the Toruń Voivodeship.

Łasin Place in Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland

Łasin is a town in Grudziądz County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,271 inhabitants (2004). It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Łasin. It lies approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of Grudziądz and 78 km (48 mi) north-east of Toruń. It is located within the historic Chełmno Land.

Chełmno Land

Chełmno land is a historical region, located in central-northern Poland.

Pomesanians

Pomesanians were one of the Prussian clans. They lived in Pomesania, a historical region in modern northern Poland, located between the Nogat and Vistula Rivers to the west and the Elbląg River to the east. It is located around the modern towns of Elbląg and Malbork. As the westernmost clan, the Pomesanians were the first of the Prussians to be conquered by the Teutonic Knights, a German military crusading order brought to the Chełmno Land to convert the pagans to Christianity. Due to Germanization and assimilation, Pomesanians became extinct some time in the 17th century.

Prince-Bishopric of Warmia

The Prince-Bishopric of Warmia was a semi-independent ecclesiastical state, ruled by the incumbent ordinary of the Warmia see and comprising one third of the then diocesan area. The Warmia see was a Prussian diocese under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Riga that was a protectorate of the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights (1243–1464) and a protectorate and part of the Kingdom of Poland—later part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1464–1772), confirmed by the Peace of Thorn in 1466. The other two thirds of the diocese were under the secular rule of the Teutonic Knights until 1525 and Ducal Prussia thereafter, both entities also being a protectorate and part of Poland from 1466.

History of Toruń

The first settlement in the vicinity of Toruń is dated by archaeologists to 1100 BC. During early medieval times, in the 7th through 13th centuries, it was the location of an old Slavonic settlement, at a ford in the Vistula river.

References

  1. Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici: Nauki humanistyczo-społeczne, Issues 22-28 Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika, 1967, page 6
  2. Słownik etymologiczny nazw geograficznych Polski Maria Malec Wydawn. Naukowe PWN, 2002, page 56
  3. Heinrich Gottfried Philipp Gengler: Regesten und Urkunden zur Verfassungs- und Rechtsgeschichte der deutschen Städte im Mittelalter, Erlangen 1863, pp. 679-680.
  4. 1 2 Blitzkrieg w Polsce wrzesien 1939 Richard Hargreaves, page 29, Bellona Warsaw 2009
  5. Karol Górski, Związek Pruski i poddanie się Prus Polsce: zbiór tekstów źródłowych, Instytut Zachodni, Poznań, 1949, p. 11 (in Polish)
  6. Górski, p. 76
  7. Polacy i Niemcy wobec siebie Stanisław Salmonowicz, Ośrodek Badań Naukowych im. W. Kętrzyńskiego, 1993
  8. 1 2 Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon. 14th edition, vol. 4, Berlin and Vienna 1892, p. 624-625 (in German).
  9. 1 2 Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 6th edition, vol. 11, Leipzig and Vienna 1908, p. 785-786 (in German).
  10. 1 2 3 "Chełmno w dniu odzyskania niepodległości 22 stycznia 1920 roku". Chelmno.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  11. 1 2 Stanisław Marian Brzozowski. "Ludwik Rydygier". Internetowy Polski Słownik Biograficzny (in Polish). Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  12. 1 2 Institute of National Remembrance data, based on Leszczynski, Kazimierz "Eksterminacja ludności w Polsce w czasie okupacji niemieckiej 1939-1945", Warsaw, 1962
  13. Universal-Lexikon der Gegenwart und Vergangenheit (H. A. Pierer, ed.). 2nd edition, vol. 17, Altenburg 1843, p. 51 (in German).
  14. Der Große Brockhaus. 15th edition, vol. 4, Leipzig 1929, p. 297-298 (in German).
  15. Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon. 9th edition, vol. 6, Mannheim/Vienna/Zürich 1972, p. 122 (in German).