Chihuahua City

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Chihuahua Capital Collage.jpg
Left to right by row, from top to bottom: Chihuahua cityscape featuring Cerro Grande, The Angel of Liberty monument, Metropolitan Cathedral of Chihuahua, Semilla Museum Center of Science and Technology, Glorieta for Pancho Villa, Chihuahua cityscape featuring District 1, Government Palace of Chihuahua, District 1 neighborhood, Quinta Gameros University Cultural Center, The State Supreme Tribunal of Justice building.
Bandera del Municipio de Chihuahua 2006-Presente.png
Escudo de Armas de la Ciudad de Chihuahua.svg
Valentía, Lealtad, Hospitalidad (Translated to Courage, Loyalty, Hospitality)
Chihuahua en Chihuahua.svg
Location in the state of Chihuahua
Coordinates: 28°38′07″N106°05′20″W / 28.63528°N 106.08889°W / 28.63528; -106.08889 Coordinates: 28°38′07″N106°05′20″W / 28.63528°N 106.08889°W / 28.63528; -106.08889
CountryFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Flag of Chihuahua.svg  Chihuahua
Municipality Bandera del Municipio de Chihuahua 2006-Presente.png Chihuahua
FoundedOctober 12th, 1709
Founded byAntonio de Deza y Ulloa
   Alcalde María Eugenia Campos Galván (PAN)
1,415 m (4,635 [1]  ft)
   City 878,062 [2]
1,036,806 [2]
Time zone UTC−7 (MST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−6 (MDT)
ZIP codes
Area code(s) +52 614
Climate BSh
Website / City of Chihuahua

The city of Chihuahua (Spanish pronunciation:  [tʃiˈwawa] ) is the state capital of the Mexican state of Chihuahua. [3] [1] As of 2017, the city of Chihuahua had a population of 878,062 inhabitants. [2] while the metropolitan area had a population of 1,036,806 inhabitants. [4]

Chihuahua (state) State of Mexico

Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.


Among cities in Mexico, the city of Chihuahua is highly ranked in human and social development. According to the UNCP report on human development, Chihuahua municipality's HDI value was 0.9117 – this was equal or higher than some Western European countries. The literacy rate in the city is among the highest in the country at 99%. Another report about competitiveness from the CIDE organization ranks Chihuahua as the second most competitive city in the country just behind Monterrey and ahead of Mexico City. [5] This report also ranks Chihuahua as the most Socially Competitive city in the country. [5]

The predominant activity is industry, including domestic heavy, light industries, consumer goods production, and to a smaller extent maquiladoras . The city is served by the General Roberto Fierro Villalobos International Airport.


A maquiladora ([makilaˈðoɾa]), or maquila, is a company that allows factories to be largely duty free and tariff free. These factories take raw materials and assemble, manufacture, or process them and export the finished product. These factories and systems are present throughout Latin America including Mexico, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Specific programs and laws have made Mexico’s maquila industry grow rapidly.


Antonio Deza y Ulloa, founder of Chihuahua Deza y Ulloa.jpg
Antonio Deza y Ulloa, founder of Chihuahua

It has been said that the name derives from the Nahuatl language, meaning "between two waters", other accepted definitions are "place of the holed-rock" " [6] or from Tarahumara, "dry and sandy place". [7] The name itself is older than the Spanish conquest of Mexico. The city was founded on October 12, 1709, by Blas Cano de los Rios and Antonio Deza y Ulloa, a Spanish explorer, as El Real de Minas de San Francisco de Cuéllar. [8] [9] Don Ildefonso de Irigoyen donated the land for the city foundation. [7] The town was erected a Villa in 1718 (or 1715) [1] with the name of San Felipe el Real de Chihuahua, and the name was shortened in 1823. The location was chosen because it is the intersection of the rivers Chuviscar and Sacramento. It is also the midpoint between the Río Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) and the then-important mining city of Hidalgo del Parral. For much of the 18th century, Chihuahua served as the de facto capital of Nueva Vizcaya because most governors preferred to reside there rather than in Durango, the capital of the province at that time. [10]

Nahuatl, known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live in central Mexico.

Rio Grande River forming part of the US-Mexico border

The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles (3,051 km) in the late 1980s, though course shifts occasionally result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America.

Just as in other parts of Northern Mexico, Roman Catholic missionaries were an important influence during the colonial era, and the city became a meeting point for missionaries heading to and from the 'sierra', the mountainous region in western Chihuahua State where the native Tarahumara still live.

During the War of Independence, the city saw little action. However, it was in Chihuahua where Miguel Hidalgo, considered the Father of the Country, was held prisoner in the Federal Palace of Chihuahua and executed in 1811 at the nearby Government Palace by the Spaniards.

Mexican War of Independence armed conflict which ended the rule of Spain in the territory of New Spain

The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain. The war had its antecedent in Napoleon's French invasion of Spain in 1808; it extended from the Cry of Dolores by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla on September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Army of the Three Guarantees led by Agustín de Iturbide to Mexico City on September 27, 1821. September 16 is celebrated as Mexican Independence Day.

Government Palace of Chihuahua

The Government Palace of Chihuahua is a 19th-century building in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Located in the heart of the city, it is of special interest since it houses the executive offices of the governor of the state of Chihuahua and, until 2004, the state legislature met here. The building is a landmark in the city as it contains a shrine commemorating the execution of Miguel Hidalgo, considered the Father of the Country, who died at the hands of a Spanish firing squad on July 30, 1811. The Altar de la Patria, or Altar of the Fatherland is located at the exact spot where Fr Hidalgo died.

During the Mexican–American War, Chihuahua fell to U.S. forces in 1847, after the Mexican Army was defeated at the Battle of the Sacramento, 15 miles (24 km) north of the city.

Quinta Gameros, a Porfirian-era mansion that now houses a museum. Vista frontal y lateral de la Quinta Gameros.JPG
Quinta Gameros, a Porfirian-era mansion that now houses a museum.

During the French invasion, President Benito Juárez made the city the seat of his government-in-exile from 1864 to 1867. During the presidency of Porfirio Díaz the city experienced explosive growth and became one of the most important cities in Mexico. The city became the seat for important banks and wealthy families.

The city was more involved during the Mexican Revolution (1910–1917), for it became at times the operations base for the División del Norte, the army led by Pancho Villa. Many sites and memories remain of the Revolutionary era; the most important of these is the Historical Museum of the Mexican Revolution at Villa's former estate house near downtown Chihuahua. La Quinta Luz was turned into a museum by his widow, Sra. María Luz Corral de Villa, and is now managed by the federal government.

During the 20th century, the city grew in population and learned to take advantage of its proximity with the U.S. border. Until the establishment of foreign manufacturing plants in the 1970s, the city was largely a trade post for cattle and agricultural products. During the 1990s the city grew dramatically economically, becoming the third wealthiest municipality (per capita) in the republic, after Benito Juárez borough of the Federal District (Mexico City), and San Pedro Garza García in Nuevo León.

In 2002, Mayor Jorge Barousse Moreno from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) died and was succeeded by Alejandro Cano Ricaud. During Cano's administration, the city experienced dramatic growth in the security sector when the Police Department was certified by the ISO and surveillance aircraft bought.

Between 2002 and 2005, the city experimented with the introduction of certain new commercial innovations, like the first large mall in the city, Plaza del Sol, and the rise of the commercial Zone of the Sun, all along the Periférico de la Juventud, one of the main thoroughfares in the city.

In 2004 Juan Blanco Zaldívar, of the National Action Party (PAN), won the election for mayor (municipal president) of the city for the term 2004–2007. Since 2005, the International Festivals of Chihuahua have been celebrated by both the state and city governments during the months of September/October with art shows, plays, stage presentations and concerts by such bands as America, Foreigner, Creedence and Los Lobos being held at venues throughout the city.

Elections for mayor for the term 2007–2010 were held at the beginning of July 2007; Carlos Borruel Baquera of the PAN defeated former mayor Alejandro Cano Ricaud (PRI) by less than one-quarter of a percentage point of almost 200,000 votes cast. The turnout of registered voters, at about 41%, was the lowest in years.

In January, 2010, Mayor Carlos Borruel submitted his resignation in order to campaign for election to the office of Governor of Chihuahua. His deputy, Lic. Alvaro Guillermo Madero Muñoz, assumed the office of mayor for the balance of his term. On July 4, 2013, Javier Garfio Pacheco of the PRI won election for a 3-year term as mayor.

In December 2015, Eugenio Baeza Fares assumed office as mayor of the City of Chihuahua, after Javier Garfio Pacheco requested licence to pursue the possibility to become the candidate for the political party PRI to Governor of the State of Chihuahua. [11] After Garfio lost his bid for Governor Candidate, he returned and ended his period as mayor. [12]

In July 2016, María Eugenia Campos Galván (PAN) was elected mayor. [13] Her term started on October 10, 2016, and is expected to last for two years, with the possibility of reelection for three more years. [14]


As of 2010, the city of Chihuahua had a population of 809,232. [15] up from 748,551 in 2005.

The literacy rate in the city is among the highest in the country at 98%; 35% of the population is aged 14 or below, 60% between 15 and 65 and 5% over 65. [16] The growth rate is 2.4%. [16] The life expectancy for males is 72 years and for women is 79 years. [16]

The city of Chihuahua has achieved several advances in human and social development. According to the 2005 UNCP report on human development, Chihuahua municipality's HDI value was 0.9117 – this was equal or higher than some European countries like Portugal, Czech Republic or Greece. Another report about competitiveness from the CIDE organization ranks Chihuahua as the second most competitive city in the country just behind Monterrey and ahead of Mexico city. [5] This report also ranks Chihuahua as the most Social Competitive city in the country. [5]

Tallest building

An equal sign (=) following a rank indicates the same height between two or more buildings. Freestanding observation and/or telecommunication towers, while not habitable buildings, are included for comparison purposes; however, they are not ranked.

ft (m)
1Lumina tower393 (120)322016
2Sphera tower347 (106)282015
3Asta bandera el palomar 328 (100)0
4Cénit tower291 (89)212012
5Legislature building288 (88)181975
6Palacio del Sol hotel281 (85.82)191980
7Telmex tower203 (62)181981
8The Gate to Chihuahua151 (46)02005
9Del Real hotel131 (40)91960
10Punto Alto 2131 (40)92002
11Guizar building127 (39)11-
12banorte building121 (37)7-
13The Angel of Liberty144 (35)42003
14La Puerta del Sol144 (35)0-
15Punto alto111 (34)82000
16Tribunales Federales building104 (32)72001
17Scotiabank plaza101 (31)8-
18The Tree of Life98 (30)0-
19Pit 3 building98 (30)102012
20A.CH.B building98 (30)8-
21Fiesta Inn hotel89 (27.29)71993
22Sheraton Soberano hotel88 (27.10)6-
23Roma building86 (26.5)6-
24Corporativo roma80 (24.6)6-
25Banobras building75 (23)6-
N/Amonument tower68 (21)02011
N/Amirador tower65 (20)5-


The City Hall also fronts onto the Plaza de Armas. La Presidencia de Chihuahua.jpg
The City Hall also fronts onto the Plaza de Armas.
The Federal Palace. Palace and fountains.JPG
The Federal Palace.

Even though Chihuahua suffered a massive destruction of colonial buildings during the 1970s in order to widen the main streets and avenues in the downtown, it stills preserves some valuable monuments from the 19th and 20th centuries. Some of the more interesting sites in the city are listed below:

Length of colonial aqueduct in Chihuahua, Mexico, 18th Century, Chihuahua Aqueduct.jpg
Length of colonial aqueduct in Chihuahua, Mexico, 18th Century,


The City of Chihuahua is subdivided into Colonias (neighborhoods). The primary function of the colonias range between residential, commercial, industrial, and educational.

In recent years, gated residential zones called "fraccionamientos", along with colonias, have been erected. The fraccionamientos function in the same way as residential developments in the U.S. The growing construction industry is creating many new fraccionamientos in order to try to solve the overwhelming demand for new homes in the city, extending them at an ever-increasing rate every year.



There are two country clubs in the city: San Francisco Country Club and Campestre Chihuahua.


Chihuahua is the twelfth largest city in Mexico, and one of the most industrialized. Manufacturing is very important and there are nine major industrial parks and 79 maquila manufacturing plants, which employ about 45,000 people. The city serves as an alternative destination for maquiladora operators who require quick access to the border but wish to avoid both the higher costs and higher turnover rates of employment of the immediate border area. Of all interior (non-border) locations in Mexico, Chihuahua has the largest maquiladora presence in Mexico. Some of the larger companies include Ford Motor Co., Sumitomo Electrical, Honeywell, Hallmark, and LG Electronics.

The entire state of Chihuahua is also a thriving economic center. Chihuahua's annual Gross State Product (GSP) is about $6.2 billion. There are more than 350 established manufacturing and assembly plants in the state; manufacturing accounts for a third of the total GSP, while trade and other services amount to 53.5%. Chihuahua has the largest amount of forested land in all of Mexico. Forty-four percent of Chihuahua's workers are employed in commerce and services, while a little over a third of the workforce is employed in mining and industry. In mining, Chihuahua state is the leading producer in the republic of non-ferrous minerals and zinc, and is second nationwide in silver extraction. Agricultural production makes up only 6% of the total GSP, however the state is the leading producer of apples, nuts, cattle and sheep raising nationally, and second in pine and oak trees harvested.

Contemporary life

The Chihuahua campus of ITESM. ITESM Campus Chihuahua.jpg
The Chihuahua campus of ITESM.

The city's most important feature is its collection of industrial zones, in which foreign companies have manufacturing facilities, called maquiladoras , which employ thousands of people. This light industry also requires professionals, both for manufacturing and for management; this training is provided by universities such as the Universidád Autónoma de Chihuahua, [17] the Instituto Tecnológico de Chihuahua and Instituto Tecnológico de Chihuahua II. A number of private universities also exist, to include the Chihuahua campus of ITESM.

The city's commercial sector has also been boosted by the growth of the middle-class. The wages paid by industries to management and high-level technical employees provide a cash flow unlike that of most Mexican cities.

The nightlife is lively, especially in the city centre, where some of the large, pre-revolutionary estate houses have been turned into nightclubs and dance halls, many featuring the best of Chihuahua's live bands.

Most U.S. franchise restaurants and fast-food establishments will be found in Chihuahua, mostly on the Periferico de la Juventud, north of downtown on Universidad Avenue, or on Libertad Street Pedestrian Way in the city centre, and are patronised by the city's youth and young professionals.


Plaza Mayor after a snowfall. Chihuahua Plaza Mayor 1.jpg
Plaza Mayor after a snowfall.

Chihuahua lies on the western side of the Chihuahuan Desert ecoregion and as such has a semiarid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh). [18] [19] However, it is not as hot as most of the lower elevated portions of the desert to the east owing to an altitude of almost 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level.

Winters are mild with an average daytime temperature of 18.1 °C (64.6 °F) and an average minimum temperature of 2 °C (35.6 °F) in January, the coldest month. Occasionally, temperatures can exceed 26 °C (78.8 °F) while cold fronts can push it below −10 °C (14.0 °F). [20] Frosts are common during winter nights. [21] During this time of the year, the climate is dry, with an average humidity around 46% and many days are sunny, averaging 15–18 clear days. [21] Precipitation is rare, with only 1 or 3 days with measureable precipitation from December to March. [22] Snowfall is somewhat uncommon in the city, normally with 2 snowfalls a year, although the surrounding area may receive three or four snowfalls. [23]

Summers are hot with June being the hottest month, averaging 33 °C (91.4 °F) during the day and 19 °C (66.2 °F) during the night. Temperatures can easily exceed 32 °C (89.6 °F) on most days and it can occasionally exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). [20] Most of the precipitation falls during the summer months, when the monsoon moves up northwards, causing moist air from the Gulf of California and the Gulf of Mexico to move into the city. Afternoon storms are common during the monsoon season and they can be accompanied with hail and thunderstorms. [23] The days are still warm to hot in July and August, though slightly cooler due to the presence of the rain, with an average high of 30 °C (86.0 °F). [22] Humidity is also higher during this time, averaging 53%. [21]

March, April, October and November are transitional months that are unpredictable. Temperatures can reach up to 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) in April [22] while cold fronts can push it below freezing. Usually, these months have warm days, averaging 22 °C (71.6 °F) to 28 °C (82.4 °F) and cool nights (around 5 °C (41.0 °F) to 11 °C (51.8 °F)). During the months of March and April, there can be strong winds that cause dusts and sandstorms.

The National Weather Service of Mexico (Servicio Meteorologico Nacional) reported that the warmest temperature ever recorded in the city is 41.6 °C (106.9 °F), [24] while the coldest is −18 °C (−0.4 °F) on February 4, 2011. [25] July 1973 is the record wettest month, with 242.5 millimetres (10 in). [22] For a single day the record rainfall is 89.0 millimetres (4 in) on August 24, 1966. [22] Chihuahua averages 3,081 hours of sunshine per year, ranging from a low of 217 hours in December (about 7 hours of sunshine per day) to a high of 305 hours in May (about 9.8 hours of sunshine per day). [21]


Chihuahua is best described as shaped as a large letter L, with plains to the north and hills on both sides, as well as the south; it is crossed east-and-west by Teofilo Borunda Avenue, which follows the natural flow of the Chuviscar River. Borunda is crossed in the west by the Periferico de la Juventud, a major limited-access highway running north-and-south. The main entrance to the city from the north (from the direction of Ciudad Juárez) is Tecnológico Avenue, part of the Pan-American Highway.

The geography of the city is dominated by three hills that appear in the Coat of Arms: Cerro Grande, Cerro Coronel and Santa Rosa, the last of which is fully covered by the city. The Cerro Grande has a monumental cross that is lighted each Christmas.

To the east and northeast, is the Sierra Nombre de Dios, across the Sacramento River from the city. Contained therin, off of Heroico Colegio Militar Ave, are the Nombre de Dios Caverns, a natural display of minerals and underground formations. To the far east and south is General Roberto Fierro Villalobos International Airport and the highway to the US-Mexican border crossing at Presidio, Texas and Ojinaga, Chihuahua.

Bridges being built in the city, circa September 2005. The growing traffic in the city caused a massive construction plan for more and better roads. Bridge in Chihuahua City.jpg
Bridges being built in the city, circa September 2005. The growing traffic in the city caused a massive construction plan for more and better roads.


Chihuahua is served by Roberto Fierro Villalobos International Airport (IATA Airport code: CUU) with connections to major Mexican cities and international destinations to Denver, Dallas, and Houston. The airport serves as the state's largest in both cargo volume and passengers and is currently being expanded accordingly.

Chihuahua is also the starting point for the Chihuahua–Pacific Railroad with a terminus in Los Mochis, Sinaloa, and is also served by Ferromex, a private Mexican railroad. There is a large central depot for intercity buses in the south side of the city serving as a hub for the county's main bus companies as well as regional, state, and international bus companies.

The city has established a BRT bus rapid-transit system known as Metrobus Chihuhaua  [ es ], [28] which currently serves the city with 1 line running 12.7 miles and 44 stations as well as dozens supplementary lines that extend into suburbs. The city's government, in cooperation with the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation, has started construction for two more central bus lines running the length of the Periférico de la Juventud and the Avenida 20 de Noviembre/Avenida Flores Magon, with several more stations that will be completed in 2019. [29] Metrobus Chihuahua payment has been upgraded to be charged electronically through special swipe cards sold at each station. [30] In 2018, the city government announced plans to provide free Wifi to all 44 stations, as part of an initiative to make Internet access more equitable. [31]

The system of avenues and main streets in the city is being constantly revamped, with the construction of new roads and bridges to handle the ever-increasing traffic. Alongside numerous taxi companies, Chihuahua is host to both Uber and DiDi, private on-demand ride-sharing car services. [32]

Important highways that run through Chihuahua are Highway 45, which connects Chihuahua to Ciudad Juarez to the north and Delicias to the south, and highway 16, which connects Chihuahua to Hermosillo to the west and to the border town of Ojinaga to the east. [33]


The Centro de Justicia inaugurated in 2015 is the largest seat of judicial power in Latin America. GUSTAVO CAMACAHO GLEZ - GCO 6212 (21993899633).jpg
The Centro de Justicia inaugurated in 2015 is the largest seat of judicial power in Latin America.

The city had a serious problem with property crime, especially theft and graffiti by taggers. This situation has exploded in recent years. Also, drug-related murders, including murders of law-enforcement officers by narco-traffickers led by Joaquín Guzmán Loera ("el Chapo", or "Shorty"), (38 in 2007 according to a March 2008 issue of the newspaper Diario de Chihuahua) have been on the rise. The Federal Police and the Army have moved into the city to conduct anti-drug operations; it seems that their activity may have a positive effect; the indices of property crime and murder have fallen [35] since 2010, with the result that Chihuahua is safer now than in years past.


The city is home of the Dorados de Chihuahua of the Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional, or National Professional Basketball League of Mexico. The city formerly had a baseball franchise in the Mexican League (AAA), also known as the Dorados.

On May 15 & 16, 2010 the city also hosted the 24th IAAF World Race Walking Cup with $122,500 in prize money awarded in the team and individual competitions to the world's fastest walkers at distances ranging from 20 to 50 kilometers (12–31 mi), plus a 10 km (6.2 miles) race for juniors, aged 16 to 19 years of age.


The Cathedral occupies the west side of the Plaza de Armas
Interior of the cathedral

The city of Chihuahua has a number of tourist sites, including the museums in Chihuahua, the baroque Metropolitan Cathedral, seat of the Archdiocese (and the resting place of St Peter of Jesus Maldonado, a Cristero martyr of the 1930s), dating from the 18th century, the Government Palace from the early 19th century, and the City Hall from the turn of the 20th century, on the Plaza de Armas across from the Cathedral.

During the French invasion and the Second Empire, which ended with the execution of the Habsburg Emperor Maximilian in 1867, the constitutional president, Benito Juárez García traveled the country, searching for support wherever he could. He found it in 1864 when he settled his cabinet and government-in-exile here in the city at the address now known as Ave. Juárez 321, and incidentally, making Chihuahua the only city, aside from Mexico City, to be the capital of the Republic. The Museo Casa Juarez, now known as The Museum of Republican Loyalty, has been faithfully restored to the appearance it had when President Juárez lived here from 1864 through 1866.

The city offers the service of the touristic "Trolley el Tarahumara" which is a tourist bus that goes around to all the main museums and monuments in the City Centre(starting its route at the Plaza de Armas), including parks like the Central Park "El Palomar", a large park that has a collection of sculptures, including one depicting three doves (palomas, hence the park's name) and a monumental flagpole, flying one of the largest flags in the Republic, as well as a statue of one of Chihuahua's favourite sons, the late actor Anthony Quinn, in his role as 'Zorba the Greek', as well as many others. The city is known for its classical and modern sculpture,[ citation needed ] as seen on any main boulevard or avenue.[ tone ] Included are works by Espino, Baltazar, Ponzanelli and Sebastian, the latter being a native of Chihuahua.

The sculpture "La Fuerza Indomita", by Carlos Espino in a park on Cuauhtemoc Street in the city centre. La fuerza indomita.jpg
The sculpture "La Fuerza Indomita", by Carlos Espino in a park on Cuauhtemoc Street in the city centre.
The Angel of Liberty with the Government Palace in background. Angel chihuahua.jpg
The Angel of Liberty with the Government Palace in background.
Panel from mural in the Paraninfo depicting the Mexican-American War (Artist: Leandro Carreon Najera, 1937-39) Paraninfo1.jpg
Panel from mural in the Paraninfo depicting the Mexican-American War (Artist: Leandro Carreón Nájera, 1937–39)

Particularly noteworthy are the murals in the Government Palace and the Paraninfo, or University Auditorium (in the Literary and Scientific Institute building) both depicting the history of the State of Chihuahua, and both fronting upon the Plaza Hidalgo in the city centre, and catter-cornered from the Plaza Mayor. Also of note is the Quinta Gameros, one of the largest estate houses in pre-revolutionary Chihuahua City, now the state museum for the decorative arts, and the former Federal Palace of Chihuahua on Venustiano Carranza Street, north of the Government Palace, which is now a museum and contains the cell in which Miguel Hidalgo spent his final days, and is a national shrine.

The Mammoth Museum, at Gomez Morin (also Calle 27a) and Ave. Juarez, is the city natural history museum and contains 13 halls detailing prehistoric life from the dinosaurs through the reign of the mammals, or the Cenozoic Era. It also has exhibits of prehistoric art. The Semilla Museo Centro de Ciencia y Tecnología, or Seed Centre Museum of Science and Technology, on Teofilo Borunda and Lisboa in the City Centre, is a creative learning centre and interactive science museum for children.

The Feria (Fair) of Santa Rita, known throughout the Republic, is held during the last two weeks of May and features internationally known recording artists in concert. The fair has been held annually for decades. In addition, the University Symphony performs at the Paraninfo weekly during the summer months, and features international guest artists in classical and pop concerts. The Plaza de Toros "La Esperanza", or bull ring, 'La Esperanza' is located on Teofilo Borunda on the north side of the river, and features corridas (bullfights) during the summer and fall.

The Plaza Mayor is an important square in the city centre that displays fountains, green spaces and a collection of monuments depicting local heroes. The main monument in the Plaza Mayor is the "Ángel de la Libertad" that was built in 2003 representing the freedom of all Mexicans, especially Chihuahua's people. It was inaugurated during the Independence Day festivities on September 15 of that same year. The angel has a sword with a laser light at the tip, and is capable of rotating 360° over its axis.

Twin towns and sister cities

Chihuahua has two sister cities , as designated by Sister Cities International : [36]

CountryCityState / District / Region / CountyRef.
Flag of the United States.svg  USA Albuquerque Flag of New Mexico.svg New Mexico [37]
Flag of the United States.svg  USA Pueblo Flag of Colorado.svg Colorado [37]


  1. Station ID for Chihuahua is 76225 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

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Matamoros, officially known as Heroica Matamoros, is a city in the northeastern Mexican state of Tamaulipas. It is located on the southern bank of the Rio Grande, directly across the border from Brownsville, Texas, in the United States. Matamoros is the second largest city in the state of Tamaulipas. As of 2016, Matamoros had a population of 520,367. In addition, the Matamoros–Brownsville Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,387,985, making it the 4th largest metropolitan area on the Mexico–US border. Matamoros is the 39th largest city in Mexico and anchors the second largest metropolitan area in Tamaulipas.

Cuernavaca City and Municipality in Morelos, Mexico

Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. The city is located around a 90 min drive south of Mexico City using the Federal Highway 95D.

Benito Juárez, Mexico City Delegación in Mexico City, Mexico

Benito Juárez, is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexico City is divided. It is a largely residential area, located to the south of historic center of Mexico City, although there are pressures for areas to convert to commercial use. It was named after Benito Juárez, president in the 19th century. The borough has the highest socioeconomic index in the country as it is primarily populated by the middle and upper middle classes. The borough is home to a number of landmarks such as the World Trade Center Mexico City, the Estadio Azul, the Plaza México and the Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros.

Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City Place

Miguel Hidalgo is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Federal District of Mexico City is divided. It was created in 1970, joining the historic areas of Tacuba, Chapultepec and Tacubaya along with a number of notable neighborhoods such as Polanco and Lomas de Chapultepec. With landmarks such as Chapultepec Park and the Museo Nacional de Antropología, it is the second most visited borough in Mexico City after Cuauhtémoc, D.F. where the historic center of Mexico City is located. Tacubaya and Tacuba both have long histories as independent settlements and were designated as “Barrios Mágicos” by the city for tourism purposes.

Pachuca City and Municipality in Hidalgo, Mexico

Pachuca, formally known as Pachuca de Soto, is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Hidalgo. It is located in the south-central part of the state. Pachuca de Soto is also the name of the municipality of which the city serves as municipal seat. Pachuca is located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) from Mexico City via Mexican Federal Highway 85. There is no consensus about the origin of the name Pachuca. It has been traced to the word pachoa, Pachoacan, and patlachuican.

Organización Editorial Mexicana, also known as OEM, is the largest Mexican print media company and the largest newspaper company in Latin America. The company owns a large newswire service, it includes 70 Mexican daily newspapers, 24 radio stations and 44 websites.

Historic center of Mexico City Place in Mexico City, Mexico

The historic center of Mexico City, also known as the Centro or Centro Histórico, is the central neighborhood in Mexico City, Mexico, focused on Zócalo or main plaza and extending in all directions for a number of blocks, with its farthest extent being west to the Alameda Central. The Zocalo is the largest plaza in Latin America. It can hold up to nearly 100,000 people.

Irapuato City and municipality in Guanajuato, Mexico

Irapuato is a Mexican town located at the foot of the Arandas Hill, in the south central region of the state of Guanajuato. It lies between the Silao River and the Guanajuato River, a tributary of the Lerma River, at 1,724 m (5,656 ft) above sea level. It is located at 20°40′N101°21′W. The city is the second-largest in the state, with a population of 342,561 according to the 2005 census, while its municipality has a population of 529,440. The municipality has an area of 845.16 km² and includes numerous smaller outlying communities. The city's main industry is agriculture and it is famous for its strawberries and the raising of pigs and cattle. The fruits and flowers of Irapuato's luxurious gardens are well known throughout Mexico.

Aarón Piña Mora Mexican artist

Aarón Piña Mora (1914–2009) was a Mexican painter and muralist.

Coordinated Operation Chihuahua or formerly known as Joint Operation Chihuahua is a Military and Federal Police operation started in 2008 by the Mexican Army and Policía Federal Preventiva. The objective is to "besiege" Ciudad Juárez to concentrate forces and saturate the area to confront the three cartels already operating in the city. Ciudad Juárez is known to be one of the most dangerous cities in the Americas. In the year 2007 more than 100 police officers were killed in Juárez in attacks blamed on organized crime. As a result of drug cartel violence, President Felipe Calderón has previously launched other Joint Operations in other states.

Celebration of Mexican political anniversaries in 2010

In 2010, Mexico celebrated both the 200th anniversary of its Independence and 100th anniversary of its Revolution. The entire year was proclaimed by President Felipe Calderón as "Año de la Patria", or "Year of the Nation." 16 September 1810 is the day of the "Grito de Dolores" or Miguel Hidalgo's call to take up arms against the Spanish colonial government. The start of the Mexican Revolution is celebrated as being 20 November 1910, when Francisco "Pancho" Villa and Pascual Orozco led the first insurrectionist attack. Events and other promotions of these celebrations were designed to link of Mexico's identity and historic continuity. During a speech at the inauguration of the Casa de Allende Historic Museum, Felipe Calderón called upon Mexico to use the upcoming anniversaries to reflect on where the country has been and to think about what kind of Mexico descendants will inherit in the future. He said the vision of the insurgents of the War of Independence was forward, not backward, so every celebration of these past events must consider the future as well.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Northern Mexico Cultural region of Mexico

Northern Mexico, commonly referred as El Norte, is an informal term for the northern cultural and geographical area in Mexico. Depending on the source, it contains some or all of the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, Sinaloa, Sonora and Tamaulipas.

La Puerta Del Sol, translated as The Door of the Sun, is one of the biggest sculptures in Chihuahua, Mexico. It is also known as The Door of the Obelisks.


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