Chilean Army

Last updated
Chilean Army
Ejército de Chile
Coat of arms of the Chilean Army.svg
Chilean Army emblem
Active1603, 1810 [1] – present
CountryFlag of Chile.svg  Chile
Type Army
Role Land warfare
Size50,000 (9,200 conscripts) [2]
Part of Ministry of National Defense (Chile)
General HQ Santiago
Patron Our Lady of Mount Carmel
Motto(s)Siempre vencedor, jamás vencido ("Always Victorious, Never Defeated")
Colors Red, Grey         
March Los viejos estandartes ("Old Banners")
AnniversariesSeptember 19th (Army Day)
Engagements War of Arauco
Chilean War of Independence
Freedom Expedition of Perú
Chilean Civil War of 1829–30
War of the Confederation
1851 Chilean Revolution
Revolution of 1859
Chincha Islands War
Occupation of Araucanía
War of the Pacific
1891 Chilean Civil War
Itata incident
Chilean naval mutiny of 1931
1973 Chilean coup d'état
Beagle conflict
2004 Haitian coup d'état
Website http://www.ejercito.cl/
Commanders
Minister of National Defense Alberto Espina Otero
Chief of the Joint Chiefs of Defence Vice Admiral Rodrigo Álvarez Aguirre
Commander-in-chief of the Chilean Army Army General Ricardo Martínez Menanteau
Notable
commanders
Bernardo O'Higgins, José Miguel Carrera, José de San Martín, Manuel Bulnes, Manuel Baquedano, Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, Augusto Pinochet
Insignia
Flag of the Chilean Army chief Bandera Comandante en Jefe Ejercito de Chile.png
Fin flash Fin Flash of Chile - Army Aviation.svg

The Chilean Army (Spanish : Ejército de Chile) is the land arm of the Military of Chile. This 50,000 person army (9,200 of which are conscripts) [2] is organized into six divisions, a special operations brigade and an air brigade.

Contents

In recent years, and after several major re-equipment programs, the Chilean Army has become the most technologically advanced and professional army in Latin America. [3] [4]

The Chilean Army is mostly supplied with equipment from Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, the United States, Israel, France, and Spain.

History

Colonial warfare

19th century

Independence War

The National Army of Chile was created on December 2, 1810, by order of the First National Government Junta. [5] The army was actively involved in the Independence War, which was fought against royalist troops in battles such as Yerbas Buenas, San Carlos, Quechereguas, Rancagua, Chacabuco and Maipú. During this period, national figures such as José Miguel Carrera, Bernardo O'Higgins and Argentinian General José de San Martín commanded the army toward definitive victory over the Spanish forces, ultimately achieving independence for the country. The Army's first commander-in-chief was José Miguel Carrera. After obtaining independence from Spain, the newly formed Republic reorganized its military structure by creating the Military Academy of Chile, which was founded by General O'Higgins in 1817.

Guardia Nacional

Diego Portales set up a civil militia, the Guardia Nacional, to end one of the worst stages of militarism in Chilean history. The militia was created in 1825 Portales developed this parallel army to compensate the army's might. [6] The Chilean Conscription Law of 1900 marked the beginning of the end of the Guardia Nacional. [7]

War of the Confederation

Occupation of Araucanía

War of the Pacific

Military emulation 1885–1914

Noncommissioned Officers' School during on 19 September 2014 Chile - Escuela de Suboficiales Ejercito - 19-09-2014.jpg
Noncommissioned Officers' School during on 19 September 2014

During the War of the Pacific, many high-ranking officers won valuable insights into the state of the army and became aware that the army required rebuilding. Losses, material destruction, and organizational flaws regarding strategic planning and officer training, were noted by officers like Emilio Sotomayor and Patricio Lynch, who approached President Santa María arguing the need of good schools and technical departments for the military. Other factor that supported the emulation, the deliberate systematic imitation of the military technology, organisation, and doctrine of one country by another [Notes 1] was the danger of war with Argentina. The emulation was backed by a broad coalition of civil and military leaders.

Chile hired a French military training mission in 1858, [8] :129 and the Chilean legation in Berlin was instructed to find a training mission during the War of the Pacific in 1881. But large-scale emulation of the Prussian Army began in 1886 with the appointment of Captain Emil Körner, a graduate of the renowned Kriegsakademie in Berlin. Also appointed were 36 Prussian officers to train officer cadets in the Chilean Military Academy. The training occurred in three phases; the first took place from 1885 to 1891 during the presidency of Domingo Santa María, the second was the post-civil-war phase, and the third was the 1906 reorganization. [8] :128-

The emulation was focused in armaments, conscription, officer recruitment and instruction, and general staff organization as well as military doctrine (adopted 1906). It was extended also into military logistics and medical services, promotions, retirement, salary regulation and even uniforms (adopted 1904), marching styles, helmets, parades, and military music.

Armaments: Prior to 1883, the army was equipped with a variety of rifles, mostly French and Belgian origin. From 1892 to 1902, the Chilean-Argentine Arms Race, marked the peak of Chilean arms purchase. 100,000 Mauser rifles and new Krupp artillery was bought for 3,000,000  DM in 1893, 2,000,000 DM in 1895 and 15,000,000 DM in 1898. Ammunition factories and small arms manufacturing plants were established. [8] :134

Conscription: Like others armies in South America, Chile had had a small army of long-term service officers and soldiers. In 1900 Chile became the first country in Latin America to enforce a system of compulsory military service, whereby training, initially five to eighteen months (Germany: three years), took place in zones of divisional organization in order to create a solid military structure that could be easily doubled with well-trained and combat-ready reserve forces. Budgetary restrictions prevented the full impact of the law: the service fell disproportionately on the lower classes, no more than 20% of the contingent was incorporated annually, and former conscripts were not retrained periodically. [8] :137

Officer education and training: The beginning of the German mission were dedicated almost exclusively to the organization and implementation of a standardized, technically oriented military education with the essence of Moltke's German military system of continuous study of artillery, infantry, cartography, history, topography, logistics, tactics, etc., for a modern, professional and technically trained officer corps. In 1886, the "Academia de Guerra" (War Academy) was founded "to elevate the level of technical and scientific instruction of army officers, in order that they be able, in case of war, to utilize the advantages of new methods of combat and new armaments." The best alumni were candidates for general staff service. By the mid-1890s Körner organized the courses for a Noncommissioned Officers' School (Escuela de Suboficiales y Clases). [8] :139

During the 1891 Chilean Civil War Körner was removed from duty by José Manuel Balmaceda. He and his followers set sail north to join the Congressional forces in Iquique. He became chief architect of the new army and, though Estanislao del Canto formally was commander-in-chief, Körner led the rebel forces in the major clashes of the civil war. [8] :145

Chile had had a General Staff during the War of the Pacific. [9] Körner turned his attention to a permanent institution in 1893-94 that should replace the old "Inspector General del Ejército", but with control over military affairs in peacetime and wartime. It had four sections: Instruction and Discipline, Military Schools, Scientific Works (strategic and operational planning), and Administration. [8] :147-

20th century

Milicia Republicana

The Guardia Republicana or Milicia Republicana was created after the fall of the Socialist Republic of Chile in order to prevent another Coup d'Etat. On May 7, 20,000 militiamen marched past President Arturo Alessandri in the streets of Santiago. In Las Mercedes' plot, 1933, the Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Pedro Vignola called "to resist the Milicia Republicana by any means" and he was forced to retire from his post. [10] In 1936, the militia was disbanded. [10] [11]

U.S. Influence

During the decades previous to the coup, the Chilean Army became influenced by the United States' anti-communist ideology in the context of various cooperation programs including the US Army School of the Americas. [12]

The Army under Pinochet

Chilean soldiers burning communist books after the coup d'etat 1973) Chile quema libros 1973.JPG
Chilean soldiers burning communist books after the coup d'état 1973)

On 11 September 1973, in a watershed event of the Cold War and the history of Chile, president Salvador Allende was overthrown in a coup d’état by the Armed Forces. Paul W. Drake and Ivan Jaksic state in The Struggle for Democracy in Chile:

The armed forces killed, imprisoned, tortured, and exiled thousands of Chileans. The military suppressed, dismantled, and purged not only political parties but also publication, unions, schools, and other bastions of the democratic opposition. Even such privileged constituencies as university professors and students encountered serious limitations on their traditional ability to voice opinions of national, or even institutional relevance. ... The military regime viewed such activities [of the Catholic Church] with distrust, if not hostility. It launched a campaign of harassment against the Catholic Church ...
Once the military had demobilized the polity and society, the regime began implanting its vision of a new order. It set out to replace not only democratic with authoritarian politics but also statist with market-driven economics. [13]

The Army, with now Captain General Augusto Pinochet, leader of the coup, as Commander-in-chief of both the Army and the Armed Forces, led the national mobilization effort in 1978 as the Beagle conflict began to hit the country. The Army was on full alert status during the duration of the crisis.

Patricio Aylwin became elected President of the Republic on December 14, 1989. Although Chile had officially become a democracy, the Chilean military remained highly powerful during the presidency of Aylwin, and the Constitution, amended by Pinochet's regime, ensured the continued influence of Pinochet and his commanders.

21st century

As a result of tensions with neighbors during the conflict-prone 1970s and early 1980s, the Chilean Army refined existing strategic concepts and eventually formulated a plan to restructure its forces. Though wars were avoided, the threats from the 1970s and 1980s encouraged the army to address more effectively its major defense disadvantage: lack of strategic depth. Thus in the early 1980s it looked outward for a model of army organization that would best advance defensive capabilities by restructuring forces into smaller, more mobile units instead of traditional divisions. The resulting Plan Alcázar envisions three military zones in Chile, with the bulk of forces concentrated in the north, and reinforces the center and south. The plan was implemented in stages, starting in 1994. Thus Alcázar, based on threat scenarios of the past, is one of the most durable "lessons" of the past.[ clarification needed ] Even with the resolution of almost all remaining territorial disputes, the restructuring agenda continued, reinforcing a conflict-based mindset in the army. [14]

Peacekeeping

Organization

Structure of the Chilean Army in 2014 (click on image to enlarge) Chile Army 2014.png
Structure of the Chilean Army in 2014 (click on image to enlarge)

Order Of Battle

Army General Headquarters, in Santiago.

Land Operations Command, headquartered in Concepcion.

Training and Doctrine Command (Comando de Institutos y Doctrina)

Force's Support Command (Comando de Apoyo de la Fuerza)

Army Independent Commands

Army General Staff (Estado Mayor General del Ejército)

Military Equipment

The Chilean Army has acquired a number of new systems with the goal of having a completely modernized, and largely mechanized army by 2015. The military has also modified the operational structure, creating armoured brigades throughout the entire territory and a new special operations brigade, while preserving the current divisional scheme.

Firearms

WeaponCaliberOriginNotes
Pistols and Submachine Guns
FAMAE FN-750 9×19mm NATOFlag of Chile.svg  Chile Main pistol. Locally produced version of the CZ-75.
Beretta Px4 9x19mm NATO / .40 S&W / .45 ACP Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Special forces
HK MP5 9×19mm NATOFlag of Germany.svg  Germany
FAMAE SAF 9×19mm NATOFlag of Chile.svg  Chile Standard issue submachine gun. Locally designed variation on the SG 540.
FAMAE SAF-200 9×19mm NATOFlag of Chile.svg  Chile Tactical variation of the regular SAF
Assault Rifles and Carbines
M4 carbine 5.56×45mm NATOFlag of the United States.svg  United States Special Forces
SG 540-1M Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Standard issue rifle
Galil ACE Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Standard issue rifle, replacing SIG 540.
Sniper Rifles
FAMAE FD-2007.62×51mm NATOFlag of Chile.svg  Chile Locally produced version of the SG 540 modified as a sniper rifle
Barrett M82A1M 12.7×99mm NATO Flag of the United States.svg  United States
PGM 338 .338 Lapua Magnum (8.6x70mm)Flag of France.svg  France
SIG Sauer SSG 3000 7.62×51mm NATOFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Machine Guns
FN MINIMI 5.56×45mm NATOFlag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Light machine gun
MG3 7.62×51mm NATOFlag of Germany.svg  Germany General-purpose machine gun
M60E4 7.62×51mm NATOFlag of the United States.svg  United States General-purpose machine gun
FN M2HB-QCB 12.7×99mm NATOFlag of the United States.svg  United States Heavy Machine Gun
Grenade Launchers
M203 40×46 mm Flag of the United States.svg  United States Designed to be attached to a rifle
Milkor MGL 40×53 mm Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Grenade launcher
Mk 19 Mod 3 40×53mmFlag of the United States.svg  United States Automatic grenade launcher

Infantry Support Weapons

QuantityWeaponOriginNotes
Anti-tank Guided Missile Launchers
2,700 Spike Flag of Israel.svg  Israel MR/LR/ER missiles
Anti-tank Recoilless Rifles
Carl Gustaf M2 Recoilless Rifle Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 84 mm
M40 recoilless rifle Flag of the United States.svg  United States 106 mm / some of them are mounted on vehicles
M67 recoilless rifle Flag of the United States.svg  United States 90 mm
Anti-tank Weapons
AT4 Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 84 mm

Armour

QuantityTypeOriginNotesPhoto
Tanks
200 Leopard 2A4CHL Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 120 mm gun. May be upgraded to 2A5CHL in the near future. Leopard 2A4CHL Chile.jpg
100 Leopard 1V Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
105 mm gun Leopard 1v lesany.jpg
Infantry Fighting Vehicles
280 [15] Marder 1A3 Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Marder1A3.6.jpg
319 AIFV-B/YPR-765 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands
Some equipped with Spike LR missiles Pantserrupsvoertuig YPR-765.jpg
Armored personnel carrier
427 M113A1/A2 Flag of the United States.svg  United States M-113 MILAN Ejercito Espanol.JPG
404 MOWAG Piranha Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Built under license in Chile by FAMAE, in various configurations. Mowag Piranha de la Infanteria de Marina Espanola.JPG
Armored Wheeled Vehicles
500+ HMMWV Flag of the United States.svg  United States HUMVEECH.jpg
180 Land Rover Defender Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Land Rover Defender 110 2011 (14881763062).jpg
400+ AIL Storm Flag of Israel.svg  Israel
230Toqui A-2Flag of Chile.svg  Chile
Artillery
8 LAR-160 Flag of Israel.svg  Israel LAR-160.jpg
1RAYO FAMAEFlag of Chile.svg  Chile
1SLM FAMAEFlag of Chile.svg  Chile
24 M109A5 Flag of the United States.svg  United States 24 requested in 2011, 12 delivered in 2012 and 12 more in 2015 [16] Moroccan M109A5 howitzer, 2012-03.jpg
24 M109 KAWEST Flag of the United States.svg  United States
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
Bought in 2004 M109kawest.JPG
24-36 Soltam M-71 Flag of Israel.svg  Israel Bought in 1982 M-71-cannon-deployed.JPG
74 M101 howitzer Flag of the United States.svg  United States M101-105mm-howitzer-beyt-hatotchan-1.jpg
54 OTO Melara Mod 56 Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Spanish-marines-man-105mm-howitzer-19811001.jpg

Aircraft

Quantity [17] AircraftOriginService versions
Fixed Wing
2 C-212 Aviocar Flag of Spain.svg  Spain C-212-300 Aviocar
3 CN-235 Flag of Spain.svg  Spain CN-235 M-100
3 Cessna 208 Caravan Flag of the United States.svg  United States Cessna 208B Grand Caravan
1 Cessna 680 Citation Sovereign Flag of the United States.svg  United States Cessna 680 Citation Sovereign
Helicopters
2 to be sold Aerospatiale SA 330 Puma Flag of France.svg  France Aerospatiale SA-330L Puma
10 Eurocopter AS532 Cougar Flag of France.svg  France Eurocopter 8 AS-532AL Mk-1 Cougar + 2 AS-532ALe Mk-II
4 Eurocopter AS350 Flag of France.svg  France Eurocopter AS-350B3 Ecureuil
2 Eurocopter AS355 Flag of France.svg  France Eurocopter AS-355N Ecureuil 2
9 McDonnell Douglas MD 500 Defender Flag of the United States.svg  United States McDonnell Douglas MDD-369FF Defender
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
6+BlueBird SpyLiteFlag of Israel.svg  Israel [18]

Personnel

In 2013, there were 3,900 officers, 17,300 NCOs, 3,600 professional soldiers, and 9,200 conscript soldiers. In military schools, 2,400 students. Civilian employees, 8,400. [2]

Military ranks

Officers
Equivalent
NATO code
OF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1 OF(D) and student officer
Flag of Chile.svg Chile
(Edit)
No equivalent
Army General SS.OO.11.EJER.OFICINA.GENERAL DE EJERCITO.svg
Army General
Divisional General SS.OO.10.EJER.OFICINA.GENERAL DE DIVISION.svg
Divisional General
Brigade General SS.OO.9.EJER.OFICINA.GENERAL DE BRIGADA.svg
Brigade General
Brigadier SS.OO.8.EJER.OFICINA.BRIGADIER.svg
Brigadier
Colonel SS.OO.7.EJER.OFICINA.CORONEL.svg
Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel SS.OO.6.EJER.OFICINA.TENIENTE CORONEL.svg
Lieutenant Colonel
Major SS.OO.5.EJER.OFICINA.MAYOR.svg
Major
Captain SS.OO.4.EJER.OFICINA.CAPITAN.svg
Captain
Lieutenant SS.OO.3.EJER.OFICINA.TENIENTE.svg
Lieutenant
Sub-Lieutenant SS.OO.2.EJER.OFICINA.SUBTENIENTE.svg
Sub-Lieutenant
Ensign SS.OO.1.EJER.OFICINA.ALFEREZ.svg
Ensign
General de Ejército General de División General de Brigada Brigadier Coronel Teniente Coronel Mayor Capitán Teniente Subteniente Alférez
Enlisted
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9OR-8OR-7OR-6OR-5OR-4OR-3OR-2OR-1
Flag of Chile.svg Chile
(Edit)
PCP.EJER.SUBOFICIAL MAYOR.svg PCP.EJER.SUBOFICIAL.svg PCP.EJER.SARGENTO 1deg.svg No equivalent PCP.EJER.SARGENTO 2deg.svg PCP.EJER.CABO 1deg.svg PCP.EJER.CABO 2deg.svg PCP.EJER.CABO.svg No insignia
Suboficial Mayor Suboficial Sargento Primero Sargento Segundo Cabo Primero Cabo Segundo Soldado Primero Soldado Segundo

Drill and traditions

The Chilean Army is famous for its elaborate drill, exhibited in large scale during the Día de las Glorias Navales on 21 May and the Parada Militar de Chile (Great Military Parade of Chile) on 19 September. The early armed forces adopted many Prussian military traditions, and it was during this period that the Chilean military had many of its most famous victories. As a result, the drill features many 19th and early 20th century Prussian and German patterns.

Participating soldiers wear stahlhelm and pickelhaube helmets and march in unaltered stechschritt. Marching music consists of Central European marches, alongside several local compositions. Each Parada Militar on 19 September ends with a playing of Preussischer Präsentiermarsch (first played in 2018) and Los viejos estandartes by a mounted band playing in the German tradition.

Pickelhaubes have been worn by the Military School and since recently by the 1st Cavalry Regiment and the 1st Artillery Regiment, and the stahlhelm only by the NCO School.

This is also the cases on parades held on 18 September, Independence Day, in the local level, whenever Army units take part.

Given the long list of battles fought by the Army, the following wear on parade historical dress uniforms from these times, but not march in the German manner:

Commanders-in-chief

See also

Notes

  1. Joao Resende-Santos in Neorealism, States, and the Modern Mass Army (page 3, 9-10) uses "emulation" instead of "prussianization" as a broader term. He says: "Crossnational emulation occurs in a wide variety of areas and by an equal variety of state and nonstate entities ... Emulation in all forms, by firms or states whether in economic or military areas is driven by the same pressures of competition and based in the same political criterion"

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References

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-02. Retrieved 2015-05-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. 1 2 3 "Memoria del Ejército de Chile 2013". 8 January 2015. p. 381. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  3. "About this Collection - Country Studies". loc.gov. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  4. "Chile". state.gov. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. Memoria Chilena, Guardia Nacional, retrieved on 4 December 2012
  7. Rberto Hernández Ponce, La Guardia Nacional de Chile. Apuntes sobre su origen y organización, 1808-1848 Archived 2015-05-18 at the Wayback Machine , Universidad Católica de Chile, retrieved on 4 December 2012
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Resende-Santos 2007
  9. William F. Sater; Holger H. Herwig (1999). The Grand Illusion: The Prussianization of the Chilean Army. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 204–. ISBN   0-8032-2393-5.
  10. 1 2 Luis Vitale, Intervenciones militares y poder fáctico en la política chilena, de 1830 al 2.000, Santiago, 2000
  11. Juan Bragassi H, Las Milicias Republicanas de Chile Archived 2013-10-10 at the Wayback Machine , retrieved on 4 December 2012
  12. Sagredo, Rafael; Gazmuri, Cristián, eds. (2005), Historia de la vida privada en Chile (in Spanish), 3: El Chile contemporáneo. De 1925 a nuestros días (4th ed.), Santiago de Chile: Aguilar Chilena de Ediciones, ISBN   956-239-337-2
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Bibliography