Chiba (city)

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Chiba

千葉市
Chiba
Chiba montage.jpg
Top: Coastal industrial area, Chiba Folk Museum
Middle: Makuhari Messe, Chiba Port Tower, Chiba Marine Stadium
Bottom: Skyscrapers of Makuhari on the coast.
Flag of Chiba, Chiba.svg
Flag
Chiba (city)
Chiba in Chiba Prefecture Ja.svg
Location of Chiba in Chiba Prefecture
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Chiba
 
Coordinates: 35°36′26.2″N140°06′22.9″E / 35.607278°N 140.106361°E / 35.607278; 140.106361 Coordinates: 35°36′26.2″N140°06′22.9″E / 35.607278°N 140.106361°E / 35.607278; 140.106361
CountryFlag of Japan.svg  Japan
Region Kantō
Prefecture Chiba Prefecture
Government
  Mayor Shunichi Kamiya (from April 2021)
Area
  Total271.77 km2 (104.93 sq mi)
Population
 (June 1, 2019)
  Total979,768
  Density3,600/km2 (9,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
- Tree Zelkova serrata
– Flower Nelumbo nucifera
– Bird Little tern
Phone number043-245-5111
Address1-1 Chiba-minato, Chūō-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8722
Website https://www.city.chiba.jp/
Chiba
Chiba (Chinese characters).svg
"Chiba" in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji 千葉
Hiragana ちば
Katakana チバ

Chiba (千葉市, Chiba-shi, Japanese:  [tɕiꜜba] ) is the capital city of Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It sits about 40 kilometres (25 mi) East of the centre of Tokyo on Tokyo Bay. [1] The city became a government-designated city in 1992. In June 2019, its population was 979,768, with a population density of 3,605 people per km2. The city has an area of 271.77 square kilometres (104.93 sq mi).

Contents

Chiba City is one of the Kantō region's primary seaports, and is home to Chiba Port, which handles one of the highest volumes of cargo in Japan. Much of the city is residential, although there are many factories and warehouses along the coast. There are several major urban centres in the city, including Makuhari, a prime waterfront business district in which Makuhari Messe is located, and Central Chiba, in which the prefectural government office and the city hall are located.

Chiba is famous for the Chiba Urban Monorail, the longest suspended monorail in the world. Some popular destinations in the city include: Kasori Shell Midden, the largest shellmound in the world at 134,000 m2 (160,000 sq yd), Inage Beach, the first artificial beach in Japan which forms part of the longest artificial beach in Japan, and the Chiba City Zoological Park, popular on account of the standing red panda Futa.

Etymology

The name of Chiba in the Japanese language is formed from two kanji characters. The first, , means "thousand" and the second, means "leaves". The name first appears as an ancient kuni no miyatsuko , or regional command office, as the Chiba Kuni no Miyatsuko (千葉国造). [2] The name was adopted by a branch of the Taira clan, which moved to the area in present-day Chiba City in the late Heian period. The branch of the Taira adopted the name and became the Chiba clan, which held strong influence over the area of the prefecture until the Azuchi–Momoyama period. The name "Chiba" was chosen for Chiba Prefecture at the time its creation in 1873 by the Assembly of Prefectural Governors (地方官会議, Chihō Kankai Kaigi), an early Meiji-period body of prefectural governors that met to decide the structure of local and regional administration in Japan. [3]

History

Early history

The first records related to the city of Chiba record the emigration of Taira Tsuneshige (1083?1088), a powerful bushi warlord of the late Heian period, to Shimōsa Province, which historically occupied the north of Chiba Prefecture. Tsuneshige was appointed as gunji administrator of Sōma District, but was transferred to the same position in Chiba District two years later. Here he proclaimed himself Chiba Tsuneshige (千葉常重), became a kokushi governor of the province, and used the area around present-day Chiba City as a power base to rule over Shimōsa Province, Kazusa Province, as well as establish himself as a military force in the Kantō region. [4] Tsuneshige's son, Chiba Tsunetane (千葉常胤) (1118–1201) was instrumental in aiding Minamoto no Yoritomo (1147–1199) with the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate. Tsuneshige built a spacious residence and numerous temples in present-day Chiba City, and in the same period he transferred his power base from Ōji Castle to Inohana Castle on Mount Inohana. [5] The area of present-day Chiba City became jōkamachi (城下町), or castle town, and prospered under the Chiba clan. [6] The clan's power extended in the region until the Muromachi period. [7] [8]

Medieval period

The Chiba clan's power and influence declined because of wars around the Kantō region during the Nanboku-chō and Muromachi periods. In the 16th century, instead of the Chiba clan, the Hara clan, which was one of the servants of Chiba clan, wielded power in this region. In the Sengoku period, the Hara clan was forcibly removed by Ashikaga Yoshiaki (足利義明, not to be confused with 足利義昭). Then, Ashikaga Yoshiaki was also removed by the Sakai (酒井 not to be confused with the Sakai clan in Mikawa) clan, which was one of the servants of the Satomi (里見) clan. Finally both the Chiba and Sakai clans were annihilated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Later history

In the Edo period, the Oyumi (生実氏), Morikawa (森川氏) clan, and the Sakura (佐倉氏) clans governed the area now occupied by the city. A part of the area was also governed directly by the Tokugawa Bakufu. The Oyumi clan governed their territory stably. On the other hand, according to the Sakura clan, from the beginning of the Edo period, changed governors frequently, including Takeda Nobuyoshi, Matsudaira Tadateru, Ogasawara Yoshitsugu (小笠原吉次), and Doi Toshikatsu. Finally the Hotta clan stabilized the governance of their territory. Chiba prospered in this period as a shukuba (宿場) post-town of the Tokugawa shogunate. [6]

Modern history

After the Meiji Restoration in 1868 and the advent of the railroad in Japan, Chiba became the political, economic, and cultural capital of Chiba Prefecture. The town of Chiba was established within Chiba District with the creation of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889. Chiba City formed on January 1, 1921. [6] Numerous small villages and towns were merged into the previous town of Chiba (千葉町), a process that continued until 1944. Large-scale land reclamation added to the area of the city throughout the 20th century. The city was a major center of military production leading up to World War II, and as such, was a target of aerial bombing by the United States. The city was almost completely destroyed by the end of the war. Post-war industrialization led to the city becoming a major part of the Keiyō Industrial Zone. [6] Chiba became a Designated City of Japan on April 1, 1992. [1]

Demographics

As of February 2016, the city had an estimated population of 972,861 and a population density of 3,580 persons per km2. The total area of the city is 271.76 km2 (104.93 sq mi). There were 19,135 registered foreign residents in the city as of March 31, 2007, making up for about 2% of the total population. It is the 14th most populated city in Japan.

Politics and government

Building of Chiba Prefectural government and Chiba Urban Monorail Chiba monorail and prefectual office.jpg
Building of Chiba Prefectural government and Chiba Urban Monorail

Chiba was governed by Keiichi Tsuruoka, an independent (elected with support of LDP and Kōmeitō), until May 1, 2009. He was arrested in April 2009 during a corruption investigation by the Tokyo Metropolitan Police. He was succeeded by Toshihito Kumagai of the DPJ, who won election in June 2009. [9]

The city assembly has 54 elected members.

Wards

Climate

Chiba has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with hot summers and cool to mild winters. Precipitation is significant throughout the year, but is somewhat lower in winter.

Climate data for Chiba (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1966−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.7
(69.3)
24.7
(76.5)
25.3
(77.5)
28.7
(83.7)
31.7
(89.1)
35.0
(95.0)
37.8
(100.0)
38.5
(101.3)
36.2
(97.2)
32.8
(91.0)
25.8
(78.4)
24.3
(75.7)
38.5
(101.3)
Average high °C (°F)10.1
(50.2)
10.7
(51.3)
13.8
(56.8)
18.7
(65.7)
23.0
(73.4)
25.6
(78.1)
29.4
(84.9)
31.0
(87.8)
27.5
(81.5)
22.3
(72.1)
17.3
(63.1)
12.5
(54.5)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)6.1
(43.0)
6.6
(43.9)
9.6
(49.3)
14.5
(58.1)
18.9
(66.0)
21.9
(71.4)
25.7
(78.3)
27.1
(80.8)
23.8
(74.8)
18.6
(65.5)
13.4
(56.1)
8.6
(47.5)
16.2
(61.2)
Average low °C (°F)2.4
(36.3)
2.8
(37.0)
5.7
(42.3)
10.6
(51.1)
15.4
(59.7)
19.0
(66.2)
23.0
(73.4)
24.3
(75.7)
21.0
(69.8)
15.6
(60.1)
9.9
(49.8)
4.9
(40.8)
12.9
(55.2)
Record low °C (°F)−5.1
(22.8)
−5.2
(22.6)
−4.4
(24.1)
0.4
(32.7)
6.8
(44.2)
9.1
(48.4)
12.5
(54.5)
16.5
(61.7)
10.7
(51.3)
5.8
(42.4)
−0.9
(30.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
−5.2
(22.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)67.5
(2.66)
59.1
(2.33)
111.3
(4.38)
110.4
(4.35)
122.3
(4.81)
150.9
(5.94)
136.5
(5.37)
115.7
(4.56)
204.7
(8.06)
225.7
(8.89)
94.1
(3.70)
56.8
(2.24)
1,454.7
(57.27)
Average snowfall cm (inches)2
(0.8)
4
(1.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
7
(2.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)6.26.811.210.711.212.410.78.512.011.58.86.5116.6
Average relative humidity (%)53556166717778777773665768
Mean monthly sunshine hours 191.6165.3167.5177.0180.5126.9162.7189.4134.6131.6143.6174.81,945.5
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency [10]

Culture

One of the many points of interest is the Experimental Station for Landscape Plants.

Facilities

Sports

Home stadium of the Chiba Marines Chiba Marine Stadium Complete View.jpg
Home stadium of the Chiba Marines

Chiba plays host to the annual International Chiba Ekiden and the Chiba International Cross Country takes place just outside the city. Chiba Velodrome is located within the city. It also hosts the Bridgestone Open golf tournament.

Chiba is home to several professional sports teams, most notably:

ClubSportLeagueVenueEstablished
Chiba Lotte Marines Baseball Pacific League Chiba Marine Stadium 1950
JEF United Ichihara Chiba Football J. League Division 2 Fukuda Denshi Arena 1946

Transportation

Airports

There is no commercial airport within city limits. Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) are the closest major airports.

Railway

Chiba Station Chiba Station May 2005-2.jpg
Chiba Station

The Chiba Urban Monorail runs through Chiba City. The major intercity railway stations are Chiba Station, (Sobu Line, Sotobō Line, Uchibo Line, Sōbu Main Line, Narita Line, transfer for Chiba Urban Monorail), Keisei Chiba Station (Keisei Chiba Line), and Soga Station, (Keiyō Line, Sotobō Line, Uchibo Line) all in Chūō-ku.

Highway

Education

Colleges and universities

High schools

Chiba has 20 public high schools operated by the Chiba Prefectural Board of Education and two public high schools operated by the Chiba City Board of Education, including Inage Senior High School. There are also nine private high schools, including the Makuhari Junior and Senior High School.

Elementary and middle schools

Chiba has 114 public and one private elementary school and 59 public and one private middle school.

International schools

Hospitals and clinics

Twin towns – sister cities

Chiba is twinned with: [11]

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Chiba Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Chiba Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan located in the Kantō region of Honshu. Chiba Prefecture has a population of 6,278,060 and has a geographic area of 5,157 km2 (1,991 sq mi). Chiba Prefecture borders Ibaraki Prefecture to the north, Saitama Prefecture to the northwest, and Tokyo to the south.

Narashino City in Kantō, Japan

Narashino is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of 30 November 2020, the city had an estimated population of 175,292 in 81,985 households and a population density of 8400 persons per km². The total area of the city is 20.97 square kilometres (8.10 sq mi)

Tokyo Bay Bay of Japan area

Tokyo Bay is a bay located in the southern Kantō region of Japan, and spans the coasts of Tokyo, Kanagawa Prefecture, and Chiba Prefecture. Tokyo Bay is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Uraga Channel. Its old name was Edo Bay. The Tokyo Bay region is both the most populous and largest industrialized area in Japan.

Yachiyo, Chiba City in Kantō, Japan

Yachiyo is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of 30 November 2020, the city had an estimated population of 202,071 in 91,092 households and a population density of 3900 persons per km². The total area of the city is 51.39 square kilometres (19.84 sq mi).

Yotsukaidō City in Kantō, Japan

Yotsukaidō is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 November 2020, the city had an estimated population of 95,266 in 43,191 households and a population density of 2800 persons per km². The total area of the city is 34.52 square kilometres (13.33 sq mi).

Sakura, Chiba City in Kantō, Japan

Sakura is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 November 2020, the city had an estimated population of 173,740 in 78,483 households and a population density of 1700 persons per km2. The total area of the city is 103.59 square kilometres (40.00 sq mi).

Chiba clan

The Chiba clan was a branch family of the Kanmu Taira clan descended from Chiba Tsunetane, son of Taira no Tadatsune. The Chiba governed in Shimōsa Province, and the clan was based in present-day Chiba City. The clan additionally, for a period, the area that includes the Ise Grand Shrine. After the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate, the head of the Chiba clan became the hereditary shugo governor of Shimōsa Province.

Mihama-ku Ward in Kantō, Japan

Mihama Ward is one of the six wards of the city of Chiba in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of April 2012, the ward had an estimated population of 149,314 and a population density of 7,060 persons per km². The total area was 21.16 km².

Chūō-ku, Chiba Ward in Kantō, Japan

Chūō Ward is one of the six wards of the city of Chiba in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, and is the seat of the city government, and the location of the prefectural government offices for Chiba Prefecture. It is also the commercial center of Chiba. As of April 2012, the ward had an estimated population of 200,157 and a population density of 4,470 persons per km². The total area was 44.81 km², making it the most populous of the six wards of Chiba city.

Inage-ku Ward in Kantō, Japan

Inage Ward is one of the six wards of the city of Chiba in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of April 2012, the ward had an estimated population of 156,860 and a population density of 7,380 persons per km². The total area was 21.25 square kilometres (8.20 sq mi).

Kaihimmakuhari Station Railway station in Chiba, Japan

Kaihimmakuhari Station is a passenger railway station located in Mihama-ku, Chiba city, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, operated by the East Japan Railway Company.

Chibaminato Station Railway and monorail station in Chiba, Japan

Chibaminato Station is an interchange passenger railway station located in Chūō-ku, Chiba, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company and the Chiba Urban Monorail.

Port of Chiba

The Port of Chiba is the largest seaport in Japan, located in Chiba Prefecture on the interior of Tokyo Bay. The Port spans 24,800 hectares across the cities of Ichikawa, Funabashi, Narashino, Chiba, Ichihara, and Sodegaura.

Wakaba-ku Ward in Kantō, Japan

Wakaba Ward is one of the six wards of the city of Chiba in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of April 2012, the ward had an estimated population of 151,593 and a population density of 1,800 persons per km². The total area was 84.21 km², making it the largest of the six wards of Chiba city.

Chiba-dera

Chiba-dera, also known as Senyō-ji (千葉寺), is a Buddhist temple in the city of Chiba, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. The temple is located in the central Chūō District in the city of Chiba. Chiba-dera is one of many Buddhist temples in the region that, according to tradition, was established by the priest Gyōki (668–749). Chiba-dera is a temple of the Shingon Buzan Sect, and is temple number 29 in the Bandō Sanjūsankasho, or the circuit of 33 Buddhist temples in eastern Japan sacred to the Goddess Kannon.

Shimōsa Plateau Plateau in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

The Shimōsa Plateau is a plateau on the Kantō Plain in central Honshu, Japan. The plateau covers most of northern Chiba Prefecture. The plateau was historically richly agricultural, but in the 20th century the western and central Shimōsa Plateau became one of the major industrial areas of Japan, as well as a large-scale bedroom community of the Tokyo Metropolitan Region. Narita International Airport is located in the center of the Shimōsa Plateau.

Makuhari

Makuhari (幕張) is a community in Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. It is within Hanamigawa-ku and Mihama-ku.

Makuharihongo Place in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

Makuharihongo is a district of Hanamigawa Ward, Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, consisting of 1-chōme to 7-chōme.

Makuhari-nishi Place in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

Makuhari-nishi (幕張西) is a district of Mihama Ward, Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, consisting of 1-chōme to 6-chōme. The district entirely consists of reclaimed land from Tokyo Bay. In 1-chōme to 4-chōme the newer Jūkyo-hyōji (住居表示) style is adopted, while in 5-chōme and 6-chōme the older chiban (地番) style is adopted.

Chiba Shrine Shinto shrine in Chiba, Chiba Prefecture

Chiba Shrine is a Shinto shrine located in Chūō-ku, Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture. Originally a Buddhist temple dedicated to the deity Myōken, the patron of the Chiba clan, it was converted into a Shinto shrine dedicated to Ame-no-Minakanushi during the Meiji period.

References

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  5. 千葉常胤 [Chiba Tsunetane]. Nihon Jinmei Daijiten (日本人名大辞典) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
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  7. "Chiba". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-02-27.
  8. 千葉氏 [Chiba-shi]. Kokushi Daijiten (国史大辞典) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  9. DPJ-backed Kumagai takes Chiba mayoral election, Japan Times Online, June 15, 2009
  10. 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency . Retrieved May 19, 2021.
  11. "Sister and Friendship Cities of Chiba City". city.chiba.jp. Chiba. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  12. IEEE Richard H. Kaufmann Award Recipients: Sususmu Tadakuma
  13. "the Nihon Ki-in". Archived from the original on 2010-02-27. Retrieved 2015-06-27.