|Part of the Boko Haram insurgency|
Parents whose daughters were kidnapped
|Date||14 April 2014|
|Location||Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria|
|Outcome||276 female students abducted by Boko Haram|
On the night of 14–15 April 2014, 276female students were kidnapped from the Government Secondary School in the town of Chibok in Borno State, Nigeria. Responsibility for the kidnappings was claimed by Boko Haram, an extremist terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria. 57 of the schoolgirls managed to escape over the next few months and some have described their capture in appearances at international human rights conferences. A child born to one of the girls and believed by medical personnel to be about 20 months old also was released, according to the Nigerian president's office.
Chibok is a Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria, located in the north of the state. Its headquarters are in the town of Chibok. It has an area of 1,350 km² and a population of 66,105 at the 2006 census.
Borno, also known as Borno State, is a state in north-eastern Nigeria. Its capital is Maiduguri. The state was formed in 1976 from the split of the North-Eastern State. Until 1991 it contained what is now Yobe State. It is the homeland of the Kanuri people in Nigeria.
The Islamic State in West Africa or the Islamic State's West Africa Province, formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
Since then hopes were raised on various occasions that the 219 remaining girls might be released.Newspaper reports suggested that Boko Haram was hoping to use the girls as negotiating pawns in exchange for some of their commanders in jail.
In May 2016, one of the missing girls, Amina Ali, was found. She claimed that the remaining girls were still there, but that six had died.A further 21 girls were freed in October 2016, while another was rescued the next month. Another was found in January 2017. 82 more girls were freed in May 2017. One of the girls was rescued in January 2018.
Amina Ali Nkeki is a Nigerian woman who is a former hostage of Boko Haram. She was one of 276 female students the group kidnapped from Chibok in 2014. While 57 of the girls escaped in the first few months, the remaining 219 have been held for multiple years. Of this larger group, Ali was the first to regain her freedom, being found by a patrol group in May 2016. She was found on 17 May 2016 by Civilian Joint Task Force along with a four-month-old child and an alleged Boko Haram member, Mohammed Hayatu, who described himself as her husband. All three were suffering from severe malnutrition.
The terrorist group Boko Haram wants to institute an Islamic caliphate in Nigeria and is in particular opposed to western-style modern education, which they say lures people away from following Islamic teaching as a way of life.By 2014, tens of thousands of people had been killed in attacks perpetrated by the group, and the Nigerian federal government declared a state of emergency in May 2013 in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states in its fight against the insurgency. The resulting crackdown led to the capture or killing of hundreds of Boko Haram members, with the remainder retreating to mountainous areas from which they began increasingly to target civilians. However, the campaign failed to stabilise the country. A French military operation in Mali also pushed Boko Haram and AQIM terrorists into Nigeria.
A caliphate is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph, a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community). Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires. During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258). In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517. During the history of Islam, a few other Muslim states, almost all hereditary monarchies, have claimed to be caliphates.
The Northern Mali Conflict, Mali Civil War, or Mali War refers to armed conflicts that started from January 2012 between the northern and southern parts of Mali in Africa. On 16 January 2012, several insurgent groups began fighting a campaign against the Malian government for independence or greater autonomy for northern Mali, an area of northern Mali they called Azawad. The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA), an organization fighting to make this area of Mali an independent homeland for the Tuareg people, had taken control of the region by April 2012.
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, or AQIM, is an Islamist militant organization which aims to overthrow the Algerian government and institute an Islamic state. To that end, it is currently engaged in an anti-government campaign.
Boko Haram began to target schools in 2010, killing hundreds of students by 2014. A spokesperson for the group said such attacks would continue as long as the Nigerian government continued to interfere with traditional Islamic education. 10,000 children have been unable to attend school as a result of activities by Boko Haram.Boko Haram has also been known to kidnap girls, whom it believes should not be educated, and use them as cooks or sex slaves.
Boko Haram's attacks intensified in 2014. In February, the group killed more than 100 Christian men in the villages of Doron Baga and Izghe.That same month, 59 boys were killed in the Federal Government College attack in northeastern Nigeria. In March, the group attacked the Giwa military barracks, freeing captured militants. The Chibok abduction occurred on the same day as a bombing attack in Abuja in which at least 88 people died. Boko Haram was blamed for nearly 4,000 deaths in 2014. Training received from al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb and al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula has helped Boko Haram intensify its attacks.
Izghe is a village in Gwoza Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria.
On February 25, 2014, fifty-nine boys were killed at the Federal Government College of Buni Yadi in Yobe State, Nigeria. The twenty-four buildings of the school were also burned down as a result of the attack. No group has claimed responsibility for the attack, but according to media and local officials the Islamist militants Boko Haram are suspected to be behind the attack.
On the night of 14–15 April 2014, a group of militants attacked the Government Girls Secondary School in Chibok, Nigeria. They broke into the school, pretending to be guards.According to a diary written by two of the girls (Naomi Adamu and Sarah Samuel) the militants had intended to steal an "engine block" and were initially unsure what to do with the girls. They told the girls to get out and come with them. Some girls were loaded into trucks and the rest had to walk several miles until other trucks came to take them away possibly into the Konduga area of the Sambisa Forest where Boko Haram were known to have fortified camps. Houses in Chibok were also burned down in the incident. The school had been closed for four weeks prior to the attack due to the deteriorating security situation, but students from multiple schools had been called in to take final exams in physics.
There were 530 students from multiple villages registered for the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination, although it is unclear how many were in attendance at the time of the attack.The children were aged 16 to 18 and were in their final year of school. There was initial confusion over the number of girls kidnapped but on 21 April 2014, parents said 234 girls were missing. A number of the students escaped the kidnappers by jumping off the trucks. According to the police, approximately 276 children were taken in the attack, of whom 53 had escaped as of 2 May. Other reports said that 329 girls were kidnapped, 53 had escaped and 276 were still missing.
Amnesty International said it believes the Nigerian military had four hours' advance warning of the kidnapping, but failed to send reinforcements to protect the school.Nigeria's armed forces have confirmed that the Nigerian military had four-hour advance notice of the attack but said that their over-extended forces were unable to mobilize reinforcements.
Jonathan N.C. Hill of King's College London, has pointed out that Boko Haram kidnapped these girls after coming increasingly under the influence of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, and asserts that the group's goal is to use girls and young women as sexual objects and as a means of intimidating the civilian population into compliance. Hill describes the attacks as similar to kidnapping of girls in Algeria in the 1990s and early 2000s.
Non-Muslim students were forced to convert to Islam.The girls were forced into marriage with members of Boko Haram, with a reputed "bride price" of ₦2,000 each ($6/£4). Many of the students were taken to the neighbouring countries of Chad and Cameroon, with sightings reported of the students crossing borders with the militants, and sightings of the students by villagers living in the Sambisa Forest. The forest was considered a refuge for Boko Haram. Local residents were able to track the movements of the students with the help of contacts across north eastern Nigeria. A diary described how some girls escaped but were returned to Boko Haram by local villagers and whipped.
The Guardian reported that the British Royal Air Force conducted Operation Turus in response to the Chibok schoolgirls' kidnapping by Boko Haram in Nigeria in April 2014. A source involved with the Operation told the Observer that "The girls were located in the first few weeks of the RAF mission," and that "We [RAF] offered to rescue them, but the Nigerian government declined," this was because it viewed the matter as a "national issue" to be resolved by Nigerian intelligence and security services.
On 2 May 2014, police said they were still unclear as to the exact number of students kidnapped. They asked parents to provide documents so an official count could be made, as school records had been damaged in the attack.On 4 May, the Nigerian President, Goodluck Jonathan, spoke publicly about the kidnapping for the first time, saying the government was doing everything it could to find the missing girls. At the same time, he blamed parents for not supplying enough information about their missing children to the police.
On 5 May 2014, a video in which Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau claimed responsibility for the kidnappings emerged. Shekau claimed that "Allah instructed me to sell them...I will carry out his instructions."and "Slavery is allowed in my religion, and I shall capture people and make them slaves." He said the girls should not have been in school and instead should have been married since girls as young as nine are suitable for marriage.
Following the kidnapping incident, Boko Haram again abducted another eight girls, aged between 12–15, from northeastern Nigeria,a number later raised to eleven.
Chibok is primarily a Christian village and Shekau acknowledged that many of the girls seized were not Muslims: "The girls that have not accepted Islam, they are now gathered in numbers...and we treat them well the way the Prophet Muhammad treated the infidels he seized."
On 5 May 2014, at least 300 residents of the nearby town of Gamboru Ngala were killed in an attack by Boko Haram militants after Nigerian security forces had left the town to search for the kidnapped students.On 9 May, former Boko Haram negotiator, Shehu Sani, stated that the group wanted to swap the abducted girls for its jailed members. On 11 May, Kashim Shettima, Governor of Borno State in Nigeria, said that he had sighted the abducted girls and that the girls were not taken across the borders of Cameroon or Chad. On 12 May, Boko Haram released a video showing about 130 kidnapped girls, each clad in a hijab and a long Islamic chador, and demanded a prisoner exchange. In the night from 13 to 14 May, Boko Haram ambushed a military convoy that was searching for the abductees near Chibok, resulting in the death of twelve soldiers. The incident led to mutiny of government forces at Maiduguri, degrading the ability of the Nigerian Army to rescue the schoolgirls.
A journalist-brokered deal to secure the release of the girls in exchange for 100 Boko Haram prisoners held in Nigerian jails was scrapped at a late stage on 24 May 2014 after President Goodluck Jonathan consulted with U.S., Israeli, French and British foreign ministers in Paris, where the consensus was that no deals should be struck with terrorists, and that a solution involving force was required.
On 26 May, the Nigerian Chief of Defence Staff announced that the Nigerian security forces had located the kidnapped girls, but ruled out a forceful rescue attempt for fears of collateral damage.
On 30 May, it was reported that a civilian militia in the Baale region of Northeastern Nigeria found two of the kidnapped girls raped, "half-dead," and tied to a tree.Villagers said the Boko Haram group had left the two girls, and killed four other disobedient girls and buried them. 223 were still missing.
Sir Andrew Pocock, British High Commissioner to Nigeria said that a couple of months after the kidnapping a group of up to 80 of the Chibok girls were seen by American 'eye in the sky' technology but nothing was done. The girls, a camp and evidence of ground transport vehicles were spotted next to a local landmark called the 'Tree of Life' in the Sambisa forest.
On 24 June, it was reported that 91 more women and children were abducted in other areas of Borno State.One source estimated in June that there could be as many as 600 girls held by Boko Haram in three camps outside Nigeria.
On 26 June, it was announced that Levick, a Washington, D.C. public relations firm, had received "a contract worth more than $1.2 million" from the government of Nigeria to work on "the international and local media narrative" surrounding the Chibok schoolgirl kidnapping.
On 1 July, a businessman suspected of carrying out the kidnappings of the school girls, as well as the bombing of a busy market in northeastern Nigeria, was arrested. Military sources said that he was also accused of helping the Islamist militant group kill the traditional leader Idrissa Timta, the Emir of Gwoza.
On 15 July, Zakaria Mohammed ('the Butcher'), a high-ranking member of Boko Haram, was arrested at Darazo-Basrika Road while fleeing from the counter insurgency operations going on around the Balmo Forest.
On 12 October 2014, it was reported that four girls from the original kidnapped group had escaped and walked three weeks to freedom in Nigeria. They said they had been held in a camp in Cameroon and raped every day.
Stephen Davis, a former Anglican clergyman, contacted three Boko Haram commanders who said they might be prepared to release Chibok schoolgirls and went to Nigeria in April 2015. He was given proof of life (a video of them being raped) and was told 18 were seriously ill, some with HIV. Davis got initial agreement that Boko Haram would release these ill girls. However, after three attempts the deal fell through when another group abducted the girls believing they could make money out of them and Davis left Nigeria.Davis commented that it was not difficult to locate the five or six main Boko Haram camps. He could find them on Google Earth.
In May 2015, it was reported that the Nigerian military had reclaimed most of the areas previously controlled by Boko Haram in Nigeriaincluding many of the camps in the Sambisa forest where it was suspected the Chibok girls had been kept. Although many women had been freed, none of the Chibok girls had been found. It was reported that some of the girls had been sold into slavery for N2,000 (about $5) each, others had been forcibly married to Boko Haram fighters and they may have been killed. Kashim Shettima, the Borno state governor said he suspected the Chibok girls were being kept in underground bunkers.
In January 2016 the Nigerian military were reported to have freed 1,000 women held captive by Boko Harambut none of them were Chibok girls.
In April 2016 Boko Haram released a video showing 15 girls who appeared to be some of the kidnapped Chibok girls. The video was apparently taken in December 2015 and the girls seemed to be well fed and not distressed.
On 17 May 2016, Amina Ali Nkeki, one of the girls was found along with her baby and Mohammad Hayyatu, a suspected Boko Haram militant who claimed to be her husband, by the vigilante Civilian Joint Task Force group in the Sambisa Forest. All three were suffering from severe malnutrition.She was then taken to house of the group's leader Aboku Gaji who recognised her. The group then reunited the girl with her parents. She met Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari on 19 May. Government officials announced the same day that the Nigerian army and vigilante groups had killed 35 Boko Haram militants, freed 97 women and children and claimed one of the women was a Chibok schoolgirl. However, there were doubts that this girl, Serah Luka, was really one of the kidnapped Chibok schoolgirls. On 21 May 2016, Amir Muhammad Abdullahi, who claimed to be the Boko Haram second in command and speaker for several senior militants, offered to surrender so long as they would not be harmed and in return they would release hostages including the Chibok girls. However he said of Chibok girls; "...frankly, just about a third of them remain, as the rest have been martyred".
In August 2016 Boko Haram released a video of what appeared to be about 50 Chibok girls, some of them holding babies, with an armed masked spokesman who demanded the release of jailed fighters in exchange for the girls' freedom,The masked gunman said some of the Chibok girls had been killed by Nigerian air strikes and 40 had been married. The film was apparently released on the orders of Abubakar Shekau, the leader of one of the factions of Boko Haram.
In October 2016, 21 of the Chibok schoolgirls had been freed by Boko Haram after negotiations between the group and the Nigerian government brokered by International Committee of the Red Cross and the Swiss government.On 16 October, President Buhari's spokesperson stated that the ISIL-allied faction of Boko Haram was willing to negotiate the release of 83 more of the girls. According to him, the splinter group had stated that the rest of the girls were under the control of Shekau-led faction. 2 days later, Pogu Bitrus, the chairman of the Chibok Development Association, claimed that more than 100 of the missing girls apparently did not want to return home because they had either been brainwashed or were fearful of the stigma they will receive.
Another girl named Maryam Ali Maiyanga was found and rescued by the Nigerian Army on 5 November along with a baby by the Nigerian Army. The spokesman for the Army, Sani Usman, said that they discovered her in Pulka of Borno state while screening escapees from Boko Haram's Sambisa forest base.She was confirmed to be one of the kidnapped girls by Bring Back Our Girls.
One of the kidnapped girls, Rakiya Abubakar, was reported on 5 January 2017 to have been found by the Nigerian Army along with a 6-month-old baby while they were interrogating suspects detained in army raids on the Sambisa forest.Her identity was later confirmed by Bring Back Our Girls group.
On 6 May 82 of the schoolgirls were released following successful negotiations between the Nigerian government involving the exchange of five Boko Haram leaders.The negotiations were carried by Mustapha Zanna, barrister and owner of an orphanage in Maiduguri. The deal also involved the intervention of the Swiss government and the Red Cross. 3 million Euros (about 3.7 million US$) were paid as ransom money in two duffel bags for the total of 103 girls released in October 2016 and May 2017. A Nigerian government spokesman stated that though originally 83 girls were to be released in May 2017, one of them chose to stay with her husband instead of being freed.
The Nigerian military stated on 4 January 2018 that it had rescued Salomi Pogu, one of the kidnapped girls. Col. Onyema Nwachukwu stated that she was rescued near Pulka village in Borno. Her name was in the list of the kidnapped Chibok schoolgirls. She was found in the company of another young woman and her child.In February 2018 most of the released girls were studying at the American University of Nigeria not far from the original scene of the kidnapping at Chibok. It was estimated that 13 girls were presumed dead and 112 were still missing.
After the kidnapping, Governor Kashim Shettima demanded to visit Chibok, despite being advised that it was too dangerous. The military was working with vigilantes and volunteers to search the forest near the Nigeria–Cameroon border on 21 April.United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and UNICEF condemned the abduction, as did former Nigerian military ruler Muhammadu Buhari. The UN Security Council also condemned the attack and warned of action against Boko Haram militants for abducting the girls.
Parents and others took to social media to complain about the government's perceived slow and inadequate response. The news caused international outrage against Boko Haram and the Nigerian government. On 30 April and 1 May, protests demanding greater government action were held in several Nigerian cities.Most parents, however, were afraid to speak publicly for fear their daughters would be targeted for reprisal. On 3 and 4 May, protests were held in major Western cities including Los Angeles and London. A lawyer in Abuja, the capital of Nigeria, started the hash tag #BringBackOurGirls, which began to trend globally on Twitter and the story spread rapidly internationally, becoming for a time Twitter's most tweeted hashtag. By 11 May it had attracted 2.3 million tweets and by 2016 it had been retweeted 6.1 million times. A woman who helped organise protests was detained by the police, apparently because the First Lady of Nigeria, Patience Jonathan, felt slighted when the woman showed up for a meeting instead of the mothers of victims. The woman was released soon after. Reports said the First Lady had further incensed protesters by suggesting some abduction reports were faked by Boko Haram supporters. Several online petitions were created to pressure the Nigerian government to act against the kidnapping. On 30 April, hundreds marched on the National Assembly to demand government and military action against the kidnappers.
The president of the Muslim Students Society of Nigeria called on Muslims to fast and pray "in order to seek Allah's intervention in this precarious time."Sa'ad Abubakar III, the Sultan of Sokoto, also called for prayers and intensified efforts to rescue the students. On 9 May, Governor Kashim Shettima of Borno State called on all Muslims and Christians to join in "three days of prayers and fasting." On the same day, Muslims in Cameroon called on fellow believers not to marry any of the girls should they be offered to them. On the same day, the Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Sheikh Abdulaziz Al al-Sheikh, joined other religious leaders in the Muslim world in condemning the kidnappings, describing Boko Haram as misguided and intent on smearing the name of Islam. He stated that Islam is against kidnapping, and that marrying kidnapped girls is not permitted.
The scale of the kidnapping was unprecedented, which led former United States Ambassador to Nigeria John Campbell to declare that Boko Haram's strength "appears to be increasing. The government's ability to provide security to its citizens appears to be decreasing."Director of the Atlantic Council's Africa Center, J. Peter Pham, said "The failure of the government to even get a clear count further reinforces a perception of systemic governmental failure". The Economist "labeled President Goodluck Jonathan as incompetent," saying that Jonathan and the Nigerian military "cannot be trusted any longer to guarantee security for Nigerians," adding that "the worst aspect of the Nigerian government’s handling of the abduction is its seeming indifference to the plight of the girls’ families. It took more than two weeks before Jonathan addressed the matter in public." Jonathan later attributed his silence to his desire not to compromise the details of security efforts carried out to rescue the girls. President Jonathan also engaged a public relations firm, Levick, for $1.2m to improve the public presentation of his handling of the crisis.
On 22 July, the militant group again attacked the nearby villages, killing at least 51 people including 11 parents of the abducted girls.
On 23 and 24 July, vigils and protests were held around the world to mark 100 days since the kidnapping. Participating countries included Nigeria, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Togo, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada and Portugal.
A Human Rights Watch report released on 27 October 2014 claims,
Their statements suggest that the Nigerian government has failed to adequately protect women and girls from a myriad of abuses, provide them with effective support and mental health and medical care after captivity, ensure access to safe schools, or investigate and prosecute those responsible for the abuses.
The report also claims, "The relative ease with which Boko Haram carried out the Chibok abductions seems to have emboldened it to step up abductions elsewhere."
As of 5 January 2015, daily rallies by Bring Back Our Girls demonstrators at the Unity Fountain in Abuja were continuing, despite police efforts to shut them down.
On 13 April 2015 hundreds of protesters wearing red tape across their lips walked silently through the capital Abuja marking a year since Boko Haram kidnapped the girls.
On 29 May 2015, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari in his inaugural address to the nation said that they could not claim to "have defeated Boko Haram without rescuing the Chibok girls and all other innocent persons held hostage by insurgents. [The] government will do all it can to rescue them alive."
On 12 June 2015, two weeks after President Buhari was sworn in, he and his wife Aisha Muhammadu Buhari, and the Vice President's wife Mrs. Dolapo Osinbajo met with some mothers of the abducted Chibok girls, a meeting Mrs. Buhari had wanted to hold for a long time.
On 1 October 2015 the Nigerian Military said it would not be in a hurry to rescue the secondary schoolgirls in Chibok who were abducted in April 2014. The Acting Director, Defence Information, Military Headquarters, Abuja, Col. Rabe Abubakar, who said this at a press conference in Lagos on Thursday,[ when? ] noted that while it was of utmost concern to the military to rescue the girls, the operation required demanded adequate patience and planning.
In December 2015 Muhammadu Buhari, the Nigerian President, said that he was willing to negotiate with Boko Haram for the release of the Chibok girls without any preconditions.
On the 600th day of the Chibok girls' abduction, a group of Nigeria experts in the United Kingdom called Nigeria Diaspora Security Forum called on the Federal Government of Nigeria under the leadership of President Muhammadu Buhari to set up a special taskforce tasked solely with the responsibility of looking for the girls.
In 2016 one newspaper article commented that the international publicity for the Chibok schoolgirls has ironically made it more difficult to free the girls.A Nigerian military commander based in Maiduguri commented "Boko Haram sees the Chibok girls as their trump card. We think they are keeping them with their main leadership. The day we get the Chibok girls will spell the end of Boko Haram, but I fear they will kill all the girls in mass suicide bombings in the process."
The global response to this movement started off as a handful of tweets by Nigerian citizens and government officials.A Nigerian lawyer made the first post on 14 April 2014. The movement even started off with a $300,000 cash reward to anyone who could help locate or rescue the girls from their kidnappers. Shortly after this, many celebrities joined in on social media holding pieces of paper with the hashtag #BringBackOurGirls.
Numerous celebrities were photographed holding up signs in photographs showing support for the Bring Back our Girls movement, including Salma Hayek, Bradley Cooper, Antonio Banderas, Gerard Butler, Kelsey Grammer, Wesley Snipes, Sylvester Stallone, Ronda Rousey, Mel Gibson, Simon Baker, Ricky Martin, Eva Longoria, Ashton Kutcher, Demi Moore, Ben Stiller, Justin Timberlake, Sean Combs, Kim Kardashian, Beyonce, Sean Penn, Alicia Keys, Ellen Degeneres, Jamie Foxx, Amy Poehler, Anne Hathaway, and Malala Yousafzai.[ citation needed ]
Notably, Beyoncé had a separate section on her website that was dedicated to the movement. It stated: "In light of recent events, CHIME FOR CHANGE is raising money to distribute organizations working in Nigeria to support girl’s education. You can help the cause by donating 10$ now, by texting BRINGBACK - You can also donate online to #ChimeIn and help bring back our girls.
In February 2018, approximately four years after the 2014 Chibok abduction, in the nearby town of Dapchi again another 110 schoolgirls were abducted by Boko Haram, with no government intervention intercepting the abductors yet as of 4 March 2018 [update] .
Muhammadu Buhari is a Nigerian politician currently serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and previously served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government.
Cibak is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken by about 200,000 people in Nigeria.
Gwoza is a local government area of Borno State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Gwoza, a border town "about 135 kilometres South-East of Maiduguri." The postal code of the area is 610.
The Boko Haram insurgency began in 2009, when the jihadist group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria. The conflict takes place within the context of long-standing issues of religious violence between Nigeria's Muslim and Christian communities, and the insurgents' ultimate aim is to establish an Islamic state in the region.
Abu Mohammed Abubakar bin Mohammad al-Sheikawi , also known by the alias Darul Akeem wa Zamunda Tawheed, or Darul Tawheed, thought to be born between 1965 and 1975, is a Kanuri man known as the leader of Boko Haram, a Nigerian militant group that has declared loyalty to the Islamist militant group, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS). He served as deputy leader to the group's founder, Mohammed Yusuf, until Yusuf was executed in 2009. Nigerian authorities believed that Shekau was killed in 2009 during clashes between security forces and Boko Haram until July 2010, when Shekau appeared in a video claiming leadership of the group. He has subsequently been reported dead with regularity, and is thought to use body doubles. In March 2015, Shekau pledged allegiance to ISIL leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Shekau is a Salafi. He has been described as possessing a photographic memory.
Sambo Dasuki is a retired Nigerian Army Colonel and former National Security Adviser (NSA) to the former President of Nigeria, Goodluck Ebele Jonathan. He was appointed NSA on June 22, 2012, following the removal of General Owoye Andrew Azazi.
Timeline of the Boko Haram insurgency is the chronology of the Boko Haram insurgency, an ongoing armed conflict between Boko Haram and the Nigerian government.
The Sambisa Forest is a forest in Borno State, northeast Nigeria. It is in the southwestern part of Chad Basin National Park, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Maiduguri, the capital of Borno State.
On the night of 5-6 May 2014, Boko Haram militants attacked the twin towns of Gamboru and Ngala in Borno State, Nigeria. Roughly 310 residents were killed in the 12-hour attack, and the town was largely destroyed. Most of the survivors fled to neighbouring Cameroon.
From 20–23 June 2014, a series of attacks occurred in Borno State, Nigeria. 91 women and children were kidnapped in the attacks and more than 70 people were killed.
The following lists events from 2014 in Nigeria.
On 13 December 2014, 172–185 villagers in the village of Gumsuri were kidnapped, suspected to be by Boko Haram militants. 32–35 people were killed.
The 2015 Baga massacre was a series of mass killings carried out by the Boko Haram terrorist group in the north-eastern Nigerian town of Baga and its environs, in the state of Borno, between 3 January and 7 January 2015.
Starting in late January 2015, a coalition of West African troops launched an offensive against the Boko Haram insurgents in Nigeria.
Hadiza Bala Usman is a Nigerian activist and politician. She is currently the Managing Director of the Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) as appointed by President Muhammadu Buhari on Monday 11 July 2016. She was formerly the Chief of Staff for the Kaduna State Governor. Bala Usman is an active member of the All Progressives Congress (APC).
On February 19, 2018, 5:30pm, one hundred and ten (110) schoolgirls aged 11–19 years old were kidnapped by the Boko Haram terrorist group from the Government Girls' Science and Technical College (GGSTC), Dapchi, located in Bulabulin, Yunusari Local Government area of Yobe State, in the northeast part of Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria has deployed the Nigerian Airforce and other security agencies to search for the missing schoolgirls and to hopefully enable their return. The governor of Yobe State, Ibrahim Gaidam blamed the Nigerian soldiers for having removed a military checkpoint from the town. Dapchi lies approximately 275 km northwest of Chibok, where over 276 schoolgirls were kidnapped by Boko Haram in 2014.
The Chibok ambush was an attack of Boko Haram insurgents against a Nigerian Army convoy in the night from 13 to 14 May 2014, as the latter was searching for schoolgirls who had been kidnapped by the Islamist rebels. Even though the Nigerian Army forces managed to extricate themselves from the ambush, the attack seriously affected the morale of the involved soldiers who felt that their leadership was carelessly sacrificing them in the war against the insurgents. As result, elements of the Nigerian Army's 7th Division subsequently mutinied at Maiduguri and almost killed their own commander, "humiliat[ing] the Nigerian military".
Most of the Chibok residents are Christians of a small minority group who speak Kibaku, another of Nigeria's myriad languages
Although most of the abducted girls are Christian, all were wearing Muslim dress and two were singled out to say they had converted to Islam.
The girls' families have said that most of those seized are Christians, although there are a number of Muslims among them.
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