Chengde

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Chengde

承德市

Chengte, Jehol
Sledgehammerpeak.JPG
Imperial Summer Resort Bi Shu Shan Zhuang  (28863805406).jpg
Chengde 2018.jpg
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Chengde view from mountain top.jpg
Clockwise from top: Sledgehammer Peak, Mountain Resort, Skyline of Chengde, Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Jinshanling
Chengde
Location of Chengde Prefecture within Hebei (China).png
Location of Chengde City jurisdiction in Hebei
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Chengde
Location of the city centre in Hebei
China Northern Plain relief location map.png
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Chengde
Chengde (North China Plain)
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Chengde
Chengde (China)
Coordinates(Chengde municipal government): 40°57′11″N117°57′47″E / 40.953°N 117.963°E / 40.953; 117.963 Coordinates: 40°57′11″N117°57′47″E / 40.953°N 117.963°E / 40.953; 117.963
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hebei
Settled1681
EstablishedNovember 15, 1983
Municipal seat Shuangqiao District
Area
   Prefecture-level city 39,519 km2 (15,258 sq mi)
  Urban
[1]
724.03 km2 (279.55 sq mi)
   Districts [1] 1,252.7 km2 (483.7 sq mi)
Elevation
327 m (1,073 ft)
Population
   Prefecture-level city 3,473,200
  Density91/km2 (240/sq mi)
   Urban
[1]
591,500
  Urban density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
  Districts [1]
642,000
Area code(s) 314
ISO 3166 code CN-HE-08
License Plate Prefix 冀H
GDP (2016) CNY 14.329 billion
Website http://www.chengde.gov.cn
City tree
Pagoda Tree
City flower
Rugosa Rose
Chengde
Chinese name
Chinese 承德
Postal Chengte
Literal meaningUpholding  Virtue
Receiving Virtue
Rehe
Traditional Chinese 熱河()
Simplified Chinese 热河()
Postal Jehol
Literal meaningHot River
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Халуун гол
Mongolian script ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠊ᡵᡩᡝᠮᡠ ᠪᡝ ᠠᠯᡳᡥᠠ
Abkai Erdemu Be Aliha

Chengde, formerly known as Jehol and Rehe, is a prefecture-level city in Hebei province, situated about 225 km northeast of Beijing. It is best known as the site of the Mountain Resort, a vast imperial garden and palace formerly used by the Qing emperors as summer residence. [2] The permanent resident population is approximately 3,473,200 in 2017.

Contents

History

The Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735-1796) touring Chengde. Wallpaper2.jpg
The Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735−1796) touring Chengde.

In 1703, Chengde was chosen by the Kangxi Emperor as the location for his summer residence. Constructed throughout the eighteenth century, the Mountain Resort was used by both the Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors. The site is currently an UNESCO World Heritage Site. Since the seat of government followed the emperor, Chengde was a political center of the Chinese empire during these times.

The city of Jeholan early romanization of Rehe via the French transcription of the northern suffix ér as eul [3] reached its height under the Qianlong Emperor 1735-1796 (died 1799). The great Putuo Zongcheng Temple, loosely based on the Potala in Lhasa, was completed after just four years of work in 1771. It was heavily decorated with gold and the emperor worshipped in the Golden Pavilion. In the temple itself was a bronze-gilt statue of Tsongkhapa, the Reformer of the Gelugpa sect.

Under the Republic of China, Chengde was the capital of Rehe province. From 1933 to 1945 the city was under Japanese control as a part of the Manchurian puppet state known as Manchukuo. After World War II the Kuomintang regained jurisdiction. In 1948, the People's Liberation Army took control of Chengde. It would remain a part of Rehe until 1955, when the province was abolished, and the city was incorporated into Hebei.

The city is home to large populations of ethnic minorities, Mongol and Manchu in particular.

Geography

View of Chengde from the Mountain Resort. Chengdeview3.JPG
View of Chengde from the Mountain Resort.

Chengde is located in the northeastern portion of Hebei, with latitude 40° 12'-42° 37' N, and longitude 115° 54'-119° 15' E, and contains the northernmost point in the province. It borders Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Beijing, and Tianjin. Neighbouring prefecture-level provincial cities are Qinhuangdao and Tangshan on the Bohai Gulf, and land-locked Zhangjiakou. Due to its Liaoning border, it is often considered a part of both the North and Northeast China regions. From north to south the prefecture stretches 269 kilometres (167 mi), and from west to east 280 kilometres (174 mi), for a total area of 39,702.4 square kilometres (15,329.2 sq mi), thus occupying 21.2% of the total provincial area. It is by area the largest prefecture in the province, though as most of its terrain is mountainous, its population density is low.

The Jehol or Rehe ("Hot River"), which gave Chengde its former name, was so named because it did not freeze in winter. Most sections of the river's former course are now dry because of modern dams.

Climate

Chengde has a four-season, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with widely varying conditions through the prefecture due to its size: winters are moderately long, cold and windy, but dry, and summers are hot and humid. Near the city, however, temperatures are much cooler than they are in Beijing, due to the higher elevation: the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −9.3 °C (15.3 °F) in January to 24.2 °C (75.6 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 8.93 °C (48.1 °F). On January 8, 2021, a minimum temperature of −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) was registered. [4] Spring warming is rapid, but dust storms can blow in from the Mongolian steppe; autumn cooling is similarly quick. Precipitation averages at about 504 millimetres (19.8 in) for the year, with more than two-thirds of it falling during the three summer months. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 50% in July to 69% in October, the city receives 2,746 hours of sunshine annually.

Climate data for Chengde (1981−2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−1.9
(28.6)
3.0
(37.4)
10.1
(50.2)
19.3
(66.7)
25.6
(78.1)
29.2
(84.6)
30.3
(86.5)
29.2
(84.6)
24.7
(76.5)
17.4
(63.3)
7.1
(44.8)
−0.4
(31.3)
16.1
(61.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)−9.3
(15.3)
−4.7
(23.5)
2.7
(36.9)
11.8
(53.2)
18.2
(64.8)
22.4
(72.3)
24.2
(75.6)
22.7
(72.9)
17.1
(62.8)
9.5
(49.1)
−0.1
(31.8)
−7.4
(18.7)
8.9
(48.1)
Average low °C (°F)−14.8
(5.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
−3.8
(25.2)
4.5
(40.1)
11.0
(51.8)
16.0
(60.8)
19.2
(66.6)
17.7
(63.9)
11.0
(51.8)
3.3
(37.9)
−5.5
(22.1)
−12.4
(9.7)
3.0
(37.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)1.7
(0.07)
3.8
(0.15)
9.2
(0.36)
21.3
(0.84)
47.2
(1.86)
88.0
(3.46)
136.8
(5.39)
108.1
(4.26)
50.4
(1.98)
26.8
(1.06)
7.6
(0.30)
2.6
(0.10)
503.5
(19.83)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.62.13.74.57.811.114.212.67.75.02.51.474.2
Average relative humidity (%)53474340486073746960575657
Mean monthly sunshine hours 195.6202.3240.6258.7276.4262.0229.1234.0240.2236.2193.5177.22,745.8
Percent possible sunshine 66686565625850556469656262
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 19712000) [5] [6]

Administrative divisions

Map including Chengde (labeled as Cheng De 
Ch'eng-te (Jehol)) (AMS, 1958) Txu-oclc-6614368-nk50-11.jpg
Map including Chengde (labeled as 承德 Ch'eng-te (Jehol)) (AMS, 1958)

Chengde comprises:

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2004 est.)
Area (km²)Density (/km²)
Shuangqiao District 双桥区Shuāngqiáo Qū290,000311932
Shuangluan District 双滦区Shuāngluán Qū100,000250400
Yingshouyingzi Mining District 鹰手营子
矿区
Yīngshǒuyíngzi
Kuàngqū
70,000148473
Pingquan City平泉市Píngquán Shì470,0003,297143
Chengde County 承德县Chéngdé Xiàn470,0003,990118
Xinglong County 兴隆县Xīnglóng Xiàn320,0003,116103
Luanping County 滦平县Luánpíng Xiàn320,0003,195100
Longhua County 隆化县Lónghuà Xiàn420,0005,47477
Fengning Manchu
Autonomous County
丰宁满族
自治县
Fēngníng Mǎnzú
Zìzhìxiàn
380,0008,74743
Kuancheng Manchu
Autonomous County
宽城满族
自治县
Kuānchéng Mǎnzú
Zìzhìxiàn
230,0001,933119
Weichang Manchu and
Mongol Autonomous County
围场满族
蒙古族自治县
Wéichǎng Mǎnzú
Měnggǔzú Zìzhìxiàn
520,0009,05857

Sport

The first ever bandy match in China was organised in Chengde in January 2015 and was played between the Russian and Swedish top clubs Baykal-Energiya and Sandviken. [7] Chengde city was one of the initiators when the China Bandy Federation was founded in December 2014. [8] The city hosted the 2018 Women's Bandy World Championship. [9] [10] [11] [12] While the record number of participants in previous Women's Bandy World Championships was 7, the organisers had thought out measures with the goal to attract 12 participating countries. [13] However, in the end 8 teams participated.

Religion

Chengde is the seat of the Catholic Diocese of Chengde.

Transport

With road and railroad links to Beijing, Chengde has developed into a distribution hub, and its economy is growing rapidly. The newly built Jingcheng Expressway connects Chengde directly to central Beijing, and more freeways are planned for the city. The city's new airport was opened on 31 May 2017. [14] It is located 19.5 kilometres (12.1 mi) northeast of the city center in Tougou Town, Chengde County.

Sights

Qing Dynasty map of Chengde Mountain Resort. Chengde 1875-1890.jpg
Qing Dynasty map of Chengde Mountain Resort.
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple complex, completed in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor. Putuo Zongcheng Temple.jpg
The Putuo Zongcheng Temple complex, completed in 1771 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

The project of building Chengde Mountain Resort started in 1703 and finished in 1790. The whole mountain resort covers an area 5,640,000 square meters. It is the largest royal garden in China. The wall of the mountain resort is over 10,000 meters in length. In summers, emperors of Qing Dynasty came to the mountain resort to relax themselves and escape from the high temperature in Beijing.

The whole Resort can be divided into three areas which are lakes area, plains area and hills area. The lakes area, which includes 8 lakes, covers an area of 496,000 square meters. The plains area covers an area of 607,000 square meters. The emperors held horse races and hunted in the area. The largest area of the three is the hills area. It covers an area of 4,435,000 square meters. Hundreds of palaces and temples were built on the hills in this area.

The elaborate Mountain Resort features large parks with lakes, pagodas, and palaces ringed by a wall. Outside the wall are the Eight Outer Temples (外八庙), built in varying architectural styles drawn from throughout China. One of the best-known of these is the Putuo Zongcheng Temple, built to resemble the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. The resort and outlying temples were made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. The nearby Puning Temple, built in 1755, houses the world's tallest wooden statue of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara.

Another popular attraction of the Chengde area is Sledgehammer Peak (磬锤峰), a large rock formation in the shape of an inverted sledgehammer. A variety of other mountains, valleys, and grasslands lie within the borders of the city.

Sister cities

Chengde has city partnerships with the following locations:

Related Research Articles

Hebei Province of China

Hebei is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province. Its capital and largest city is Shijiazhuang. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.

Rehe Province

Rehe, also romanized as Jehol, was a former Chinese special administrative region and province.

Qinhuangdao Prefecture-level city in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Qinhuangdao is a port city on the coast of China in northern Hebei province. It is administratively a prefecture-level city, about 300 km (190 mi) east of Beijing, on the Bohai Sea, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea. Its population during the 2010 national census was 2,987,605, with approximately one million people living in the built-up area made up of three urban districts.

Lhasa District in Tibet, Peoples Republic of China

Lhasa is the urban center of the prefecture-level Lhasa City and the administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in China. The inner urban area of Lhasa City is equivalent to the administrative borders of Chengguan District, which is part of the wider prefectural Lhasa City.

Chifeng Prefecture-level city in Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China

Chifeng, also known as Ulankhad, is a prefecture-level city in Southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It borders Xilin Gol League to the north and west, Tongliao to the northeast, Chaoyang (Liaoning) to the southeast and Chengde (Hebei) to the south. The city has a total administrative area of 90,275 square kilometres (34,855 sq mi) and has a population of 4,341,245 inhabitants. As of the 2010 census, 1,094,970 of those residents reside within in the urban districts of Hongshan, Yuanbaoshan and Songshan. However, a large part of Songshan is still rural and Yuanbaoshan is a de facto separate town 27 kilometers away from the core district of Chifeng. The city was the administrative center of the defunct Ju Ud League.

Chengde Mountain Resort

Chengde Mountain Resort in Chengde, is a large complex of imperial palaces and gardens situated in the Shuangqiao District of Chengde in northeastern Hebei province, northern China, about 225 km northeast of Beijing. Because of its vast and rich collection of Chinese landscapes and architecture, the Mountain Resort in many ways is a culmination of all the variety of gardens, pagodas, temples and palaces from various regions of China.

The year 1771 in architecture involved some significant events.

Lobsang Palden Yeshe, 6th Panchen Lama Panchen Lama

Lobsang Palden Yeshe (1738–1780) was the sixth Panchen Lama of Tashilhunpo Monastery in Tibet. He was the elder stepbrother of the 10th Shamarpa, Mipam Chödrup Gyamtso (1742–1793).

Chinese palace

A Chinese palace is an imperial complex where the court and the civil government resided. Its structures are considerable and elaborate. The Chinese character gong represents two connected rooms (呂) under a roof (宀). Originally the character applied to any residence or mansion, but it was used in reference to solely the imperial residence since the Qin dynasty.

Pingquan County-level city in Hebei, Peoples Republic of China

Pingquan is a county-level city of northeastern Hebei province, China, bordering Liaoning province to the east. It has a population of 470,000 residing in an area of 3,297 km2 (1,273 sq mi). It is a centre of trade and business, and gold and silver are mined nearby.

Putuo Zongcheng Temple

The Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei province, China is a Qing dynasty era Buddhist temple complex built between 1767 and 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (1735–1796). It is located near the Chengde Mountain Resort, which is south of the Putuo Zongcheng. Along with the equally famed Puning Temple, it is one of the Eight Outer Temples of Chengde. The temple was modeled after the Potala Palace of Tibet, the residence of the Dalai Lama built a century earlier. Since it was modeled after the Potala palace, the temple represents a fusion of Chinese and Tibetan architectural styles. The temple complex covers a surface area of some 220,000 square metres (2,400,000 sq ft), making it one of the largest in China. Many of its halls and pavilions are adorned with copper and gold tiled roofs, adding to the splendor of the site.

Puning Temple (Hebei)

The Puning Temple, commonly called the Big Buddha Temple, is a Buddhist temple complex in Chengde, Hebei province, China. It was built in 1755 during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor in the Qing dynasty. It is near the Chengde Mountain Resort and alongside the equally famed Putuo Zongcheng Temple. Puning is one of the "Eight Outer Temples" of Chengde.

Putuo is the Chinese rendering of Sanskrit Potalaka. It may refer to the following places in China:

Fayu Temple

Fayu Temple, also called Stone Temple, is one of three major temples in Mount Putuo, Zhejiang, China. Its grand hall was rebuilt in 1699 during the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Jehol, also known in Chinese as Rehe or Jinzhou, is a diocese in the Ecclesiastical province of Shenyang in China, covering part of the former Rehe Province. Both Jehol and Rehe are forms of the former Chinese name of the city of Chengde; Jinzhou refers to the State of Jin that formerly occupied part of the diocese.

Eastern Qing tombs Imperial mausoleum complex of the Qing dynasty

The Eastern Qing tombs are an imperial mausoleum complex of the Qing dynasty located in Zunhua, 125 kilometres (78 mi) northeast of Beijing. They are the largest, most complete, and best preserved extant mausoleum complex in China. Altogether, five emperors, 15 empresses, 136 imperial concubines, three princes, and two princesses of the Qing dynasty are buried here. Surrounded by Changrui Mountain, Jinxing Mountain, Huanghua Mountain, and Yingfei Daoyang Mountain, the tomb complex stretches over a total area of 80 square kilometres (31 sq mi).

Mount Potalaka

Mount Potalaka, which means "Brilliance", is the mythical dwelling of the Buddhist bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, said to exist in the seas south of India.

Xumi Fushou Temple

The Xumi Fushou Temple is one of the Eight Outer Temples in Chengde, Hebei, China. This Buddhist temple is in the north of the park complex of the Chengde Mountain Resort, to the east of Putuo Zongcheng Temple on the north side of a slightly upward slope hill. The temple covers an area of 37,900 m2 (408,000 sq ft).

Imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty

The imperial hunt of the Qing dynasty was an annual rite of the emperors of China during the Qing dynasty (1636–1912). It was first organized in 1681 by the Kangxi Emperor at the imperial hunting grounds at Mulan (modern-day Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County, near what would become the summer residence of the Qing emperors at Chengde. Starting in 1683 the event was held annually at Mulan during the autumn, lasting up to a month. The Qing dynasty hunt was a synthesis of earlier Chinese and Inner Asian hunting traditions, particularly those of the Manchus and Mongols. The emperor himself participated in the hunt, along with thousands of soldiers, imperial family members, and government officials.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 4 Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 46. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. Hedin (1933), pp. 1, 14.
  3. Forêt (2000), p. xiv.
  4. https://twitter.com/extremetemps/status/1347371419563339781
  5. 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration . Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  6. 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
  7. "Picture of the teams from the homepage of Baykal-Energiya". Archived from the original on 2016-06-11. Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  8. "China Bandy Federation: China National Bandy Team". chinabandy.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  9. "Women's World Bandy Championship awarded to China". www.insidethegames.biz. February 3, 2017.
  10. http://www.rusbandy.ru/news/8728&prev=search
  11. "Rapport från internationella förbundets kongress". Svenska Bandyförbundet (in Swedish).
  12. 哈尔滨体育学院女子班迪球队赴美参加世界A组锦标赛 - 竞训新闻 - 哈尔滨体育学院 (in Chinese). Harbin Sport University.
  13. Женский ЧМ — в парке Императорской резиденции - Архив новостей - Федерация хоккея с мячом России. rusbandy.ru (in Russian).
  14. 河北承德普宁机场正式通航 (in Chinese). Xinhua. 1 June 2017.
  15. "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 21 November 2015.

Bibliography