Cheshunt

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Cheshunt
St Mary Cheshunt Herts.jpg
The Church of St Mary
Hertfordshire UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Cheshunt
Location within Hertfordshire
Population45,832 (Census 2011)
OS grid reference TL358021
  London 12 mi (19 km)
District
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town Waltham Cross
Postcode district EN7, EN8
Dialling code 01992
Police Hertfordshire
Fire Hertfordshire
Ambulance East of England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Hertfordshire
51°42′07″N0°02′06″W / 51.702°N 0.035°W / 51.702; -0.035 Coordinates: 51°42′07″N0°02′06″W / 51.702°N 0.035°W / 51.702; -0.035

Cheshunt ( /ˈɛzənt/ CHEZ-ənt) is a town in the Borough of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, lying entirely within the London Metropolitan Area and Greater London Urban Area. The area is on the River Lea and the Lee Navigation along with the New River. It is 12 miles north of central London, 35 miles south of Cambridge, 15 miles ENE of Watford, and 1.5 miles west of the Essex border. The town is situated on the A10 road.The town has a population of 45,832 according to the United Kingdom's 2011 census. [1]

Contents

History and geography

The Prime Meridian passes to the east of Cheshunt.

The town name comes from the Old English name (as recorded in the Domesday Book ) for the area, Cestrehunt, which probably refers to a "castle, erected by the Romans", the word cestre (along with the form ceastre ), or even its modern forms, chester and caster being derived from the Latin castrum meaning "fort". [2] [3] This is commemorated in the arms of the former Cheshunt urban district council.

Cheshunt was a settlement on Ermine Street, the main Roman road leading north from London. [4] Before the Norman Conquest, the manor of Cheshunt was held by Eddeva the Fair, but William I granted it to Alan of Brittany. The parish church of St Mary the Virgin was first recorded in a charter of 1146, but was entirely rebuilt between 1418 and 1448 with a three-stage tower topped by an octagonal turret. [5]

As Princess Elizabeth, Queen Elizabeth I lived at Cheshunt in the care of Sir Anthony Denny, after she left Queen Catherine Parr's household in 1548. [6] Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, died here in 1712. In 1825, Cheshunt was also the location of the Cheshunt Railway. Running from the town's High Street to the River Lea near the present-day Cheshunt railway station, this 0.75 mi (1.21 km) horse-drawn line was the first passenger-carrying monorail and the first railway line to be built in Hertfordshire. [7] [8]

The town's Bury Green neighbourhood was once the home of singer Cliff Richard. Lotus Cars as well as the central headquarters the Debenhams store chain were formerly located in Cheshunt, and the headquarters of Tesco, the UK's largest supermarket chain, was located here until 2016. In 2002, Cheshunt hosted the only officially licensed European BotCon convention ever.

In 1957, a review of how London was governed was undertaken by government and led by Sir Edwin Herbert, who was appointed to create the new Greater London conurbation as it is today. Initially, Cheshunt was planned to be merged in with the London Borough of Enfield; however, the plan was eventually dropped and Cheshunt remained part of Hertfordshire. [9]

The Metropolitan Police Service served Cheshunt until 2000, when policing was taken over by Hertfordshire Constabulary. [10] [11]

Services in Cheshunt include the Brookfield Centre, which includes Next, Boots, Argos, River Island and Marks & Spencer stores, as well as a large Tesco Extra store. There was a Marriott Hotel nearby (which closed in 2020), and the town centre includes a wide variety of smaller shops.

Being located in the Lea Valley, Cheshunt has access to the Lee Valley Park. The park is accessible at many points, one being extremely close to the town's railway station at Windmill Lane.

At 8:00 am on 12 August 1944, a Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber from the United States Army Air Forces 392nd Bombardment Group (Heavy), based at RAF Wendling, crashed next to Maxwells Farm, near Cheshunt, killing all ten crew. [12] [13] The section of the B198 which runs near the crash site has been renamed Lieutenant Ellis Way, after the pilot, who managed to avoid crashing into the nearby town. One of the firemen who attended the scene secured funding in 2010 for a permanent memorial at the scene (at the entrance to St Mary's School). [14]

Temple Bar, Theobalds Park Temple Bar, Theobalds Park - geograph.org.uk - 185643.jpg
Temple Bar, Theobalds Park

Up until 2004, Temple Bar stood in Theobalds Park, having been moved from London at the turn of the nineteenth century. The gateway has since been re-erected in London at Paternoster Square on the north side of St Paul's Cathedral.

Cedars Park, on the site of Theobalds Palace, is a publicly-owned park that covers 19 hectares (47 acres) of parkland and includes a Great War memorial, bocce court, play maze, garden viewing mound, animal centre, tea room and meeting room, as well as several palace remains. The park has received a Green Flag Award every year since 2009.

Industry

Tesco House, former Tesco head office, in Delamare Road, Cheshunt TescoHouseCheshunt.jpg
Tesco House, former Tesco head office, in Delamare Road, Cheshunt

Cheshunt's best-known employer was Tesco, whose head office was in Delamare Road, Cheshunt for many years. A small store in the town centre is still open today, while "Home 'n' Wear" store, which was situated across the Old Pond in College Road, is now closed. [15] In 1983 a new out-of-town Tesco store located to the north of the town opened, named "Brookfield Farm". It later expanded, a branch of Marks & Spencer was built next door, and the entire estate was renamed "The Brookfield Centre". Tesco announced in 2015 that it would move its headquarters to Welwyn Garden City. [16] [17]

In 1959, Colin Chapman moved his fledgling Lotus group of companies, including Lotus Cars and Team Lotus, from its outgrown premises at Hornsey to a purpose-built facility on Delamare Road. Racing cars from here won the first two of its seven constructor championships in (1963 and 1965) before moving to Hethel, Norfolk, in 1966.

North Met Pit, flooded gravel workings North Met Pit, Cheshunt Gravel Pits - geograph.org.uk - 465961.jpg
North Met Pit, flooded gravel workings

Until the late 1960s the main land use around Cheshunt was for its nursery industry, and many new techniques for growing under glass were developed here. Thomas Rochford had a large concern here, although now almost all the glasshouses have been redeveloped into housing estates. This is often reflected in the names of the roads or estates, such as Rosedale or Thomas Rochford Way. A small amount of nursery trade survives to the west of the town. The neighbouring town of Goffs Oak still has a large number of nurseries as well as a large garden centre.

The River Lee Navigation passes the east of Cheshunt and was used for the transport of flowers and crops to the London markets for many years until road transport became more viable. A wharf existed just east of the railway on the site now occupied by Herts Young Mariners Base. The Youth Hostel was built on the site of the derelict open-air swimming pool. [18]

"Cheshunt Compound", a fungicide developed at the Cheshunt Research Station, was widely used by amateur and professional gardeners but has been withdrawn from sale in the UK since November 2010 and it is no longer legal to use it. [19] It was a mixture of copper sulphate and ammonium carbonate. [20]

From the end of World War II a large area of the River Lea flood plain was used for sand and gravel extraction which resulted in the creation of the now mature lakes which are popular with anglers, birdwatchers and naturalists. The area now forms part of the 1,000 acres (400 ha) River Lee Country Park and the Turnford and Cheshunt Pits SSSI.

Notable people

Cliff Richard performing in Sydney, Australia Cliff Richard (8454755151).jpg
Cliff Richard performing in Sydney, Australia

Education

Cheshunt has four secondary schools: Goffs Academy; Goffs-Churchgate Academy; Haileybury Turnford; and St Mary's Church of England High School.

The non-conformist theological college Cheshunt College moved to Cheshunt in the 1790s from Trevecca, Brecknockshire. It moved to Cambridge in 1905. Between 1909 and 1968 the buildings were occupied by the Church of England's Bishop's College. [22] [ dead link ] Since 1972 they have been council offices and formerly a music and business school (typing and accountancy), which had to be demolished due to it being unsafe. In the 1980s parts of the building were so unsafe it was closed and demolished. The main problem was the floors had begun to disintegrate. A new council office was built on the site of the old school. The council chamber and registry office are now in the same building that contains the "Huntingdon Rooms".[ citation needed ]

Town centre

The Old Pond area is located in the centre of Cheshunt and is home to many local businesses. With roads leading to the M25, A10 and towards Broxbourne. The 242, 310 and 410 bus routes pass through the town centre. The Laura Trott Leisure Centre is close by. Before the 2012 London Olympics the Olympic Torch was carried close to the Old Pond by selected and nominated local residents. After the Olympics, gold medal winner Laura Kenny had two postboxes painted gold in her honour, one at the Old Pond. [23]

A development called Cheshunt Lakeside is being built near the Old Pond. It will include 1275 new homes, along with a Primary School, and improvements to bus services. As of April 2021, Phase 1A has started.

Another development, named Brookfield Riverside, approximately 1.5 miles away from the station, will include 200 new homes, 480,000 sq ft of leisure and commercial, 80,000 sq ft of offices, 2500 space car park, along with other amenities. The development is planned to be complete by 2022.

Demographics

Ethnicities in Cheshunt 2011 [24]
Ethnic GroupsCheshunt
White92.7%
Asian2.3%
Black4.2%
Other0.8%

Sport

Cheshunt has its own football club in Cheshunt F.C. who play in the Isthmian League Premier Division. Founded in 1946, their most famous player was Iain Dowie who played for them in the 1980s.

The town also has long-established rugby and cricket clubs and a publicly owned 18-hole golf course. [25]

Tottenham Hotspur football club have held training grounds in Cheshunt over the years.[ citation needed ]

Formerly Grundy Park Leisure Centre, the Laura Trott Leisure Centre was renamed after £4m redevelopment to honour the Olympic gold medallist. Trott attended the launch on the morning before competing in stage four of the first Women's Tour from Cheshunt to Welwyn Garden City. [26]

Whit Hern (also known as Cheshunt) Bowls Club, which is located in Whit Hern Park, provides a green with seven bowling rinks, and its own facilities separate to the park.[ citation needed ]

Cedars Park provides a court which can be used for most Boules games, including bocce and pétanque.

Transport

Rail

Cheshunt Station is in Travelcard Zone 8. Nearby stations include Theobalds Grove, Waltham Cross, Broxbourne, Rye House and Loughton (Central Line).

The station is on both the National Rail network and the London Overground network.

Services run southbound to Liverpool Street via Tottenham Hale or Seven Sisters and Stratford and northbound to Hertford East, Bishop's Stortford and Cambridge. [27]

Crossrail 2 will connect north-east London to south-west London when constructed and is proposed to stop at Cheshunt station, along with improving the station. [28]

Preceding station National Rail logo.svg National Rail Following station
Tottenham Hale
or Waltham Cross
  Abellio Greater Anglia
West Anglia Main Line
  Broxbourne
Waltham Cross or Edmonton Green   Abellio Greater Anglia
Lea Valley Lines
  Broxbourne
Tottenham Hale   Abellio Greater Anglia
Stansted Express
  Stansted Airport
Overground notextroundel.svg National Rail logo.svg London Overground
Theobalds Grove   Lea Valley Lines
Cheshunt line
 Terminus
 Future Development 
Preceding station  Crossrail roundel.svg National Rail logo.svg Crossrail  Following station
Crossrail
Crossrail 2
Terminus

Road

Cheshunt is located on the A10 (also known locally as the Great Cambridge Road), which provides links to Junction 25 of the M25 London Orbital Motorway, Central London, Hertford and Cambridge. Also roads lead to Waltham Cross and Waltham Abbey

Bus

Cheshunt has a mixture of commercial and Hertfordshire County Council contract services. Most buses operate to Waltham Cross (where there are links to north London and Essex), Hoddesdon and Broxbourne. The towns of Hertford, Harlow, Potters Bar, and Waltham Abbey are also linked to Cheshunt. Buses are operated by Arriva Shires & Essex, Centrebus, Metroline or Sullivan Buses.

Cycle

The Sustrans National Cycle Route 1 passes through Cheshunt as part of its route connecting Dover to Shetland. The Lee Valley Country Park is a cycle-friendly route that runs along the River Lea, connecting both cyclists and pedestrians to Ware, Hoddesdon, Waltham Abbey, Tottenham and Stratford.

Paul Cully Bridge

Paul Cully Bridge
Cheshunt A10 cycle link.png
Route of the cycle link and new bridge location.
LocationHertfordshire
ProposerSustrans
Cost estimate£1.7 million
Geometry KML

As part of the Connect2 project a new cycle link over the A10 was proposed in 2007. [29] The scheme involved the building of a new cycle bridge over the A10 and connecting paths to link Theobalds Lane with Lieutenant Ellis Way. The bridge was opened in 2010 as the "Paul Cully Bridge" after a late local civil servant. [30] £500,000 of this cost is funded by the Big Lottery Fund via the Connect2 project. [31]

Town twinning

Related Research Articles

Hertfordshire County of England

Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. It covers 634 square miles (1,640 km2). It derives its name from a hart (stag) and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and of the flag. Hertfordshire County Council is based in Hertford, once the main market town.

Hoddesdon Town in Hertfordshire, England

Hoddesdon is a town in the Broxbourne borough of the English county of Hertfordshire, situated in the Lea Valley. It grew up as a coaching stop on the route between Cambridge and London. It is located 3 miles (5 km) West of Harlow 4 miles (6 km) southeast of Hertford, 5 miles (8 km) north of Waltham Cross and 11 miles (18 km) southwest of Bishop's Stortford. At its height during the 18th century, more than 35 coaches a day passed through the town. It saw a boom in the mid 20th century as gravel was extracted from the area, but was exhausted by the 1970s. The lakes and water pits left behind have been used as leisure amenities. Today, Hoddesdon has a little light industry but is mainly a London commuter belt town. The town hosted the eighth Congrès International d'Architecture Moderne in 1951. It is twinned with the Belgian city of Dinant.

Borough of Broxbourne Place in England

The Borough of Broxbourne is a local government district and borough in Hertfordshire, England. Its council is based in Cheshunt, other towns include Broxbourne, Hoddesdon and Waltham Cross. The eastern boundary of the district is the River Lea. The borough covers 20 square miles (52 km2) in south east Hertfordshire having a population of about 96,000.

A10 road (England) Road in England

The A10 is a major road in England. Its southern end is at London Bridge in the London Borough of Southwark, and its northern end is the Norfolk port town of King's Lynn. From London to Royston it chiefly follows the line of Roman Ermine Street. The main route to Cambridge is now via the M11 motorway, however non-motorway traffic still uses the A10.

Lee Valley Park

Lee Valley Regional Park is a 10,000-acre (40 km2) 26 miles (42 km) long linear park, much of it green spaces, running through the northeast of Greater London, Essex and Hertfordshire from the River Thames to Ware, through areas such as Stratford, Clapton, Tottenham, Enfield, Walthamstow, Cheshunt, Broxbourne and Hoddesdon in an area generally known as the Lea Valley. Greater London's largest park, Lee Valley Park is more than four times the size of Richmond Park, extending beyond Greater London's borders into the neighbouring counties of Hertfordshire and Essex.

Lea Valley lines Group of commuter rail lines in London, UK

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Broxbourne railway station Network Rail station in Hertfordshire, England

Broxbourne railway station is on the West Anglia Main Line serving the towns of Broxbourne and Hoddesdon in Hertfordshire, England. It is 17 miles 17 chains (27.7 km) down the line from London Liverpool Street and is situated between Cheshunt and Roydon. Its three-letter station code is BXB and it is in fare zone B.

Cheshunt railway station National Rail station in Hertfordshire, England

Cheshunt is a National Rail and London Overground station in Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, England. On the National Rail network it is on the West Anglia Main Line, 14 miles 1 chain (22.6 km) from London Liverpool Street and situated between Waltham Cross and Broxbourne. On the London Overground network it is one of three northern termini of the Lea Valley lines.

Waltham Cross railway station Network Rail station in Essex, England

Waltham Cross railway station is on the West Anglia Main Line, serving the suburban town of Waltham Cross in Hertfordshire, and the neighbouring Waltham Abbey in Essex, England. It is 12 miles 63 chains (20.6 km) down the line from London Liverpool Street and is situated between Enfield Lock and Cheshunt. Its three-letter station code is WLC and it is in Travelcard zone 7.

Waltham Cross Town in Hertfordshire, England

Waltham Cross is a town in the Borough of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, England, located approximately 12 miles north of central London. In the south-eastern corner of Hertfordshire, it borders Cheshunt to the north, Waltham Abbey in Essex to the east, and Enfield in Greater London to the south, forming part of the metropolitan area of London and the Greater London Urban Area.

Lee Valley White Water Centre White water sports venue in Hertfordshire, England

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Enfield Lock Human settlement in England

Enfield Lock is an area in the London Borough of Enfield, north London. It is approximately located east of the Hertford Road between Turkey Street and the Holmesdale Tunnel overpass, and extends to the River Lee Navigation, including the Enfield Island Village. The locality gains its name from the lock on the River Lee Navigation. Today's Enfield Lock was rebuilt in 1922. The area forms part of the Lee Valley Park and the Enfield Lock Conservation Area. On its eastern boundary Enfield Lock has marshland formerly used as a testing site between the Royal Small Arms Factory and the Gunpowder Mills, beyond this is the village of Sewardstone and the Epping forest boundary. To the south is Brimsdown, the north Waltham Cross and to the west Bullsmoor and Freezywater. Enfield Lock forms part of the London boundary.

Broxbourne Town in Hertfordshire, England

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Bishops Stortford railway station Railway station in Hertfordshire, England

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Sawbridgeworth railway station

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The Lea Valley, the valley of the River Lea, has been used as a transport corridor, a source of sand and gravel, an industrial area, a water supply for London, and a recreational area. The London 2012 Summer Olympics were based in Stratford, in the Lower Lea Valley. It is very important for London's water supply, as the source of the water transported by the New River aqueduct, but also as the location for the Lee Valley Reservoir Chain, stretching from Enfield through Tottenham and Walthamstow.

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Waltham Common Lock

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The Broxbourne Council election, 1973 was held to elect council members of the Broxbourne Borough Council, the local government authority of the borough of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, England.

The Broxbourne Council election, 2012 was held on 3 May 2012 to elect council members of the Broxbourne Borough Council, the local government authority of the borough of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, England.

References

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