Chief of Naval Operations

Last updated

Chief of Naval Operations
Seal of the Chief of Naval Operations.svg
Seal of the Chief of Naval Operations
Flag of the United States Chief of Naval Operations.svg
Flag of the Chief of Naval Operations
ADM Lisa M. Franchetti (2).jpg
Incumbent
Admiral Lisa M. Franchetti
since 2 November 2023
United States Navy
Office of the Chief of Naval Operations
AbbreviationCNO
Member of Joint Chiefs of Staff
Reports to Secretary of the Navy
AppointerThe President
with Senate advice and consent
Term length 4 years
Renewable one time, only during war or national emergency
Constituting instrument 10 U.S.C.   § 8033
PrecursorAide for Naval Operations
Formation11 May 1915
First holderADM William S. Benson
Deputy Vice Chief of Naval Operations
Website www.navy.mil

The chief of naval operations (CNO) is the highest ranking officer of the United States Navy. The position is a statutory office (10 U.S.C.   § 8033) held by an admiral who is a military adviser and deputy to the secretary of the Navy. The CNO is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (10 U.S.C.   § 151) and in this capacity, a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the secretary of defense, and the president.

Contents

Despite the title, the CNO does not have operational command authority over naval forces. The CNO is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and exercises supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the secretary of the Navy. Operational command of naval forces falls within the purview of the combatant commanders who report to the secretary of defense.

The current chief of naval operations is Lisa Franchetti, who was sworn in on November 2, 2023. [1]

Appointment, rank, and responsibilities

Mullen (CNO in December 2006) with some of his predecessors: Clark, Watkins, Hayward and Johnson. US Navy 061205-N-0696M-018 Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Adm. Mike Mullen meets with former Navy Chiefs at a CNO Conference at the Pentagon.jpg
Mullen (CNO in December 2006) with some of his predecessors: Clark, Watkins, Hayward and Johnson.

The chief of naval operations (CNO) is typically the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the U.S. Navy unless the chairman and/or the vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are naval officers. [2] The CNO is nominated for appointment by the president, for a four-year term of office, [3] and must be confirmed by the Senate. [3] A requirement for being Chief of Naval Operations is having significant experience in joint duty assignments, which includes at least one full tour of duty in a joint duty assignment as a flag officer. [3] However, the president may waive those requirements if he determines that appointing the officer is necessary for the national interest. [3] The chief can be reappointed to serve one additional term, but only during times of war or national emergency declared by Congress. [3] By statute, the CNO is appointed as a four-star admiral. [3]

As per 10 U.S.C.   § 8035, whenever there is a vacancy for the chief of naval operations or during the absence or disability of the chief of naval operations, and unless the president directs otherwise, the vice chief of naval operations performs the duties of the chief of naval operations until a successor is appointed or the absence or disability ceases. [4]

Department of the Navy

The CNO also performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U.S.C.   § 8033, such as presiding over the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV), exercising supervision of Navy organizations, and other duties assigned by the secretary or higher lawful authority, or the CNO delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in OPNAV or in organizations below. [2] [5]

Acting for the secretary of the Navy, the CNO also designates naval personnel and naval forces available to the commanders of unified combatant commands, subject to the approval of the secretary of defense. [5] [6]

Joint Chiefs of Staff

The CNO is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as prescribed by 10 U.S.C.   § 151 and 10 U.S.C.   § 8033. Like the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CNO is an administrative position, with no operational command authority over the United States Navy forces.

Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, individually or collectively, in their capacity as military advisers, shall provide advice to the president, the National Security Council (NSC), or the secretary of defense (SECDEF) on a particular matter when the president, the NSC, or SECDEF requests such advice. Members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (other than the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) may submit to the chairman advice or an opinion in disagreement with, or advice or an opinion in addition to, the advice presented by the chairman to the president, NSC, or SECDEF.

When performing her JCS duties, the CNO is responsible directly to the SECDEF, but keeps SECNAV fully informed of significant military operations affecting the duties and responsibilities of the SECNAV, unless SECDEF orders otherwise. [7]

History

Early attempts and the Aide for Naval Operations (1900–1915)

William Sims William sowden sims.jpg
William Sims

In 1900, administrative and operational authority over the Navy was concentrated in the secretary of the Navy and bureau chiefs, with the General Board holding only advisory powers. [8] [9] Critics of the lack of military command authority included Charles J. Bonaparte, Navy secretary from 1905 to 1906, [10] then-Captain Reginald R. Belknap [11] and future admiral William Sims. [12]

Rear Admiral George A. Converse, commander of the Bureau of Navigation (BuNav) from 1905 to 1906, reported:

[W]ith each year that passes the need is painfully apparent for a military administrative authority under the secretary, whose purpose would be to initiate and direct the steps necessary to carry out the Department’s policy, and to coordinate the work of the bureaus and direct their energies toward the effective preparation of the fleet for war. [13]

Rear Admiral Charles Johnston Badger with Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, c. 1914. BADGER, CHARLES JOHNSTON. REAR ADMIRAL, U.S.N. LEFT, WITH ADMIRAL FISKE LCCN2016865376.jpg
Rear Admiral Charles Johnston Badger with Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske, c.1914.

However, reorganization attempts were opposed by Congress due to fears of a Prussian-style general staff and inadvertently increasing the powers of the Navy secretary, which risked infringing on legislative authority. [14] Senator Eugene Hale, chairman of the Senate Committee on Naval Affairs, disliked reformers like Sims [15] and persistently blocked attempts to bring such ideas to debate. [8]

To circumvent the opposition, George von Lengerke Meyer, Secretary of the Navy under William Howard Taft implemented a system of "aides" on 18 November 1909. [14] [16] These aides lacked command authority and instead served as principal advisors to the Navy secretary. [14] The aide for operations was deemed by Meyer to be the most important one, responsible for devoting "his entire attention and study to the operations of the fleet," [17] and drafting orders for the movement of ships on the advice of the General Board and approval of the secretary in times of war or emergency. [17]

The successes of Meyer's first operations aide, Rear Admiral Richard Wainwright, [18] factored into Meyer's decision to make his third operations aide, Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske his de facto principal advisor on 10 February 1913. [19] Fiske retained his post under Meyer's successor, Josephus Daniels, becoming the most prominent advocate for what would become the office of CNO. [20]

Creating the position of Chief of Naval Operations (1915)

Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels Josephus Daniels 1.jpg
Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels

In 1914, Fiske, frustrated at Daniels' ambivalence towards his opinion that the Navy was unprepared for the possibility of entry into World War I, bypassed the secretary to collaborate with Representative Richmond P. Hobson, a retired Navy admiral, to draft legislation providing for the office of "a chief of naval operations". [21] The preliminary proposal (passed off as Hobson's own to mask Fiske's involvement), in spite of Daniels' opposition, passed Hobson's subcommittee unanimously on 4 January 1915, [21] and passed the full House Committee on Naval Affairs on 6 January. [22]

Fiske's younger supporters expected him to be named the first chief of naval operations, [23] and his versions of the bill provided for the minimum rank of the officeholder to be a two-star rear admiral. [23]

There shall be a Chief of Naval Operations, who shall be an officer on the active list of the Navy not below the grade of Rear Admiral, appointed for a term of four years by the President, by and with the advice of the Senate, who, under the Secretary of the Navy, shall be responsible for the readiness of the Navy for war and be charged with its general direction. [23]

Fiske's version of the bill

In contrast, Daniels' version, included in the final bill, emphasized the office's subordination to the Navy secretary, allowed for the selection of the CNO from officers of the rank of captain, and denied it authority over the Navy's general direction: [23]

There shall be a Chief of Naval Operations, who shall be an officer on the active list of the Navy appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, from the officers of the line of the Navy not below the grade of Captain for a period of four years, who shall, under the direction of the Secretary, be charged with the operations of the fleet, and with the preparation and readiness of plans for its use in war. [23]

Daniels' version of the bill

Fiske's "end-running" of Daniels eliminated any possibility of him being named the first CNO. [23] Nevertheless, satisfied with the change he had helped enact, Fiske made a final contribution: elevating the statutory rank of the CNO to admiral with commensurate pay. [23] [24] The Senate passed the appropriations bill creating the CNO position and its accompanying office on 3 March 1915, simultaneously abolishing the aides system promulgated under Meyer. [25]

Benson, the first CNO (1915–1919)

Admiral William S. Benson, chief of naval operations (seated), relaxes at Pruyn's Home, Lower Saranac Lake, New York, c. Sept. 1918. With him are Commander Charles Belknap Jr. (left), and his aide, Commander Worral R. Carter (right). NH 56833 Admiral William S. Benson, USN.jpg
Admiral William S. Benson, chief of naval operations (seated), relaxes at Pruyn's Home, Lower Saranac Lake, New York, c.Sept. 1918. With him are Commander Charles Belknap Jr. (left), and his aide, Commander Worral R. Carter (right).

Captain William S. Benson was promoted to the temporary rank of rear admiral and became the first CNO on 11 May 1915. [25] He further assumed the rank of admiral after the passage of the 1916 Naval Appropriations Bill with Fiske's amendments, [24] second only to Admiral of the Navy George Dewey and explicitly senior to the commanders-in-chief of the Atlantic, Pacific and Asiatic Fleets. [26]

Unlike Fiske, who had campaigned for a powerful, aggressive CNO sharing authority with the Navy secretary, [25] Benson demonstrated personal loyalty to Secretary Daniels and subordinated himself to civilian control, yet maintained the CNO's autonomy where necessary. [27] [28] While alienating reformers like Sims and Fiske (who retired in 1916), Benson's conduct gave Daniels immense trust in his new CNO, and Benson was delegated greater resources and authority. [28] [29]

Achievements

Among the organizational efforts initiated or recommended by Benson included an advisory council to coordinate high-level staff activities, [30] composed of himself, the SECNAV and the bureau chiefs which "worked out to the great satisfaction" of Daniels and Benson; [30] the reestablishment of the Joint Army and Navy Board in 1918 with Benson as its Navy member; [31] [30] and the consolidation of all matters of naval aviation under the authority of the CNO. [30]

Benson also revamped the structure of the naval districts, [30] transferring authority for them from SECNAV to the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations under the Operations, Plans, Naval Districts division. [32] This enabled closer cooperation between naval district commanders and the uniformed leadership, who could more easily handle communications between the former and the Navy's fleet commanders. [32]

In the waning years of his tenure, Benson set regulations for officers on shore duty to have temporary assignments with the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations to maintain cohesion between the higher-level staff and the fleet. [33]

Establishing OPNAV

Organization of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, January 1916 OPNAV organizational chart (Jan. 1916).png
Organization of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, January 1916

Until 1916, the CNO's office was chronically understaffed. [34] The formal establishment of the CNO's "general staff", the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV), originally called the Office for Operations, [32] was exacerbated by Eugene Hale's retirement from politics in 1911, [35] and skepticism of whether the CNO's small staff could implement President Wilson's policy of "preparedness" without violating American neutrality in World War I. [32]

By June 1916, OPNAV was organized into eight divisions: Operations, Plans, Naval Districts; [32] Regulations; [32] Ship Movements; [32] Communications; [32] Publicity; [32] and Materiel. [32] Operations provided a link between fleet commanders and the General Board, Ship Movements coordinated the movement of Navy vessels and oversaw navy yard overhauls, Communications accounted for the Navy's developing radio network, Publicity conducted the Navy's public affairs, and the Materiel section coordinated the work of the naval bureaus. [32]

Numbering only 75 staffers in January 1917, [36] OPNAV increased in size following the American entry into World War I, as it was deemed of great importance to manage the rapid mobilization of forces to fight in the war. [37] By war's end, OPNAV employed over 1462 people. [38] The CNO and OPNAV thus gained influence over Navy administration but at the expense of the Navy secretary and bureau chiefs. [37]

Advisor to the president

Edward M. House, aka Colonel House, was a close advisor to President Woodrow Wilson and alongside him elevated the stature of the CNO. E. M. House LCCN2014700618 (cropped).jpg
Edward M. House, aka Colonel House, was a close advisor to President Woodrow Wilson and alongside him elevated the stature of the CNO.

In 1918, Benson became a military advisor to Edward M. House, an advisor and confidant of President Wilson, [38] joining him on a trip to Europe as the 1918 armistice with Germany was signed. [38] His stance that the United States remain equal to Great Britain in naval power was very useful to House and Wilson, enough for Wilson to insist Benson remain in Europe until after the Treaty of Versailles was signed in July 1919. [38]

End of tenure

Benson's tenure as CNO was slated to end on 10 May 1919, but this was delayed by the president at Secretary Daniels' insistence; [39] Benson instead retired on 25 September 1919. [40] Admiral Robert Coontz replaced Benson as CNO on 1 November 1919.

Interwar period (1919–1939)

The CNO's office faced no significant changes in authority during the interwar period, largely due to the Navy secretaries opting to keep executive authority within their own office. Innovations during this period included encouraging coordination in war planning process, and compliance with the Washington Naval Treaty [41] [42] while still keeping to the shipbuilding plan authorized by the Naval Act of 1916. [43] and implementing the concept of naval aviation into naval doctrine.

CNO Pratt, relationship with the General Board and Army-Navy relations

CNO Pratt (right) with Admiral Frank H. Schofield (left) aboard the Tennessee-class battleship USS California (BB-44), February 1931. William Veazie Pratt NH 77482.jpg
CNO Pratt (right) with Admiral Frank H. Schofield (left) aboard the Tennessee-class battleship USS California (BB-44), February 1931.

William V. Pratt became the fifth Chief of Naval Operations on 17 September 1930, after the resignation of Charles F. Hughes. [44] He had previously served as assistant chief of naval operations under CNO Benson. [45] A premier naval policymaker and supporter of arms control under the Washington Naval Treaty, Pratt, despite otherwise good relations, clashed with President Herbert Hoover over building up naval force strength to treaty levels, [46] with Hoover favoring restrictions in spending due to financial difficulties caused by the Great Depression. [47] Under Pratt, such a "treaty system" was needed to maintain a compliant peacetime navy. [46]

Pratt opposed centralized management of the Navy, and encouraged diversity of opinion between the offices of the Navy secretary, CNO and the Navy's General Board. [48] To this effect, Pratt removed the CNO as an ex officio member of the General Board, [48] concerned that the office's association with the Board could hamper diversities of opinion between the former and counterparts within the offices of the Navy secretary and OPNAV. [48] Pratt's vision of a less powerful CNO also clashed with Representative Carl Vinson of Georgia, chair of the House Naval Affairs Committee from 1931 to 1947, a proponent of centralizing power within OPNAV. [49] Vinson deliberately delayed many of his planned reorganization proposals until Pratt's replacement by William H. Standley to avoid the unnecessary delays that would otherwise have happened with Pratt. [49]

Pratt also enjoyed a good working relationship with Army chief of staff Douglas MacArthur, and negotiated several key agreements with him over coordinating their services' radio communications networks, mutual interests in coastal defense, and authority over Army and Navy aviation. [50]

CNO Standley and the Vinson-Trammell act

William H. Standley (sitting) poses for his last photograph as Chief of Naval Operations on the day of his retirement, 29 December 1936. Faces last shot. Washington, D.C., Dec. 29. Admiral William H. Standley faced his last barrage today. A salva from the guns of a battery of cameramen. He retires as Chief of Naval Operations LCCN2016871034.tif
William H. Standley (sitting) poses for his last photograph as Chief of Naval Operations on the day of his retirement, 29 December 1936.

William H. Standley, who succeeded Pratt in 1933, had a weaker relationship with President Franklin D. Roosevelt than Pratt enjoyed with Hoover. [49] Often in direct conflict with Navy secretary Claude A. Swanson and assistant secretary Henry L. Roosevelt, Standley's hostility to the latter was described as "poisonous". [49]

Conversely, Standley successfully improved relations with Congress, streamlining communications between the Department of the Navy and the naval oversight committees by appointing the first naval legislative liaisons, the highest-ranked of which reported to the judge advocate general. [51] Standley also worked with Representative Vinson to pass the Vinson-Trammell Act, considered by Standley to be his most important achievement as CNO. The Act authorized the President:

“to suspend” construction of the ships authorized by the law “as may be necessary to bring the naval armament of the United States within the limitation so agreed upon, except that such suspension shall not apply to vessels actually under construction on the date of the passage of this act. [52]

This effectively provided security for all Navy vessels under construction; even if new shipbuilding projects could not be initiated, shipbuilders with new classes under construction could not legally be obliged to cease operations, allowing the Navy to prepare for World War II without breaking potential limits from future arms control conferences. [52] The Act also granted the CNO "soft oversight power" of the naval bureaus which nominally lay with the secretary of the Navy, [53] as Standley gradually inserted OPNAV into the ship design process. [53] Under Standley, the "treaty system" created by Pratt was abandoned. [47]

CNO Leahy

New CNO Leahy and outgoing CNO Standley shake hands after Leahy is sworn in on 2 January 1937. Ad. Leahy & Ad. Standley LCCN2016871031.jpg
New CNO Leahy and outgoing CNO Standley shake hands after Leahy is sworn in on 2 January 1937.

Outgoing commander, Battle Force William D. Leahy succeeded Standley as CNO on 2 January 1937. [54] Leahy's close personal friendship with President Roosevelt since his days as Navy assistant secretary, as well as good relationships with Representative Vinson and Secretary Swanson [55] brought him to the forefront of potential candidates for the post. [56] Unlike Standley, who tried to dominate the bureaus, Leahy preferred to let the bureau chiefs function autonomously as per convention, with the CNO acting as a primus inter pares . [57] [58] Leahy's views of the CNO's authority led to clashes with his predecessor; Standley even attempted to block Leahy from being assigned a fleet command in retaliation. [55] Leahy, on his part, continued Standley's efforts to insert the CNO into the ship design process. [56]

Swanson's ill health and assistant secretary Henry Roosevelt's death on 22 February 1936 gave Leahy unprecedented influence. [59] Leahy had private lunches with the President frequently; during his tenure as CNO, Roosevelt had 52 meetings with him, compared with 12 with his Army counterpart, General Malin Craig, none of which were private lunches.

Leahy retired from the Navy on 1 August 1939 to become Governor of Puerto Rico, a month before the invasion of Poland. [60]

Official residence

Number One Observatory Circle, located on the northeast grounds of the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, was built in 1893 for its superintendent. The chief of naval operations liked the house so much that in 1923 he took over the house as his own official residence. It remained the residence of the CNO until 1974, when Congress authorized its transformation to an official residence for the vice president. [61] The chief of naval operations currently resides in Quarters A in the Washington Naval Yard.

Office of the Chief of Naval Operations

Organizational chart of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV). US Navy Office of Chief Naval Operations Org Chart.png
Organizational chart of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV).

The chief of naval operations presides over the Navy Staff, formally known as the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV). [62] [63] The Office of the Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory organization within the executive part of the Department of the Navy, and its purpose is to furnish professional assistance to the secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) and the CNO in carrying out their responsibilities. [64] [65]

Under the authority of the CNO, the director of the Navy Staff (DNS) is responsible for day-to-day administration of the Navy Staff and coordination of the activities of the deputy chiefs of naval operations, who report directly to the CNO. [66] The office was previously known as the assistant vice chief of naval operations (AVCNO) until 1996, [67] when CNO Jeremy Boorda ordered its redesignation to its current name. [67] Previously held by a three-star vice admiral, the position became a civilian's billet in 2018. The present DNS is Andrew S. Haueptle, a retired Marine Corps colonel. [68]

List of chiefs of naval operations

(† - died in office)

Aide for Naval Operations (historical predecessor office)

No.PortraitAide for Naval OperationsTook officeLeft officeTime in office Secretaries of the Navy
1
Richard Wainwright (Spanish-American War naval officer), 1902.jpg
Wainwright, RichardRear Admiral
Richard Wainwright
(1849–1926)
3 December 190912 December 19112 years, 9 days George von Lengerke Meyer
2
Cvreeland.jpg
Vreeland, CharlesRear Admiral
Charles E. Vreeland
(1852–1916)
12 December 191111 February 1913 [69] 1 year, 61 days George von Lengerke Meyer
3
Bradley A. Fiske cropped.jpg
Fiske, BradleyRear Admiral
Bradley A. Fiske
(1854–1942)
11 February 19131 April 19152 years, 49 days George von Lengerke Meyer
Josephus Daniels

Chiefs of Naval Operations

No.PortraitNameTermBackgroundSecretaries served under:Ref.
Took officeLeft officeDuration Navy Defense
1
NH 366 Admiral William S. Benson, USN (cropped).jpg
Benson, WilliamAdmiral
William S. Benson
(1855–1932)
11 May 191525 September 19194 years, 137 days Battleships Josephus Daniels [70]
Vacant
(25 September 1919 – 1 November 1919)
2
Robert E. Coontz (cropped).jpg
Coontz, RobertAdmiral
Robert E. Coontz
(1864–1935)
1 November 191921 July 19233 years, 262 daysBattleships Josephus Daniels
Edwin C. Denby
[70]
3
Edward Walter Eberle.jpg
Eberle, Edward WalterAdmiral
Edward W. Eberle
(1864–1929)
21 July 192314 November 19274 years, 116 daysBattleships Edwin C. Denby
Curtis D. Wilbur
[70]
4
ADM Charles F. Hughes portrait.jpg
Hughes, Charles FrederickAdmiral
Charles F. Hughes
(1866–1934)
14 November 192717 September 1930
(resigned)
3 years, 3 daysBattleships Curtis D. Wilbur
Charles F. Adams III
[70] [71]
5
William Veazie Pratt.jpg
Pratt, William VeazieAdmiral
William V. Pratt
(1869–1957)
17 September 193030 June 19332 years, 286 daysBattleships Charles F. Adams III
Claude A. Swanson
[70]
6
William Standley 80-G-K-2786 (26144162862).jpg
Standley, William HarrisonAdmiral
William H. Standley
(1872–1963)
1 July 19331 January 19373 years, 184 daysBattleships Claude A. Swanson [70]
7
NH 48260 Admiral William D. Leahy, USN (cropped).jpg
Leahy, WilliamAdmiral
William D. Leahy
(1875–1959)
2 January 19371 August 19392 years, 211 daysBattleships Claude A. Swanson
Charles Edison
[70]
8
Harold Rainsford Stark.jpg
Stark, Harold RainsfordAdmiral
Harold R. Stark
(1880–1972)
1 August 19392 March 1942
(relieved)
2 years, 213 daysBattleships/Cruisers-Destroyers Charles Edison
Frank Knox
[70]
9
FADM Ernest J. King.jpg
King, Ernest JosephFleet Admiral
Ernest J. King
(1878–1956)
2 March 194215 December 19453 years, 288 days Aviation Frank Knox
James Forrestal
[70]
10
Chester Nimitz as CNO (cropped).jpg
Nimitz, ChesterFleet Admiral
Chester W. Nimitz
(1885–1966)
15 December 194515 December 19472 years, 0 days Submarines James Forrestal
John L. Sullivan
James Forrestal
(from Sep. 1947)
[70]
11
80-G-704657 (26290116655).jpg
Denfeld, Louis EmilAdmiral
Louis E. Denfeld
(1891–1972)
15 December 19472 November 1949
(relieved)
1 year, 322 daysSubmarines John L. Sullivan
Francis P. Matthews
James Forrestal
Louis A. Johnson
[70]
12
Forrest P SHerman.jpg
Sherman, Forrest PercivalAdmiral
Forrest P. Sherman
(1896–1951)
2 November 194922 July 1951 1 year, 262 daysBattleships/Cruisers-Destroyers Francis P. Matthews Louis A. Johnson
George C. Marshall
[70]
-
ADM McCormick, Lynde D.jpg
McCormick, LyndeAdmiral
Lynde D. McCormick
(1895–1956)
Acting
[lower-alpha 1]
22 July 195116 August 195125 daysBattleships/Cruisers-Destroyers Francis P. Matthews
Dan A. Kimball
George C. Marshall [70]
13
80-G-412087 (26343401546).jpg
Fechteler, WilliamAdmiral
William M. Fechteler
(1896–1967)
16 August 195117 August 19532 years, 1 dayBattleships/Cruisers-Destroyers Dan A. Kimball
Robert B. Anderson
George C. Marshall
Robert A. Lovett
[70]
14
Robert Bostwick Carney.jpg
Carney, RobertAdmiral
Robert B. Carney
(1895–1990)
17 August 195317 August 19552 years, 0 daysBattleships/Cruisers-Destroyers Robert B. Anderson
Charles S. Thomas
Charles Erwin Wilson [70]
15
ADM Burke, Arleigh (CNO).jpg
Burke, Arleigh AlbertAdmiral
Arleigh A. Burke
(1901–1996)
17 August 19551 August 19615 years, 349 daysCruisers-Destroyers Charles S. Thomas
Thomas S. Gates Jr.
William B. Franke
John Connally
Charles Erwin Wilson
Neil H. McElroy
Thomas S. Gates Jr.
Robert McNamara
[70]
16
PAA-N-4996 ADM George W. Anderson, Jr. (26501746045).jpg
Anderson, George Whelan Jr.Admiral
George W. Anderson Jr.
(1906–1992)
1 August 19611 August 1963
(relieved)
2 years, 0 daysAviation John Connally
Fred Korth
Robert McNamara [70]
17
ADM McDonald, David Lamar.jpg
McDonald, DavidAdmiral
David L. McDonald
(1906–1997)
1 August 19631 August 19674 years, 0 daysAviation Fred Korth
Paul Nitze
Robert McNamara [70]
18
KN-15045 Admiral Thomas H. Moorer, USN (cropped).jpg
Moorer, Thomas HinmanAdmiral
Thomas H. Moorer
(1912–2004)
1 August 19671 July 1970 [lower-alpha 2] 2 years, 334 daysAviation Paul R. Ignatius
John Chafee
Robert McNamara
Clark Clifford
Melvin Laird
[70]
19
Elmo Zumwalt.jpg
Zumwalt, ElmoAdmiral
Elmo R. Zumwalt
(1920–2000)
1 July 197029 June 19743 years, 363 daysCruisers-Destroyers John Chafee
John Warner
J. William Middendorf
Melvin Laird
Elliot Richardson
James R. Schlesinger
[70]
20
James Holloway III.jpg
Holloway, JamesAdmiral
James L. Holloway III
(1922–2019)
29 June 1974 [lower-alpha 3] 1 July 19784 years, 2 daysAviation J. William Middendorf
W. Graham Claytor Jr.
James R. Schlesinger
Donald Rumsfeld
Harold Brown
[70]
21
ADM Hayward, Thomas B CNO Official Portrait.jpg
Hayward, Thomas BibbAdmiral
Thomas B. Hayward
(1924–2022)
1 July 197830 June 19823 years, 364 daysAviation W. Graham Claytor Jr.
Edward Hidalgo
John Lehman
Harold Brown
Caspar Weinberger
[70]
22
Admiral James Watkins, official military photo.JPEG
Watkins, JamesAdmiral
James D. Watkins
(1927–2012)
30 June 198230 June 19864 years, 0 daysSubmarines John Lehman Caspar Weinberger [70]
23
Admiral Carlisle Trost, official military photo.JPEG
Trost, CarlisleAdmiral
Carlisle A.H. Trost
(1930–2020)
1 July 198629 June 19903 years, 363 daysSubmarines John Lehman
Jim Webb
William L. Ball
Henry L. Garrett III
Caspar Weinberger
Frank Carlucci
Dick Cheney
[70]
24
ADM Frank B. Kelso II, 1994.jpg
Kelso, FrankAdmiral
Frank B. Kelso II
(1933–2013)
29 June 199023 April 19943 years, 298 daysSubmarines Henry L. Garrett III
Sean O'Keefe
John H. Dalton
Dick Cheney
Les Aspin
William J. Perry
[70]
25
Adm. Jeremy M. Boorda (2).jpg
Boorda, Jeremy MichaelAdmiral
Jeremy M. Boorda
(1939–1996)
23 April 199416 May 1996 2 years, 23 daysCruisers-Destroyers John H. Dalton William J. Perry [70]
[lower-alpha 1] Admiral Jay Johnson, official military photo.JPEG Admiral
Jay L. Johnson
(born 1946)
16 May 19962 August 199678 daysAviation John H. Dalton
Richard Danzig
William J. Perry
William Cohen
[72]
262 August 199621 July 20003 years, 354 days [70]
27
VernClark.jpg
Clark, VernonAdmiral
Vernon E. Clark
(born 1944)
21 July 200022 July 20055 years, 1 dayCruisers-Destroyers Richard Danzig
Gordon R. England
William Cohen
Donald Rumsfeld
[70]
28
US Navy 050711-N-0000X-001 U.S. Navy File photo, Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Michael G. Mullen.jpg
Mullen, MichaelAdmiral
Michael G. Mullen
(born 1946)
22 July 200529 September 2007 [lower-alpha 2] 2 years, 130 daysCruisers-Destroyers Gordon R. England
Donald C. Winter
Donald Rumsfeld
Robert Gates
[70]
29
US Navy 071108-N-0000X-001 Navy file photo of Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Adm. Gary Roughead.jpg
Roughead, GaryAdmiral
Gary Roughead
(born 1951)
29 September 200723 September 20113 years, 359 daysCruisers-Destroyers Donald C. Winter
Ray Mabus
Robert Gates
Leon Panetta
[73]
30
Admiral Jonathan W. Greenert (CNO).jpg
Greenert, JonathanAdmiral
Jonathan W. Greenert
(born 1953)
23 September 2011 [lower-alpha 3] 18 September 20153 years, 360 daysSubmarines Ray Mabus Leon Panetta
Chuck Hagel
Ash Carter
[74]
31
Admiral John M. Richardson (CNO) 150917-N-AT895-703 (26207156950).jpg
Richardson, JohnAdmiral
John M. Richardson
(born 1960)
18 September 201522 August 20193 years, 338 daysSubmarines Ray Mabus
Richard V. Spencer
Ash Carter
Jim Mattis
[75]
32
Gilday CNO.jpg
Gilday, MichaelAdmiral
Michael M. Gilday
(born 1962)
22 August 201914 August 20233 years, 357 daysCruisers-Destroyers/Cyberspace Richard V. Spencer
Kenneth Braithwaite
Carlos Del Toro
Mark Esper
Lloyd Austin
[76]
[lower-alpha 1] ADM Lisa M. Franchetti (2).jpg Admiral
Lisa M. Franchetti
(born 1964)
14 August 20232 November 202380 daysCruisers-Destroyers Carlos Del Toro Lloyd Austin [77]
332 November 2023Incumbent35 days [1]

Timeline

Lisa FranchettiMichael M. GildayJohn M. Richardson (admiral)Jonathan W. GreenertGary RougheadMichael MullenVern ClarkJay L. JohnsonMichael BoordaFrank KelsoCarlisle TrostJames D. WatkinsThomas B. HaywardJames L. Holloway IIIElmo ZumwaltThomas Hinman MoorerDavid L. McDonaldGeorge W. Anderson Jr.Arleigh BurkeRobert B. CarneyWilliam M. FechtelerForrest ShermanLouis E. DenfeldChester W. NimitzErnest J. KingHarold R. StarkWilliam D. LeahyWilliam Harrison StandleyWilliam V. PrattCharles Frederick HughesEdward W. EberleRobert E. CoontzWilliam S. BensonChief of Naval Operations

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 "SECNAV Del Toro Statement on the Swearing-In of Adm. Lisa Franchetti as 33rd Chief of Naval Operations". DVIDS. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Secretary of the Navy. 2 November 2023. Retrieved 3 November 2023.PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain .
  2. 1 2 "Chief of Naval Operations". United States Navy. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "10 USC 5033. Chief of Naval Operations" . Retrieved 24 September 2007.
  4. "10 USC 5035. Vice Chief of Naval Operations". Legal Information Institute . Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  5. 1 2 "10 USC 5013(f). Secretary of the Navy".
  6. "10 USC 165. Combatant commands: administration and support".
  7. "10 USC 5033. Chief of Naval Operations". Legal Information Institute . Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  8. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 3.
  9. J. A. S. Grenville. Diplomacy and War Plans in the United States, 1890–1917. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fifth Series, Vol. 11, (1961), pp. 1–21. Published by: Royal Historical Society
  10. Hone & Utz, p. 6-7.
  11. Hone & Utz, p. 5.
  12. Hone & Utz, p. 8.
  13. Hone & Utz, p. 7-8.
  14. 1 2 3 Hone & Utz, p. 10.
  15. Hone & Utz, p. 9.
  16. "Navy - Chief of Naval Operations". International Military Digest. 1 (1): 68. June 1915.
  17. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 11.
  18. "The Chiefs of Naval Operations and Admiral's House, Volume 2". 1969. p. 11.
  19. Hone & Utz, p. 12: On 10 February 1913, with just three weeks remaining to the Taft presidency, Meyer appointed Rear Admiral Bradley A. Fiske his Aide for Operations, and he "made the Aide for Operations his liaison man with all the offices and bureaus of the department.".
  20. Hone & Utz, p. 13.
  21. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 14.
  22. Hone & Utz, p. 14-15.
  23. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hone & Utz, p. 15.
  24. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 32.
  25. 1 2 3 Hone & Utz, p. 25.
  26. Hone & Utz, p. 34.
  27. Hone & Utz, p. 25-26.
  28. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 29.
  29. Hone & Utz, p. 47-48.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 Hone & Utz, p. 31.
  31. the final form of which was agreed by Daniels and the secretary of war, Newton D. Baker
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Hone & Utz, p. 33.
  33. Hone & Utz, p. 47.
  34. Hone & Utz, p. 25 "Benson had three subordinates (one captain and two lieutenants), no clerical staff, and primitive office space".
  35. "Hale Soon to Retire". California Digital Newspaper Collection. Stockton Independent. 20 April 1910.
  36. Hone & Utz, p. 36.
  37. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 44.
  38. 1 2 3 4 Hone & Utz, p. 45.
  39. Hone & Utz, p. 46.
  40. "Admiral William S. Benson, First Chief of Naval Operations (May 11, 1915–September 25, 1919)". Naval History and Heritage Command.
  41. Hone & Utz, p. 73.
  42. Hone & Utz, p. 83.
  43. Hone & Utz, p. 57.
  44. "Admiral William V. Pratt, Fifth Chief of Naval Operations (September 17, 1930–June 30, 1933)". Naval History and Heritage Command.
  45. Hone & Utz, p. 28.
  46. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 93.
  47. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 94.
  48. 1 2 3 Hone & Utz, p. 99.
  49. 1 2 3 4 Hone & Utz, p. 100.
  50. Hone & Utz, p. 101.
  51. Hone & Utz, p. 109.
  52. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 106.
  53. 1 2 Hone & Utz, p. 107.
  54. "Leahy Will Direct Naval Operations". The New York Times . 11 November 1936. p. 53. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  55. 1 2 Borneman 2012, p. 239-240.
  56. 1 2 Borneman 2012, p. 258.
  57. O'Brien 2019, p. 109.
  58. Adams 1985, p. 90.
  59. "Henry Roosevelt is Dead in Capital". The New York Times . 23 February 1936. p. 1. Retrieved 14 May 2022.
  60. Borneman 2012, p. 280.
  61. "The Vice President's Residence". The White House. Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  62. navy.mil Archived 22 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Chief of Naval Operations − Responsibilities. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
  63. "10 U.S. Code § 5033 - Chief of Naval Operations: general duties". Legal Information Institute . Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  64. "10 U.S. Code § 5031 - Office of the Chief of Naval Operations: function; composition". Legal Information Institute . Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  65. "10 U.S. Code § 5032 - Office of the Chief of Naval Operations: general duties". Legal Information Institute . Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  66. "10 U.S. Code § 8036 - Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations". Legal Information Institute . Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  67. 1 2 Swartz, p. 51.
  68. "Biography - Andrew S. Haeuptle" (PDF). U.S. Navy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 October 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  69. "Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships". Google Books. 1959. p. 563.
  70. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 "Chief of Naval Operations". Lists of Commanding Officers and Senior Officials of the US Navy. Naval Historical Center. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  71. Hoover, Herbert (16 September 1930). "Letter Accepting the Resignation of Admiral Charles F. Hughes as Chief of Naval Operations". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  72. "JOHNSON IS LIKELY PICK FOR CNO; CLINTON IS EXPECTED TO NOMINATE HIM FOR THE POST TODAY". The Virginian-Pilot . 5 June 1996. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  73. "Event - US Navy in a Time of Change featuring Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Gary Roughead". Aspen Institute. 13 September 2011. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  74. Malloy, Kyle (28 September 2011). "Greenert becomes CNO". The Florida Times-Union. Chief of Naval Operations Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  75. Eckstein, Megan (18 September 2015). "Richardson Becomes New Chief of Naval Operations; Greenert Retires After 40 Years". USNI News . Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  76. "Gilday Relieves Richardson as CNO". U.S. Navy. 22 August 2019. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain .
  77. "Webcast: Austin Hosts Chief of Naval Operations Relinquishment of Office". DVIDS. 14 August 2023. Retrieved 14 August 2023.

Non-footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 In capacity as Vice Chief of Naval Operations.
  2. 1 2 Appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  3. 1 2 Served prior as Vice Chief of Naval Operations.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States Secretary of the Navy</span> Statutory office and the head of the U.S. Department of the Navy

The secretary of the Navy is a statutory officer and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the United States Department of Defense.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joint Chiefs of Staff</span> Senior-most military leaders who advise U.S. executive government

The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is the body of the most senior uniformed leaders within the United States Department of Defense, which advises the president of the United States, the secretary of defense, the Homeland Security Council and the National Security Council on military matters. The composition of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is defined by statute and consists of a chairman (CJCS), a vice chairman (VJCS), the chiefs of the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Space Force, and the chief of the National Guard Bureau. Each of the individual service chiefs, outside their JCS obligations, works directly under the secretaries of their respective military departments, e.g. the secretary of the Army, the secretary of the Navy, and the secretary of the Air Force.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff</span> Highest ranking military officer in the United States

The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is the presiding officer of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). The chairman is the highest-ranking and most senior military officer in the United States Armed Forces and the principal military advisor to the president, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the secretary of defense. While the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff outranks all other commissioned officers, the chairman is prohibited by law from having operational command authority over the armed forces; however, the chairman assists the president and the secretary of defense in exercising their command functions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William D. Leahy</span> US Navy admiral, ambassador (1875–1959)

William Daniel Leahy was an American naval officer. The most senior United States military officer on active duty during World War II, he held several titles and exercised considerable influence over foreign and military policy. As a fleet admiral, he was the first flag officer ever to hold a five-star rank in the U.S. Armed Forces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Harrison Standley</span> United States admiral

William Harrison Standley was an admiral in the United States Navy, who served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1933 to 1937. He also served as the U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1941 until 1943.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">United States Department of the Navy</span> Military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America

The United States Department of the Navy (DON) is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. It was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, at the urging of Secretary of War James McHenry, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy (USN); since 1834, it has exercised jurisdiction over the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) and, during wartime, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), though each remains an independent service branch. It is led by the secretary of the Navy (SECNAV), a statutory civilian officer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fleet admiral (United States)</span> Rank in the United States Navy

Fleet admiral is a five-star flag officer rank in the United States Navy whose rewards uniquely include active duty pay for life. Fleet admiral ranks immediately above admiral and is equivalent to General of the Army and General of the Air Force.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William S. Benson</span> United States Navy admiral

William Shepherd Benson was an admiral in the United States Navy and the first chief of naval operations (CNO), holding the post throughout World War I.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vice Chief of Naval Operations</span> Military rank

The vice chief of naval operations (VCNO) is the second highest-ranking commissioned United States Navy officer in the Department of the Navy and functions as the principal deputy of the chief of naval operations and by statute, the vice chief is appointed as a four-star admiral.

The United States Fleet was an organization in the United States Navy from 1922 until after World War II. The acronym CINCUS, pronounced "sink us", was used for the Commander in Chief, United States Fleet. This was replaced by COMINCH in December, 1941, under the Executive Order 8984, when it was redefined and given operational command over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Asiatic Fleets, as well as all naval coastal forces. The Executive Order 9096 authorized the offices of the CNO and COMINCH to be held by a single officer; Admiral Ernest J. King was first to do so, and in 1944 was promoted to the five-star rank of fleet admiral.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Francis P. Matthews</span> 8th Supreme Knight of the Knights of Columbus

Francis Patrick Matthews was an American who served as the 8th Supreme Knight of the Knights of Columbus from 1939 to 1945, the 50th United States Secretary of the Navy from 1949 to 1951, and United States Ambassador to Ireland from 1951 to 1952.

Admiral is a four-star commissioned officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, and the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps with the pay grade of O-10. Admiral ranks above vice admiral and below fleet admiral in the Navy; the Coast Guard and the Public Health Service do not have an established grade above admiral. Admiral is equivalent to the rank of general in the other uniformed services. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps has never had an officer hold the grade of admiral. However, 37 U.S.C. § 201 of the U.S. Code established the grade for the NOAA Corps, in case a position is created that merits the four-star grade.

The structure of the United States Navy consists of four main bodies: the Office of the Secretary of the Navy, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, the operating forces, and the Shore Establishment.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Board of Inspection and Survey</span>

The Board of Inspection and Survey (INSURV) is a United States Navy organization whose purpose is to inspect and assess the material condition of U.S. Navy vessels.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William F. Moran (admiral)</span> US Navy Admiral

William Francis Moran is a United States Navy admiral who served as the 39th Vice Chief of Naval Operations from May 31, 2016, to June 10, 2019. He previously served as the Chief of Naval Personnel and Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education (N1) from August 2, 2013, to May 27, 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lisa Franchetti</span> American Navy admiral (born 1964)

Lisa Marie Franchetti is a United States Navy admiral who has served as the 33rd chief of naval operations since November 2, 2023. She most recently served as the 42nd vice chief of naval operations from September 2022 to November 2023 and as acting chief of naval operations (CNO) from August to November 2023.

References