Chiang Ching-kuo

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Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
ChiangChingkuo photo.jpg
Official portrait. Photo date unknown[ when? ].
President of the Republic of China
In office
20 May 1978 13 January 1988
Vice President Hsieh Tung-min
Lee Teng-hui
Preceded by Yen Chia-kan
Succeeded by Lee Teng-hui
Premier of the Republic of China
In office
29 May 1972 20 May 1978
President Chiang Kai-shek
Yen Chia-kan
Vice Premier Hsu Ching-chung
Preceded by Yen Chia-kan
Succeeded by Sun Yun-suan
Other positions
Chairman of the Kuomintang
In office
5 April 1975 13 January 1988
Preceded by Chiang Kai-shek (Director-General of the Kuomintang)
Succeeded by Lee Teng-hui
Vice Premier of the Republic of China
In office
1 July 1969 1 June 1972
Premier Yen Chia-kan
Preceded by Huang Shao-ku
Succeeded by Hsu Ching-chung
Minister of National Defense of the Republic of China
In office
14 January 1965 30 June 1969
Preceded byYu Da-wei
Succeeded byHuang Chieh
Minister without Portfolio
In office
15 July 1958 13 January 1965
Premier Chen Cheng
Yen Chia-kan
Minister of Vocational Assistance Commission for Retired Servicemen of the Executive Yuan
In office
25 April 1956 1 July 1964
Preceded by Yen Chia-kan
Succeeded byChau Chu-yue
Personal details
Born(1910-04-27)27 April 1910
Fenghua, Zhejiang, Qing China
Died13 January 1988(1988-01-13) (aged 77)
Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Resting place Touliao Mausoleum, Daxi District, Taoyuan, Taiwan
NationalityRepublic of China
Political party Kuomintang
Spouse(s)
(m. 1935)
Children Chiang Hsiao-wen
(1935–1989)
Chiang Hsiao-chang
(born 1938)
Chang Hsiao-tzu
(1941–1996)
Chiang Hsiao-yen
(born 1942, illegitimate, disputed [1] )
Winston Chang
(born 1942, illegitimate, disputed [1] )
Chiang Hsiao-wu
(1945–1991)
Chiang Hsiao-yung
(1948–1996)
Alma mater Moscow Sun Yat-sen University
OccupationPolitician
Signature Chiang Ching-kuo Signature.svg
Military service
Allegiance Republic of China
Branch/service Republic of China Army
RankGeneral
Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo (Chinese characters).svg
"Chiang Ching-kuo" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese 蔣經國
Simplified Chinese 蒋经国

Chiang Ching-kuo (27 April [nb 1] 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a Chinese-Taiwanese politician. The eldest and only biological son of former president Chiang Kai-shek, he held numerous posts in the government of the Republic of China. He served as Premier of the Republic of China between 1972 and 1978, and was the President of the Republic of China from 1978 until his death in 1988.

Contents

Chiang Ching-kuo was sent as a teenager to study in the Soviet Union during the First United Front in 1925, when his father's Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party were in alliance. He attended university there and spoke Russian fluently, [2] but when the Chinese Nationalists violently broke with the Communists, Stalin sent him to work in a steel factory in the Ural Mountains. There, Chiang met and married Faina Vakhreva. When war between China and Japan was imminent in 1937, Stalin sent the couple to China. During the war Ching-kuo's father gradually came to trust him, and gave him more and more responsibilities, including administration.

After the Japanese surrender Ching-kuo was given the job of ridding Shanghai of corruption, which he attacked with ruthless efficiency. The victory of the Communists in 1949 drove the Chiangs and their government to Taiwan. Chiang Ching-kuo was first given control of the secret police, a position he retained until 1965 and in which he used arbitrary arrests and torture to ensure tight control. He then became Minister of Defense (1965–1969), Vice-Premier (1969–1972) and Premier (1972–1978). After his father's death in 1975 he took leadership of the Nationalist Party as chairman, and was elected President in 1978 and again in 1984.

Under his tenure the government of the Republic of China, while authoritarian, became more open and tolerant of political dissent. Chiang courted Taiwanese voters, and reduced the preference for those who had come from the mainland after the war. Toward the end of his life Chiang relaxed government controls on the media and speech, and allowed Taiwanese Han into positions of power, including his successor Lee Teng-hui.

Biography

Early life

Chiang Ching-kuo in his youth Chiang Ching-kuo youth 3.jpg
Chiang Ching-kuo in his youth

The son of Chiang Kai-shek and his first wife, Mao Fumei, Chiang Ching-kuo was born in Fenghua, Zhejiang, with the courtesy name of Jiànfēng (建豐). He had an adopted brother, Chiang Wei-kuo. "Ching" literally means "longitude", while "kuo" means "nation"; in his brother's name, "wei" literally means "parallel (of latitude)". The names are inspired by the references in Chinese classics such as the Guoyu , in which "to draw the longitudes and latitudes of the world" is used as a metaphor for a person with great abilities, especially in managing a country.

While the young Chiang Ching-kuo had a good relationship with his mother and grandmother (who were deeply rooted to their Buddhist faith), his relationship with his father was strict, utilitarian and often rocky. Chiang Kai-shek appeared to his son as an authoritarian figure, sometimes indifferent to his problems. Even in personal letters between the two, Chiang Kai-shek would sternly order his son to improve his Chinese calligraphy. From 1916 until 1919 Chiang Ching-kuo attended the "Grammar School" in Wushan in Hsikou. Then, in 1920, his father hired tutors to teach him the Four Books, the central texts of Confucianism. On 4 June 1921, Ching-kuo's grandmother died. What might have been an immense emotional loss was compensated for when Chiang Kai-shek moved the family to Shanghai. Chiang Ching-kuo's stepmother, historically known as the Chiang family's "Shanghai Mother", went with them. During this period Chiang Kai-shek concluded that Chiang Ching-kuo was a son to be taught, while Chiang Wei-kuo was a son to be loved.

During his time in Shanghai, Chiang Ching-kuo was supervised by his father and made to write a weekly letter of 200–300 Chinese characters. Chiang Kai-shek also underlined the importance of classical books and of learning English, two areas he was hardly proficient in himself. [3] On 20 March 1924, Chiang Ching-kuo was able to present to his now-nationally famous father a proposal concerning the grass-roots organization of the rural population in Hsikou. [4] Chiang Ching-kuo planned to provide free education to allow people to read and to write at least 1000 characters. In his own words:

I have a suggestion to make about the Wushan School, although I do not know if you can agree to it. My suggestion is that the school establish a night school for common people who cannot afford to go to the regular school. My school established a night school with great success. I can tell you something about the night school:

Name: Wuschua School for the Common People Tuition fee: Free of charge with stationery supplied Class hours: 7 pm to 9 pm Age limit: 14 or older Schooling protocol: 16 or 20 weeks. At the time of the graduation, the trainees will be able to write simple letters and keep simple accounts. They will be issued a diploma if they pass the examinations. The textbooks they used were published by the Commercial Press and were entitled "One thousand characters for the common people." I do not know whether you will accept my suggestion. If a night school is established at Wushan, it will greatly benefit the local people.

In early 1925, Chiang entered Shanghai's Pudong College, but Chiang Kai-shek decided to send him on to Beijing because of warlord action and spontaneous student protests in Shanghai. In Beijing, he attended the school organized by a friend of his father, Wu Zhihui, a renowned scholar and linguist. The school combined classical and modern approaches to education. While there, Ching-kuo started to identify himself as a progressive revolutionary and participated in the flourishing social scene inside the young Communist community. The idea of studying in Moscow now seized his imagination. [5] Within the help program provided by the Soviet Union to the countries of East Asia there was a training school that later became the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University. The participants to the university were selected by the CPSU and KMT members, with a participation of CPC Central Committee. [6]

Chiang Ching-kuo asked Wu Zhihui to name him as a KMT candidate. Wu did not try to dissuade him, even though Wu was a key figure of the right-leaning and anti-Communist "Western Hills Group" of the KMT. In the summer of 1925, Chiang Ching-kuo traveled south to Whampoa Military Academy to discuss his plans for study in Moscow with his father. Chiang Kai-shek was not keen, but after a discussion with Chen Guofu he finally agreed. In a 1996 interview, Ch'en's brother, Chen Li-fu, recalled that Chiang Kai-shek accepted the plan because of the need to have Soviet support at a time when his hold over the KMT was tenuous. [7]

Moscow

With or without his father's enthusiastic approval, Chiang Ching-kuo went on to Moscow in late 1925. He stayed in the Soviet Union for nearly twelve years. While there, Chiang was given the Russian name Nikolai Vladimirovich Elizarov (Николай Владимирович Елизаров) and put under the tutelage of Karl Radek at the Communist University of the Toilers of the East. Noted for having an exceptional grasp of international politics, his classmates included other children of influential Chinese families, most notably the future Chinese Communist party leader, Deng Xiaoping. Chiang Ching-kuo joined the Communist Youth League under Deng. [8] [9] Soon Ching-kuo was an enthusiastic student of Communist ideology, particularly Trotskyism; though following the Great Purge, Joseph Stalin privately met with him and ordered him to publicly denounce Trotskyism. Chiang even applied to be a member of the All-Union Communist Party, although his request was denied.

In April 1927, however, Chiang Kai-shek purged KMT leftists, had Communists arrested or killed, and expelled his Soviet advisers. Chiang Ching-kuo responded from Moscow with an editorial that harshly criticized his father's actions but was nonetheless detained as a "guest" of the Soviet Union, a practical hostage. Debate still continues as to whether he was forced to write the editorial, but he had seen Trotskyist friends arrested and killed by the Soviet secret police. The Soviet government sent him to work in the Ural Heavy Machinery Plant, a steel factory in the Urals, Yekaterinburg (then Sverdlovsk), where he met Faina Ipat'evna Vakhreva, a native Belarusian. They married on 15 March 1935, and she would later take the Chinese name, Chiang Fang-liang. In December of that year, their son, Hsiao-wen was born.

Chiang Kai-shek refused to negotiate a prisoner swap for his son in exchange for a Chinese Communist Party leader. [10] He wrote in his diary, "It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son." [11] [12] In 1937, he maintained that "I would rather have no offspring than sacrifice our nation's interests", since he had no intention of stopping the war against the Communists. [13]

Return to China and the war

Stalin allowed Chiang Ching-kuo to return to China with his Belarusian wife and son in April 1937 after living in the USSR for 12 years. [14] [15]

By then, the NRA under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists under Mao Zedong had signed a ceasefire to create the Second United Front and fight the Japanese invasion of China, which began in July 1937. Stalin hoped the Chinese would keep Japan from invading the Soviet Pacific coast, and he hoped to form an anti-Japanese alliance with the senior Chiang.[ citation needed ]

On Ching-kuo's return, his father assigned a tutor, Hsu Dau-lin, to assist with his readjustment to China. [16] Chiang Ching-Kuo was appointed as a specialist in remote districts of Jiangxi where he was credited with training of cadres and fighting corruption, opium consumption, and illiteracy. Chiang Ching-kuo was appointed as commissioner of Gannan Prefecture (贛南) between 1939 and 1945; there he banned smoking, gambling and prostitution, studied governmental management, allowed for economic expansion and a change in social outlook. His efforts were hailed as a miracle in the political war in China, then coined as the "Gannan New Deal" (贛南新政). During his time in Gannan, from 1940 he implemented a "public information desk" where ordinary people could visit him if they had problems, and according to records, Chiang Ching-kuo received a total of 1,023 people during such sessions in 1942.[ citation needed ]

In regard to the ban on prostitution and closing of brothels, Chiang implemented a policy where former prostitutes became employed in factories. Due to the large number of refugees in Ganzhou as a result from the ongoing war, thousands of orphans lived on the street; in June 1942, Chiang Ching-kuo formally established the Chinese Children's Village (中華兒童新村) in the outskirts of Ganzhou, with facilities such as a nursery, kindergarten, primary school, hospital and gymnasium. During the last years of the 1930s, he met Wang Sheng, with whom he would remain close for the next 50 years.[ citation needed ]

The paramilitary "Sanmin Zhuyi Youth Corps" was under Chiang's control. Chiang used the term "big bourgeoisie", in a disparaging manner to call H.H. Kung and T. V. Soong. [17]

While in mainland China, Chiang and his wife had a daughter, Hsiao-chang, born in Nanchang (1938), and two more sons, Hsiao-wu, born in Chungking (1945), [15] and Hsiao-yung, born in Shanghai (1948). [15]

Relationship with Chang Ya-juo and her death

Chiang met Chang Ya-juo when she was working at a training camp for enlistees and he was serving as the head of Gannan Prefecture during the war. The two had a relationship that brought twin sons: Chang Hsiao-tz'u and Chang Hsiao-yen, born in 1942. [18] [19] In August 1942, Chang felt sick at a dinner party, and died the next day in a Guilin hospital. The circumstances of her death raised speculation that it was murder. Over the years, many of her relatives, including her sons and highly ranked ex-security personnel, insisted that KMT's security apparatus orchestrated her murder to keep a lid on CCK's marital affair, and to protect CCK's political career. [20]

Hostage claim

Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim Chiang Kai-shek allowed the Communists to escape on the 1934–1935 Long March because he wanted Stalin to return Chiang Ching-kuo. [21] This is contradicted by Chiang Kai-shek's diary, "It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son." [11] [12] He refused to negotiate for a prisoner swap of his son in exchange for the Chinese Communist Party leader. [22] Again in 1937 he stated about his son: "I would rather have no offspring than sacrifice our nation's interests." Chiang had absolutely no intention of stopping the war against the Communists. [13] Chang and Halliday likewise claim that Chiang Ching-kuo was "kidnapped" in spite of the evidence that he went to study in the Soviet Union with his father's own approval. [21]

Economic policies in Shanghai

Chiang Ching-kuo in 1948 Chiang Ching-kuo 1948.jpg
Chiang Ching-kuo in 1948
Chiang Ching-kuo (left) with father Chiang Kai-shek in 1948. Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang Ching-Kuo in 1948.jpg
Chiang Ching-kuo (left) with father Chiang Kai-shek in 1948.

After the Second Sino-Japanese War and during the Chinese Civil War, Chiang Ching-kuo briefly served as a liaison administrator in Shanghai, trying to eradicate the corruption and hyperinflation that plagued the city. He was determined to do this because of the fears arising from the Nationalists' increasing lack of popularity during the Civil War. Given the task of arresting dishonest businessmen who hoarded supplies for profit during the inflationary spiral, he attempted to assuage the business community by explaining that his team would only go after big war profiteers.

Chiang Ching-kuo copied Soviet methods, which he learned during his stay in the Soviet Union, to start a social revolution by attacking middle class merchants. He also enforced low prices on all goods to raise support from the Proletariat. [23]

As riots broke out and savings were ruined, bankrupting shopowners, Chiang Ching-kuo began to attack the wealthy, seizing assets and placing them under arrest. The son of the gangster Du Yuesheng was arrested by him. Ching-kuo ordered KMT agents to raid the Yangtze Development Corporation's warehouses, which was privately owned by H.H. Kung and his family, as the company was accused of hoarding supplies. H.H. Kung's wife was Soong Ai-ling, the sister of Soong Mei-ling who was Chiang Ching-kuo's stepmother. H.H. Kung's son David was arrested, and the Kungs responded by blackmailing the Chiangs, threatening to release information about them. He was eventually freed after negotiations, and Chiang Ching-kuo resigned, ending the terror on the Shanghainese merchants. [24]

Political career in Taiwan

After the Nationalists lost control of mainland China to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War, Chiang Ching-kuo followed his father and the retreating Nationalist forces to Taiwan. On 8 December 1949, the Nationalist capital was moved from Chengdu to Taipei, and early on 10 December 1949, Communist troops laid siege to Chengdu, the last KMT-controlled city on mainland China. Here Chiang Kai-shek and his son Chiang Ching-kuo directed the city's defense from the Chengdu Central Military Academy, before the aircraft May-ling evacuated them to Taiwan; they would never return to mainland China.

In 1950, Chiang's father appointed him director of the secret police, which he remained until 1965. An enemy of the Chiang family, Wu Kuo-chen, was kicked out of his position of governor of Taiwan by Chiang Ching-kuo and fled to America in 1953. [25] Chiang Ching-kuo, educated in the Soviet Union, initiated Soviet-style military organization in the Republic of China Military, reorganizing and Sovietizing the political officer corps, surveillance, and KMT party activities were propagated throughout the military. Opposed to this was Sun Li-jen, who was educated at the American Virginia Military Institute. [26]

Chiang orchestrated the controversial court-martial and arrest of General Sun Li-jen in August 1955, allegedly for plotting a coup d'état with the American CIA against his father. [25] [27] General Sun was a popular Chinese war hero from the Burma Campaign against the Japanese and remained under house arrest until Chiang Ching-kuo's death in 1988. Ching-kuo also approved the arbitrary arrest and torture of prisoners. [28] Chiang Ching-kuo's activities as director of the secret police remained widely criticized as heralding a long era of human rights abuses in Taiwan.[ citation needed ]

From 1955 to 1960, Chiang administered the construction and completion of Taiwan's highway system. Chiang's father elevated him to high office when he was appointed as the ROC Defense Minister from 1965 until 1969. He was the nation's Vice Premier between 1969 and 1972, during which he survived a 1970 assassination attempt while visiting the U.S. [29] Afterwards he was appointed the nation's Premier between 1972 and 1978. As Chiang Kai-shek entered his final years, he gradually gave more responsibilities to his son, and when he died in April 1975, Vice President Yen Chia-kan became president for the balance of Chiang Kai-shek's term, while Chiang Ching-kuo succeeded to the leadership of the KMT (he opted for the title "Chairman" rather than the elder Chiang's title of "Director-General").

Presidency

Chiang Ching-kuo was elected President of the ROC in the 1978 Taiwanese presidential election by the National Assembly on 20 May 1978.[ citation needed ] He was reelected to another term in the 1984 Taiwanese presidential election. At that time, the National Assembly consisted mostly of "ten thousand year" legislators, men who had been elected in 1947–48 before the fall of mainland China and who would hold their seats indefinitely. During the early years of his term in office Chiang maintained many of his father's autocratic policies, continuing to rule Taiwan as a one-party dictatorship under martial law as before.[ citation needed ]

In a move he launched the "Ten Major Construction Projects" and the "Twelve New Development Projects" which contributed to the "Taiwan Miracle". Among his accomplishments was accelerating the process of economic modernization to give Taiwan a 13% growth rate, $4,600 per capita income, and the world's second largest foreign exchange reserves. On 16 December 1978, U.S. President Jimmy Carter announced that the United States would no longer recognize the ROC as the legitimate government of China.[ citation needed ] Under the Taiwan Relations Act, the United States would continue to sell weapons to Taiwan, but the TRA was purposely vague in any promise of defending Taiwan in the event of an invasion.[ citation needed ] The United States would now end all official contact with the Chiang's government and withdraw its troops from the island.[ citation needed ]

In an effort to bring more Taiwan-born citizens into government services, Chiang Ching-kuo "exiled" his over-ambitious chief of General Political Warfare Department, General Wang Sheng, to Paraguay as an ambassador (November 1983), [30] and hand-picked Lee Teng-hui as vice-president of the ROC (formally elected May 1984), first-in-the-line of succession to the presidency. Chiang emphatically declared that his successor would not be from the Chiang family in a Constitution Day speech on 25 December 1985: [31]

The first question is the succession to the presidency. This sort of question only exists in despotic and totalitarian countries. It does not exist in the Republic of China, based on the Constitution. So the next President will be elected in accordance with constitutional procedure by the National Assembly on behalf of the people. Some people may raise the question whether any member of my family would run for the next presidency. My answer is: it can't be and it won't be. [32]

Chiang Wei-kuo, Chiang's younger brother, would later repudiate the declaration in 1990 after he was selected as a vice-presidential candidate. [33]

On 15 July 1987, Chiang finally ended martial law and allowed family visits to the Mainland China. His administration saw a gradual loosening of political controls and opponents of the Nationalists were no longer forbidden to hold meetings or publish political criticism papers.[ citation needed ]

Opposition political parties, though still formally illegal, were allowed to operate without harassment or arrest. When the Democratic Progressive Party was established on 28 September 1986, President Chiang decided against dissolving the group or persecuting its leaders, but its candidates officially ran in elections as independents in the Tangwai movement.[ citation needed ]

Death and legacy

Chiang Ching-kuo lies in state. Chiang Ching Kuo Funeral.jpg
Chiang Ching-kuo lies in state.

Chiang Ching-kuo died in Taipei in 1988, aged 77, from heart failure and hemorrhage. He was interred temporarily in Daxi Township, Taoyuan County (now Daxi District, Taoyuan City), but in a separate mausoleum in Touliao, a mile down the road from his father's burial place. The hope was to have both buried at their birthplace in Fenghua once mainland China was recovered. Chinese music composer Hwang Yau-tai or Huang Youdi, Huang Yu-ti (黃友棣) wrote the Chiang Ching-kuo Memorial Song in 1988.

In January 2004, Chiang Fang-liang asked that both father and son be buried at Wuchih Mountain Military Cemetery in Hsichih, Taipei County (now New Taipei City). The state funeral ceremony was initially planned for Spring 2005, but was eventually delayed to winter 2005. It may be further delayed due to the recent death of Chiang Ching-kuo's oldest daughter-in-law, who had served as the de facto head of the household since Chiang Fang-liang's death in 2004. Chiang Fang-liang and Soong Mei-ling had agreed in 1997 that the former leaders be first buried, but still be moved to mainland China.[ citation needed ]

Memorials

Statue of Chiang Ching-kuo in Dongyin Township, Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands) Chiang Ching-kuo Statue in Dongyin Township 28957251333 32a4795c88 o.jpg
Statue of Chiang Ching-kuo in Dongyin Township, Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands)
Ching-kuo Memorial Hall in Nangan Township, Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands) 2014-04-07 Jing Guo Xian Sheng Ji Nian Tang .jpg
Ching-kuo Memorial Hall in Nangan Township, Lienchiang County (Matsu Islands)

Road names

The Republic of China Air Force

The AIDC, the ROC's air defense company, has nicknamed its AIDC F-CK Indigenous Defense Fighter the Ching Kuo in his memory.[ citation needed ]

Coin

Song

Family

Family of Chiang Ching-kuo. From left to right: Front - Alex, Faina, Chiang Ching-kuo, Eddie; Rear - Alan, Chiang Hsiao-chang. Chiang Ching-kuo family.jpg
Family of Chiang Ching-kuo. From left to right: Front – Alex, Faina, Chiang Ching-kuo, Eddie; Rear – Alan, Chiang Hsiao-chang.

Family tree

Family of Chiang Ching-kuo
Soong Mayling
宋美齡
Mao Fumei
毛福梅
Chiang Kaishek
蔣介石
Yao Yecheng
姚冶誠
Chen Jieru
陳潔如
Faina Chiang Fangliang
蔣方良
Chiang Ching-kuo
蔣經國
Chang Yajuo
章亞若
(mistress)
Shih Chini
石靜宜
Chiang Weikuo
蔣緯國
(adopted)
Chiu Juhsüeh
丘如雪
Chen Yaokuang
陈瑶光
(adopted)
Alan Chiang Hsiaowen
蔣孝文
Amy Chiang Hsiaochang
蔣孝章
Alex Chiang Hsiaowu
蔣孝武
Eddie Chiang Hsiaoyung
蔣孝勇
Winston Chang Hsiaotzu
章孝慈
John Chiang Hsiaoyen
蔣孝嚴
Chiang Hsiaokang
蔣孝剛
Nancy Xu Naijin
徐乃錦
Yu Yangho
俞揚和
Wang Zhangshi
汪長詩
Michelle Tsai Huimei
蔡惠媚
Elizabeth Fang Chiyi
方智怡
Chao Chungte
趙申德
Helen Huang Meilun
黃美倫
Wang Yihui
王倚惠
Theodore Yu Tsusheng
俞祖聲
Chang Chingsung
章勁松
Chang Yochu
章友菊
Vivian Chiang Huilan
蔣惠蘭
Chiang Huiyün
蔣惠筠
Chiang Wanan
蔣萬安
Chiang Yomei
蔣友梅
Alexandra Chiang Yolan
蔣友蘭
Johnathan Chiang Yosung
蔣友松
Demos Chiang Yobo
蒋友柏
Edward Chiang Yochang
蒋友常
Andrew Chiang Yoching
蒋友青
Chiang Yochüan
蒋友娟
Chiang Yochieh
蒋友捷
Notes
    • Dashed lines represent marriages
    • Dotted lines represent extra-marital relationships and adoptions
    • Solid lines represent descendants
    Sources

    See also

    Notes

    1. Many sources, even Taiwanese official ones, give 18 March 1910 as his birthday, but this actually refers to the traditional Chinese lunar calendar

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    Lee Huan

    Lee Huan was a Taiwanese politician. He was Premier of the Republic of China from 1989 to 1990, serving for one year under former President Lee Teng-hui. He was the father of Lee Ching-hua and Diane Lee. He was born in Hankou, Hubei.

    Demos Yu-bou Chiang, born on 10 September 1976 in Taipei, Taiwan, is a Taiwanese Canadian businessman. He founded DEM Inc. (橙果設計), a popular design studio in Taiwan in July 2003 and has served as its chairman since then. He is also known for being the great-grandson of the late Republic of China (ROC) President Chiang Kai-shek and the grandson of late President Chiang Ching-kuo. His grandmother was Faina Ipatyevna Vakhreva, also known as Chiang Fang-liang, making him Eurasian.

    Wang Sheng was a general in the Republic of China Army from 1970, head of the General Political Warfare Department (總政治作戰部), and a close confidant to President Chiang Ching-kuo.

    History of the Kuomintang

    The History of the Kuomintang is an article on the inception of the Kuomintang, a Chinese political party that ruled China 1927–48 and then moved to Taiwan. The name translates as "China's National People's Party" and was historically referred to as the Chinese Nationalists. The Party was initially founded on 23 August 1912, by Sun Yat-sen but dissolved in November 1913. It reformed on October 10th 1919, again led by Sun Yat-sen, and became the ruling party in China. After Sun's death, the party was dominated from 1927 to 1975 by Chiang Kai-shek. Though the KMT lost the civil war with the Communist Party of China in 1949, the party took control of Taiwan and remains a major political party of the Republic of China based in Taiwan.

    The former socialist ideology of the Kuomintang is a form of socialism and socialist thought developed in mainland China during the early Republic of China. The Tongmenghui revolutionary organization led by Sun Yat-sen was the first to promote socialism in China.

    Chiang family Republic of China political family

    The Chiang family is a political family of the Republic of China (ROC), a polity based on the Chinese mainland from 1912 to 1949 and on Taiwan since 1949. Other than serving as the head of state of the ROC, Chiang family members have also held key leadership positions in the ROC government and Kuomintang.

    Chiang Wan-an

    Wayne Chiang or Chiang Wan-an ; born 26 December 1978, formerly surnamed Chang, is a Taiwanese politician. He is the son of John Chiang. Chiang Wan-an worked as a business lawyer in the United States prior to begin a political career in Taiwan.

    Retreat of the Republic of China to Taiwan Republic of Chinas retreat from Mainland China to the Island of Taiwan

    The retreat of the Republic of China to Taiwan, also known as the Kuomintang's retreat to Taiwan or "The Great Retreat" refers to the exodus of the remnants of the internationally recognized Kuomintang-ruled government of the Republic of China to the island of Taiwan (Formosa) in December 1949 toward the end of active battles in the Chinese Civil War. The Kuomintang, its officers and approximately 2 million troops took part in the retreat; in addition to many civilians and refugees, fleeing the advance of the Communist People's Liberation Army.

    Jiang and Chiang is a Chinese surname. In 2019, it was the 39th most common surname in mainland China. It is listed 13th in the Hundred Family Surnames poem.

    The Institute of Revolutionary Practice is an educational institution established in 1949, and affiliated with the Kuomintang.

    References

    Citations

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    2. 白樺 (30 May 2016). "台灣舞蹈團體追尋蔣經國在俄足跡". Voice of America Cantonese site (in Chinese).
    3. letter of 4 August 1922
    4. Wang Shun-ch'i, unpublished article, 1995. The letter is in the Nanking archive
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    7. Ch'en Li-fu, interview, Taipei, 29 May 1996.
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    9. 俄國檔案中的留蘇學生蔣經國. Jiang Jingguo's Student Years in the Soviet Union as Reflected in the Russian Archives. 余敏玲(Miin-Ling Yu). 近代史研究所集刊; 29期 1998 p.121
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    11. 1 2 Taylor 2000: 59.
    12. 1 2 Fenby 2005: 205.
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    Cited sources

    Government offices
    Preceded by
    Yu Dawei
    Minister of National Defence of the Republic of China
    1965–1969
    Succeeded by
    Huang Chieh
    Preceded by
    Yen Chia-kan
    Premier of the Republic of China
    1972–1978
    Succeeded by
    Sun Yun-suan
    Political offices
    Preceded by
    Yen Chia-kan
    Acting Vice President of the Republic of China
    1975–1978
    Succeeded by
    Hsieh Tung-ming
    Preceded by
    Yen Chia-kan
    President of the Republic of China
    1978–1988
    Succeeded by
    Lee Teng-hui
    Party political offices
    Preceded by
    Chiang Kai-shek
    Director-General of the Kuomintang
    Chairman of the Kuomintang
    1975–1988
    Succeeded by
    Lee Teng-hui