|Chief Justice of New Zealand |
Kaiwhakawā Tumuaki o Aotearoa (Māori)
|Style||The Right Honourable|
|Nominator||Prime Minister of New Zealand|
|Appointer||Governor-General of New Zealand|
|Term length||No set term, though retirement is mandatory at age 70|
|Formation||5 February 1841|
|First holder||Sir William Martin|
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The Chief Justice of New Zealand (Māori : Te Kaiwhakawā Tumuaki o Aotearoa) is the head of the New Zealand judiciary, and presides over the Supreme Court of New Zealand. The Chief Justice of New Zealand is also the Chief Justice of Tokelau. Before the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2004 the Chief Justice was the presiding judge in the High Court of New Zealand, and was also ex officio a member of the Court of Appeal of New Zealand. The office is established by the Judicature Act 1908.
Māori, also known as te reo, is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand. Closely related to Cook Islands Māori, Tuamotuan, and Tahitian, it gained recognition as one of New Zealand's official languages in 1987. The number of speakers of the language has declined sharply since 1945, but a Māori language revitalisation effort slowed the decline, and the language has experienced a revival, particularly since about 2015.
The Supreme Court of New Zealand is the highest court and the court of last resort of New Zealand. It formally come into being on 1 January 2004 and sat for the first time on 1 July 2004. It replaced the right of appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, based in London. It was created with the passing of the Supreme Court Act 2003, on 15 October 2003. At the time, the creation of the Supreme Court and the abolition of appeals to the Privy Council were controversial constitutional changes in New Zealand. The Act was repealed on 1 March 2017 and replaced by the Senior Courts Act 2016.
Tokelau is a dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean. It consists of three tropical coral atolls, with a combined land area of 10 km2 (4 sq mi). The capital rotates yearly between the three atolls. Tokelau lies north of the Samoan Islands, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands, and northwest of the Cook Islands. Swains Island is geographically part of Tokelau, but is subject to an ongoing territorial dispute and is currently administered by the United States as part of American Samoa.
The Chief Justice is first among equals among the judges of the Supreme Court. They also act in place of the Governor-General if one has not been appointed or if the appointee is unable to perform his or her duties. When acting in place of the Governor-General, the Chief Justice is known as the Administrator of the Government.
The Governor-General of New Zealand is the viceregal representative of the monarch of New Zealand, currently Queen Elizabeth II. As the Queen is concurrently the monarch of 15 other Commonwealth realms, and lives in the United Kingdom, she, on the advice of her Prime Minister of New Zealand, appoints a governor-general to carry out her constitutional and ceremonial duties within the Realm of New Zealand.
The Chief Justice is appointed by the Governor-General, on the advice of the Prime Minister.The current Chief Justice is Helen Winkelmann, who was appointed on 14 March 2019 to replace Dame Sian Elias, who had reached mandatory retirement.
The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017.
Dame Helen Diana Winkelmann is the 13th and current Chief Justice of New Zealand, having been sworn in on 14 March 2019. She is the second woman to hold the position, following her immediate predecessor, Sian Elias.
From 1841 to 1979 the Chief Justice served with the old Supreme Court (now called High Court of New Zealand), which was a superior court with final appeals made to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. From 1980 onwards the Chief Justice headed the current Supreme Court, which as acted as the highest court in New Zealand and final as court of last resort after 2004 replacing the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The High Court of New Zealand is the superior court of New Zealand. It has general jurisdiction and responsibility, under the Senior Courts Act 2016, as well as the High Court Rules 2016, for the administration of justice throughout New Zealand. There are 18 High Court locations throughout New Zealand, plus one stand-alone registry.
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries. Established on 13 August 1833 to hear appeals formerly heard by the King-in-Council, the Privy Council formerly acted as the court of last resort for the entire British Empire, and continues to act as the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth nations, the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories.
|No.||Image||Chief Justice||Assumed Office||Left Office|
|1||Hon. Sir William Martin||5 February 1841||12 June 1857|
|2||Hon. Sir George Arney||c. 1858||1875|
|3||Hon. Sir James Prendergast GCMG||1 April 1875||25 May 1899|
|4||Rt Hon. Sir Robert Stout GCMG||25 May 1899||31 January 1926|
|5||Hon. Sir Charles Skerrett KCMG KC||1 February 1926||13 February 1929|
|6||Rt Hon. Sir Michael Myers GCMG KC||3 May 1929||7 August 1946|
|7||Rt Hon. Sir Humphrey O'Leary KCMG KC||12 August 1946||16 October 1953|
|8||Rt Hon. Sir Harold Barrowclough KCMG CB DSO MC ED||17 November 1953||17 January 1966|
|9||Rt Hon. Sir Richard Wild GBE KCMG QC||18 January 1966||January 1978|
|10||Rt Hon. Sir Ronald Davison GBE CMG QC||3 February 1978||4 February 1989|
|11||Rt Hon. Sir Thomas Eichelbaum GBE QC||6 February 1989||16 May 1999|
|12||Rt Hon. Dame Sian Elias GNZM PC QC||17 May 1999||13 March 2019|
|13||Rt Hon. Dame Helen Winkelmann GNZM||14 March 2019||present|
The Right Honourable is an honorific style traditionally applied to certain persons and collective bodies in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, some other Commonwealth realms, the English-speaking Caribbean, Mauritius, Zimbabwe, and occasionally elsewhere. The term is predominantly used today as a style associated with the holding of certain senior public offices in the United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand.
The Chief Justice of Canada is the presiding judge of the nine-member Supreme Court of Canada, the highest judicial body in Canada. As such, the chief justice is the highest-ranking judge of the Canadian court system. The Supreme Court Act grants plenary power to the Governor General to appoint—with the advice of the Prime Minister—a chief justice, who serves until they resign, die, are removed from office for cause, or attain the age of 75 years. By tradition, a new chief justice is chosen from among the Court's incumbent puisne justices.
The Order of precedence in New Zealand is a guide to the relative seniority of constitutional office holders and certain others, to be followed, as appropriate at State and official functions. The previous order of precedence is revoked and Her Majesty The Queen approved the following Order of Precedence in New Zealand effective 20 September 2018:
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The Supreme Court of Tasmania is the highest State court in the Australian State of Tasmania. In the Australian court hierarchy, the Supreme Court of Tasmania is in the middle level, with both an appellate jurisdiction over lower courts, and decisions made by Court to be heard on appeal by the High Court of Australia.
Sir Kenneth James Keith is a New Zealand Judge appointed to the International Court of Justice in November 2005.
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The Supreme Court of Georgia is the highest judicial authority of the U.S. state of Georgia. The court was established in 1845 as a three-member panel. Since 1896, the justices have been elected by the people of the state. The justices are currently elected in statewide non-partisan elections for six-year terms, with any vacancies filled through an appointment by the Governor.
The Court of Appeal of the Republic of Singapore is the nation's highest court and its court of final appeal. It is the upper division of the Supreme Court of Singapore, the lower being the High Court. The Court of Appeal consists of the Chief Justice of Singapore, who is the President of the Court, and the Judges of Appeal. The Chief Justice may ask judges of the High Court to sit as members of the Court of Appeal to hear particular cases. The seat of the Court of Appeal is the Supreme Court Building.
The Federal Court of Malaysia is the highest court and the final appellate court in Malaysia. It is housed in the Palace of Justice in Putrajaya. The court was established during Malaya's independence in 1957 and received its current name in 1994.
The Supreme Court of Judicature of Barbados is the highest judicial body in the country of Barbados. It is made up of the High Court and the Court of Appeals.
Sir Noel Crossley Anderson is a New Zealand judge who was President of the Court of Appeal of New Zealand from 2004 to 2006, before being elevated to the Supreme Court. He left office in 2008.
The Supreme Court of Judicature of Belize is one of three tiers of courts in Belize, the lower ones being the Magistrate's Courts and the Court of Appeal. It is a court of original jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases as well as an appellate court. It is governed by the Supreme Court of Judicature Act (SCJA).
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